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iTke Right of Tratulatum is Reurved.l 








s. mark's and its surroundings 13 













CHIOGGIA -. • i i 140 









PARMA 204 








FAENZA AND FORLI ......... 353 











nsA. 440 



I.UCCA 490 





It is I hr. by rail from Padua to Venice — 4 frs. 50 c. : 3 frs. 25 c. : 
2 frs. 30 c. 

{The station is about an hour in a gondola from the Piazza S.Marco, 
which is the centre of Venetian life. A gondola with one gondolier 
costs I fr., each piece of luggage 20 c. extra. 

Hotels- New York, a large new hotel well situated near the entrance 
of the Grand Canal ; Europa, very good ; Bretagna, — all these are in 
the same situation. Vittoria, on one of the side canals, good, but with 
terrible smells. Danieli, Riva degli Schiavoni, old-fashioned. Inghil- 
terra, Riva degli Schiavoni, a small but very comfortable house, plea- 
sant and sunny in winter and spring, hot in summer. 

Restaurant. Qiiadri, Piazza S. Marco (right), excellent for lunch- 
eons if you are in a hotel, for everything if in lodgings. 

Caffe. Florian (left). Piazza S. Marco. Quadri (right). 

Gondolas (the cabs of Venice) cost (with one gondolier and four pas- 
sengers) I fr. the first hour, and \ fr. for each hour afterwards. For the 
whole day 5^ frs. 

English Church. Close to the Accademia, on the right 

Photographer — celebrated for portraits — Ant. Sorgato, 4674 Cam- 
piello del Vina S. Zaccaria, behind Hotel d'Angleterre. 

Venetian Jewellery. The street near the Ponte di Rialto, left bank. 
It should be known that almost everything bought in the Piazza S. 
Marco costs treble the price asked in the Frezzaria and other less fashion- 
able parts of the town. 

Wood Sculpture. Travellers should visit the Atelier (2795 Canal 
Grande) of Valentino Besarel. It is only in Italy that you find this in- 
teresting type of the untaught artist of unerring taste, whose art is the 
sole object and interest of his life. He is a native of Cadore, where his 
ancestors were carvers of wood in Titian's time. 



HE railway from Padua to Venice crosses a flat plain 
-I- covered with vineyards, whose garlands reach almost 
to the edge of the lagoons. It is at Mestre that all the in- 
terest begins. Hence, across the soft grey distances, the 
towers of Venice are seen on the horizon, repeating them- 
selves in the water. Throughout the still expanse, poles 
rising at intervals mark the " pathways in the sea." In the 
nearer foreground boats with great red and yellow sails are 
finding their way out into the open water by narrow runlets 
through the tall reeds. 

The traveller now hurries past Mestre ; but till a few years 
ago it was important, as the place where, wearied with a long 
journey by diligence or carriage, he embarked for Venice, 
while gladdened by the first sight of the promised city. 

" Not but that the aspect of the city itself was generally the source of 
some slight disappointment, for, seen in this direction, its buildings are 
far less characteristic than those of the other great towns of Italy ; but 
this inferiority was partly disguised by distance, and more than atoned 
for by the strange rising of its walls and towers out of the midst, as it 
seemed, of the deep sea, for it was impossible that the mind or the eye 
could at once comprehend the shallowness of the vast sheet of water 
which stretched away 'in leagues of rippling lustre to the north ami 
south, or trace the narrow line of islets bounding it to the east. The 
salt breeze, the white moaning sea-birds, the masses of black weed 
separating and disappearing gradually, in knots of heaving shoal, under 
the advance of the steady tide, all proclaimed it to be indeed the ocean 
on wliose bosom the great city rested so calmly ; not such a blue, soft, 
lake-like ocean as bathes the Neapolitan promontories, or sleeps beneath 
the marble rocks of Genoa, but a sea with the bleak power of our 
northern waves, yet subdued into a strange spacious rest, and changed 
from its angry pallor into a field of burnished gold, as the sun declined 
behind the belfiy towers of the lonely island church, fitly named ' St. 
George of the Sea-weed.' As the boat drew nearer to the city, the coast 
which the traveller had just left sank behind him into one long, low, 
sad-coloured line, tufted irregularly with brushwood and willows : but, 
at what seemed its northern extremity, the hills of Arqua rose in a dark 
cluster of purple pyramids, balanced on the bright mirage of the lagoon, 


two or three smooth surges of inferior hills extended themselves about 
their roots, and beyond these, beginning with the craggy peaks above 
Vicenza, the chain of the Alps girded the whole horizon to the north — 
a wall of jagged blue, here and there showing through its clefts a wilder- 
ness of misty precipices, fading far back into the recesses of Cadore, 
and itself rising and breaking away eastward, when the sun sti"uck oppo- 
site upon its snow, into mighty fragments of peaked light, standing up 
behind the bars of clouds of evening, one after another, countless, the 
crown of the Adrian Sea, until the eye turned back from pursuing them, 
to rest upon the nearer burning of the campaniles of Murano, and on the 
great city, where it magnified itself along the waves, as the quick silent 
pacing of the gondola drew nearer and nearer. And at last, when its 
walls were reached, and the outmost of its untrodden streets was entered, 
not through towered gate or guarded rampart, but as a deep inlet be- 
tween two rocks of coral in the Indian sea ; where first upon the travel- 
ler's sight opened the long ranges of columned palaces, ^each with its 
black boat moored at the portal, — each with its image cast down, beneath 
its feet, upon that green pavement which every breeze broke into new 
fantasies of rich tessellation ; when first, at the extremity of the 
bright vista, the shadowy Rialto threw its colossal curve slowly forth 
from behind the palace of the Camerlenghi ; that strange curve, so deli- 
cate, so adamantine, strong as a mountain cavern, graceful as a bow 
just bent ; when first, before its moonlike circumference was all risen^ 
the gondolier's cry, ' Ah ! Stall,' struck sharp upon the ear, and the 
prow turned aside under the mighty cornices that half met over the 
narrow canal, where the plash of the water followed close and loud, 
ringing along the marble by the boat's side ; and when at last that boat 
darted forth upon the breadth of silver sea, across which the front of the 
Ducal palace, flushed with its sanguine veins, looks to the snowy dome 
of Our Lady of Salvation, it was no marvel that the mind should be so 
deeply entranced by the visionary charm of a scene so beautiful and so 
strange, as to forget the darker truths of its history and its being. Well 
might it seem that such a city had owed its existence rather to the rod 
of the enchanter, than the fear of the fugitive ; that the waters which 
encircled her had been chosen for the mirror of her state, rather than the 
shelter of her nakedness ; and that all which in nature was wild or 
merciless, — Time and Decay, as well as the waves and tempests, — had 
been won to adorn her instead of to destroy, and might still spare, for 
ages to come, that beauty which seemed to have fixed for its throne the 
sands of the hour-glass as well as of the sea. " — Riiskin, Stones of Venice. 

" I saw from out the wave her structures rise 
As from the stroke of the enchanter's wand : 


A thousand years their cloudy wings expand 
Around me, and a dying Glory smiles 
O'er the far times, when many a subject land 
Look'd to the winged Lion's marble piles, 
Where Venice sate in state, throned on her hundred isles ! 

' She looks a sea Cybele, fresh from ocean, 
Rising with her tiara of proud towers 
At airy distance, with majestic motion, 
A ruler of the waters and their powers : 
And such she was ; — her daughters had their dowers' 
From spoils of nations, and the exhaustless East 
Pour'd in her lap all gems in sparkling showers. 
In purple was she robed, and of her feast 
Monarchs partook, and deem'd their dignity increas'd. 

"In Venice Tasso's echoes are no more, 
And silent rows the songless gondolier ; 
Her palaces are crumbling to the shore. 
And music meets not always now the ear : 
Those days are gone — but Beauty still is here. 
States fall, arts fade — but Nature doth not die, 
Nor yet forget how Venice once was dear, 
The pleasant place of all festivity. 
The revel of the earth, the masque of Italy ! " 

Byron, Childe Harold. 

Venice, founded c. 421, owes its existence to the panic 
inspired by the destruction of Aquileia, of which not one 
stone was left upon another. Many of the inhabitants of 
Altinum, Concordia, and Padua fled before the barbarians, 
to the 72 islands which had formed in the lagoons of the 
Adriatic, and there they built a town. 

"In the northern angle of the Adriatic is a gulf, called lagune, in 
which more than sixty islands of sand, marsh, and seaweed have been 
formed by a concurrence of natural causes. These islands have become 
the City of Venice, which has lorded it over Italy, conquered Constan- 
tinople, resisted a league of all the kings of Christendom, long carried 
on the commerce of the world, and bequeathed to nations the model of 


the most stable government ever framed by man." — Daru, Histoire de 
la Republique de Venise. 

" It was for no idle fancy that their colonists fled to these islands ; it 
was no mere whim which impelled those who followed to combine with 
them ; necessity taught them to look for security in a highly disadvan- 
tageous situation, which after\vards became most advantageous, enduing 
them with talent, when the whole of the northern world was immersed 
in gloom. Their increase and their wealth were the necessary conse- 
quence. New dwellings arose close against dwellings, rocks took the 
place of sand and marsh, houses sought the sky, being forced like trees 
enclosed in a narrow compass, to seek in height what was denied to 
them in breadth. Being niggard of every inch of ground, as having been 
from the outset compressed into a narrow compass, they allowed no 
more room for the streets than was absolutely necessary for separating 
one row of houses from another, and affording a narrow way for pas- 
sengers. Moreover, water was at once street, square, and promenade. 
The Venetian was forced to become a new creature ; and Venice can 
only be compared with itself" — Goethe, 

"A few in fear, 
Flying away from him whose boast it was 
That the grass grew not where his horse had trod, 
Gave birth to Venice. Like the water-fowl, 
They built their nests among the ocean-waves ; 
And where the sands were shifting, as the wind 
Blew from the north or south — where they that came 
Had to make sure the ground they stood upon, 
Rose, like an exhalation from the deep, 
A vast metropolis, with glistening spires. 
With theatres, basilicas adorned ; 
A scene of light and glory, a dominion. 
That has endured the longest among men." — Rogers. 

For nearly 11 00 years the colony thus formed was 
governed by a series of Dukes or Doges, amongst whom 
perhaps the best known names have been those of Sebastiano 
Ziani, under whom Frederick Barbarossa humbled himself 
in the portico of S. Mark's before Pope Alexander III. ; 
Andrea Dandolo, who took part in the 4th Crusade and the 
conquest of Constantinople ; Marino Faliero, beheaded on 


the Giants' stairs for aspiring to the sovereign power ; and 
Francesco Foscari, deposed after having been forced to 
drive his own son into permanent exile.* 

• The order of the Doges has been — 

697 — 716. Paolo Anafesto. 

726 — 737. Orso I. 

742 — 755. Deodato Orso. 

755 — 756- Galla. 

756 — 764 Dom. Monegario. 
764 — 787. Maurizio Galbaia. 
804 — 809. Obelario Antenorio. 
810 — 827. Angelo Partecipazio. 
827 — 830. Giustiniano Partecipazio. 
830 — 837. Giovanni Partecipazio I. 
837 — 864. Pietro Tradenico. 

864 — 881. Orso I. Partecipazio. 

881 — 886. Giov. Partecipazio II. 

886 — 887. Pietro Candiano I. 

888 — 912. Pietro Tribuno. 

912 — 932. Orso II. Partecipazio. 

932 — 939. Pietro Candiano II. 

939 — 942. Pietro Badoero Partecipazio. 

942 — 959. Candiano III. 

959 — 976. Candiano IV. 

076 — 977. Pietro Orseolo I. 

978 — 979. Vittore Candiano. 

979 — 991. Tribolo Memmo 

1026 — 
1030 — 
1071 — 
1084 — 
1096 — 
1 102 — 
III 7 — : 
1156 — 
1172 — 
1192 — 



1249 — 


1328 — 

1 36 1 — 




009. Ottone Orseolo. 

030. Pietro Barbolano Centranigo 

043. Dom. Flabanico. 

071. Dom. Contarini. 

084. Dom. Selva. 

096. Vitale Falieri. 

102. Vitale Michele I. 

117. Ordelaffo Falieri. 

130. Dom. Micheli. 

148. Pietro Polani. 

156. Dom. Morosini. 

172. Vitale Michele II. 

178. Sebastiano Ziani. 

192. Orio Malipiero. 

205. Enrico Dandolo. • 

228. Pietro Ziani. 

249. Jacopo Tiepolo. 

252. Marco Morosini. 

268. Riniero Zeno. 

275. Lorenzo Tiepolo. 

280. Giovanni Dandolo. 

310. Pietro Gradenigo. 

311. Marco Giorgio. 
328. Giovanni Soranzo. 
33 . Francesco Dandolo. 
342. Bartolomeo Gradenigo. 

354. Andrea Dandolo. 

355. Marino Faliero. 

356. Giovanni Gradenigo. 
361, Giovanni Delfino. 
365. Lorenzo Celsi. 

367. Marco Cornaro. 
382. Andrea Contarini. 
Michele Morosini. 

1382 — 1400. Antonio Venier. 

1400 — 








1462 — 


1471 — 

1^17 7. 













1501 — 
































1612 — 





1618 — 


1623 — 


1624 — 


1630 — 


1631 — 















1676 — 








1700 — 


1709— I 


1722 — 1 






1741— 1 


1752— I 









Michele Steno. 
Tommaso Mocenigo. 
Francesco Foscari. 
Pasquale Malipiero. 
Cristofero Moro. 
Niccolo Tron. 
Niccol6 Marcello. 
Pietro Mocenigo. 
Andrea Vendramin. 
Giovanni Mocenigo. 
Marco Barberigo. 
Agostino Barbarigo. 
Leonardo Loredan. 
Antonio Grimani. 
Andrea Gritti. 
Pietro Lando. 
Francesco Donate. 
Marco Trevisan. 
Francesco Venier. 
Lorenzo Priuli. 
Girolamo Priuli. 
Pietro Loredan. 
Alvise Mocenigo I. 
Sebastiano Venier. 
Niccol6 da Ponte. 
Pasquale Cicogna. 
Marino Grimani. 
Leonardo Donato. 
Marco Me.Timo. 
Giovanni Bembo. 
Niccolo Donato. 
Antonio Priuli. 
Francesco Contarini. 
Giovanni Cornaro. 
Niccolo Contarini. 
Francesco Erizzo. 
Francesco Molin. 
Carlo Contarini. 
Francesco Cornaro. 
Bertuccio Valier. 
Giovanni Pesaro. 
Domenico Contarini II. 
Niccol6 Sagredo. 
Alvise Contarini II. 
Marc Ant. Giustiniani. 
Franc. Morosini. 
Silvestro Valier. 
Alvise Mocenigo II. 
Giovanni Cornaro. 
Seb. Mocenigo III. 
Carlo Ruzzini. 
Alvise Pisani. 
Pietro Grimani. 
Francesco Loredan. 
Marco Foscarini. 
Alvise Mocenigo IV. 
Paolo Renter. 
Lodovico Manin. 


" We take no note nowadays, and the Doges and magnificent Senators 
took no note of the generation of true founders, who must have buried 
themselves, with their piles and stakes, upon the mud-banks, to lay a 
feasible foundation for the place, founding it, as every great human city 
is founded, upon human blood and sacrifice. But there stands the city 
of S. Mark miraculous, a thing for giants to wonder at, and fairies to 
copy if they could. The wonder leaps upon the traveller all at once, 
arriving over the broad plains of Italy, through fields of wheat and 
gardens of olive, through vineyards and swamps of growing rice, across 
broad rivers and monotonous flats of richest land, by the Euganean 
mountains dark upon the pale sky of evening, and the low swamps 
gleaming under the new-risen moon. The means of arrival, indeed, are 
commonplace enough, but lo ! in a moment you step out of the common- 
place railway station, into the lucid stillness of the Water City, into 
poetry and wonderland. The moon rising above shines upon pale 
palaces dim and splendid, and breaks in silver arrows and broad gleams 
of whiteness upon the ripple and soft glistening movement of the canal, 
till, yet alive with a hundred reflections, and a soft pulsation and 
twinkle of life. The lights glitter above and below, every star and 
every lamp doubled ; and the very path by which you are to travel lives, 
and greets you with soft gleams of liquid motion, and soft gurgle of 
liquid sound. And then comes the measured sweep of the oars, and 
you are away along the silent splendid road, all darkling, yet .alight, the 
poorest smoky oil -lamp making for itself a hundred twinkling stars in 
the little facets of the wavelets ; ripplets, which gleam far before you, 
shining and twinkling like so many fairy forerunners preparing your 
way. Not a sound less harmonious and musical than the soft plash of 
the water against the marble steps and grey walls, the wave and wash 
against your boat, the wild cry of the boatmen, as they round with 
magical precision each sharp comer, or the singing of some wandering 
boatful of musicians on the Grand Canal, disturbs the quiet. Across 
the flat Lido from the Adriatic comes a little breath of fresh wind, 
touching your cheek with a caress ; and when, out of a maze of narrow 
water-lanes, you shoot out into the breadth and glorious moonlight of 
the Grand Canal, and see the lagoon go widening out, a plain of dazzling 
silver, into the distance, and great churches and palaces standing up 
pale against the light, our Lady of Salvation and S. George the greater 
guarding the widening channel, what words can describe the novel, 
beautiful scene." — Blackivood, DCCV. 

The impression produced when the great bridge is passed, 
and the train glides into the Railway Station of Venice is 


one never to be forgotten. Instead of the noise of a street, 
and its rattling carriages, you find, as you descend the 
portico of the station, the salt waves of the Grand Canal 
lapping against the marble steps, and a number of gondolas, 
like a row of black hearses, drawn up against them. Into 
one of these you step, and noiselessly, ghastlily, without 
apparent motion, you float off into the green water. 

" Let me this gondola boat compare to a slumbrous cradle, 
And to a spacious bier liken the cover demure ; 
Thus on the open canal through life we are swaying and swimming 
Onward with never a care, coffin and cradle between." 

Monckton MUtus, from Goethe. 

It is perhaps best, and no mere romantic idea, to enter 
Venice for the first time by moonlight. Then all the shabby 
detail, all the ruin and decay, and poor unartistic repairs 
of the grand old buildings are lost, and the first views of 
the Grand Canal are indeed surpassingly beautiful, and you 
are carried back to " the golden days of the Queen of the 

"A city of marble, did I say? nay, rather a golden city, paved with 
emerald. For truly, every pinnacle and turret glanced and glowed, 
overlaid with gold, or bossed with jasper. Beneath, the unsullied sea 
drew in deep breathing, to and fro, its eddies of green wave. Deep- 
hearted, majestic, terrible as the sea — the men of Venice moved in sway 
of power and war ; pure as her pillars of alabaster, stood her mothers 
and maidens ; from foot to brow, all noble, walked her knights ; the 
low bronzed gleaming of sea-rusted armour shot angrily under their 
blood-red mantle-folds. Fearless, faithful, patient, impenetrable, im- 
placable — every word a fate — sate her senate. In hope and honour, 
lulled by flowing of wave around their isles of sacred sand, each with his 
name written and the cross graven at his side, lay her dead. A won- 
derful piece of the world. Rather, itself a world. It lay along the face 
of the waters, no larger, as its captains saw it from their masts at 
evening, than a bar of sunset that could not pass away ; but for its 
power, it must have seemed to them as if they were sailing in the ex- 


panse of heaven, and this a great planet, whose orient edge widened 
through ether. A world from which all ignoble care and petty thoughts 
were banished, with all the common and poor elements of life. No 
foulness or tumult, in those tremulous streets, that filled or fell beneath 
the moon ; but rippled music of majestic change, or thrilling silence. 
No weak walls could rise above them ; no low-roofed collage, nor 
Straw-built shed. Only the strength as of rock, and the finished setting 
of stones most precious. And around them, far as the eye could reach» 
still the soft moving of stainless waters, proudly pure ; as not the flower, 
as neither the thorn nor the thistle, could grow in the glancing fields. 
Ethereal strength of Alps, dream-like, vanishing in high procession 
beyond the Torcellan shore ; blue islands of Paduan hills, poised in the 
golden west. Above, free winds and fiery clouds ranging at their will ; 
— brightness out of the north, and balm from the south, and the stars 
of the evening and morning clear in the limitless light of arched heavea 
and circling sea." — Raskin's Modern Painters. 

It is not a mere following up of the list of sights indicated 
in these pages, which can give the impression of what Venice 
ought to convey, and is ready to teach through the wonderful 
histories and allegories which are engraved in the sculptures 
of her walls as in a marble picture-book. Venice, like 
Orvieto, is full of the deepest material for thought, and 
many of her buildings are still like an index to the historical 
and religious feelings of the time in which they were 

" At Venice, as indeed, throughout the whole Christian world, the 
legend was the earliest form of poetry ; and if it did not strike root there 
deeper than elsewhere, it at least adorned the infancy of the republic 
with an infinite variety of flowers, which retained all their beauty and 
freshness in the proudest days of its prosperity. Each temple, monastery, 
religious or national monument, was surrounded from its foundations 
with its own peculiar legends, which increased with every succeeding 
century ; and, not satisfied with these local traditions, the people took 
possession of those of Egypt, Asia Minor, and Greece, which became 
naturalised in the Lagunes in proportion as the relics of saints and 
martyrs were transported there, in order to preserve them from the out- 
rages of the Infidels, now become masters of those countries in which 
the earliest Christian churches had been founded." — Rio. 


Venice is still one of the most religious cities in Italy. 
Prayer never ceases here : the Sacrament is constantly 
exposed in one or other of the churches, and the clergy 
succeed one another in prayers before it, night as well as 

Each day spent in the water-city will add to its charm, 
but, from the first all is novel and enchanting : the very cries 
of the gondoliers have something most wild and picturesque. 
They are thus explained by Monckton Milnes : 

" When along the light ripple the far serenade 
Has accosted the ear of each passionate maid, 
She may open the window that looks on the stream, — 
She may smile on her pillow and blend it in dream ; 
Half in words, half in music, it pierces the gloom, 
' I am coming — stall — but you know not for whom ! 
Stall— not for whom ! ' 

Now the tones become clearer, — ^you hear more and more 
How the water divided returns on the oar, — 
Does the prow of the gondola strike on the stair ? 
Do the voices and instruments pause and prepare ? 
Oh ! they faint on the ear as the lamp on the view, 
• I am passing — Preme — but I stay not for you ! 

Preme — not for you ! * 

Then return to your couch, you who stifle a tear, — 
Then awake not, fair sleeper — believe he is here ; 
For the young and the loving no sorrow endures. 
If to-day be another's, to-morrow is yours ; — 
May, the next time you listen, your fancy be true, 
' I am coming — Sciar— and for you and to you ! 

Sciir — and to you ! " * 

To English eyes the sailors and facchini with their large 
earrings are almost as curious as the young dandies in the 

• From the verb Stalir, to go to the right ; Premier, to go to the left ; and 
Sciar or Siar, to stop the boat by turning the flat part of the oar against the cur- 


Giardino in summer with their almost invariable fans as well 
as parasols ! 

Travellers will do well to select a Hotel as near as 
possible to the Piazza S. Marco, which is in itself filled with 
interest and delight, and is the centre of everything else. 
Here they may devote every extra moment to revisiting 
the most glorious church in the world, and hence they will 
gradually learn to make their way through the narrow streets 
which wind labyrinthine-like over the closely-packed group 
of islets. The best way will be to make the tour of Venice 
first in a gondola, and then, when partially familiar with the 
position of things, to follow up your explorations on foot, 
for every square, every house even of the city, may be visited 
by land as well as by water, as the 7 2 islands on which the 
town is built are connected by from 350 to 400 bridges. 
Most difficult however is the geography, and the only real 
guide is a narrow white marble thread in the pavement, 
which, passing through several of the principal footways, 
always leads to the Rialto. 

The Calk, as the narrow streets are called, are, in their 
way, as full of interest as the canals. 

"Jusqu'aux ruelles, aux moindres places, il n'y a rien qui ne fasse 
plaisir. Du palais Loredan, oil je suis, on tourne, pour aller a Saint- 
Marc, par des calle biscornues et charmantes, tapissees de boutiques, de 
merceries, d'etalages de melons, de legumes et d' oranges, peuplees de 
costumes voyants, de figures narquoises ou sensuelles, d'une foule bruis- 
sante et changeante. Ces ruelles sont si etroites, si bizarrement etriquees 
entre leurs murs irreguliers, qu'on n'aper9oit sur sa tete qu'une bande 
dentelee du ciel. On arrive sur quelque//<722<?//'a, quelque faw/f desert, 
tout blanc sous un ciel blanc de lumiere. Dalles, murailles, enceinte, 
pave, tout y est pierre ; alentour sont des maisons fermees, et leurs files 
forment un triangle ou un carre bossele par le besoin de s'etendre et le 
hasard de la batisse ; une citerne delicatement ouvragee fait le centre, 
et des lions sculptes, de figurines nues jouent sur la margelle. Dans 


un coin est quelque eglise baroque, — un portail charge de statues, tout 
bruni par Thuniidite de I'air sale et par la brulure antique du soleil; — 
un jet de clarte oblique tranche 1' edifice en deux pans, et la moitie des 
figures semblent s'agiter sur les frontons ou sortir des niches pendant que 
les autres reposent dans la transparence bleuatre de 1' ombre. — On 
avance, et, dans un long boyau qu'un petit pont traverse, on voit des 
gondoles sillonner d'argent le marbre bigarre de I'eau ; tout au bout de 
I'enfilade, un petillement d'or marque sur le flot le ruissellement du 
soleil qui, du haut d'lm toit, fait danser des eclairs sur le blanc tigre de 
I'onde. " — Taine. 

For a passing stranger it may be well to divide the sight- 
seeing at Venice into eight divisions, 

1. The Piazza of S. Marco and its surroundings. 

2. The Grand Canal. 

3. The South-Eastern quarter of Venice — from S. Zaccaria to the 

Public Gardens. 

4. The North-Eastem quarter — from S. Moise to S. Giobbe. 

5. Western Venice — from S. Trovaso to S. Andrea. 

6. The Giudecca, the Armenian Convent, and the Lido. 

7. Chioggia. 

8. Murano and Torcello. 

In the arrangement of Venetian sight-seeing it should be 
remembered that few of the churches are open after twelve 
o'clock, and the Academy closes at three. The mornings 
therefore should be given to sights in the town, the after- 
noons to general explorations. 



s. mark's and its surroundings. 

E will suppose the traveller threading his way from one 
of the neighbouring hotels to the Piazza S. Marco. 

"It is a paved alley, some seven feet wide where it is widest, full of 
people, and resonant with cries of itinerant salesmen, — a shriek in their 
beginning, and dying away into a kind of brazen ringing, all the worse 
for its confinement between the high houses of the passage along which 
we have to make our way. Overhead an inextricable confusion of rug- 
ged shutters, and iron balconies and chimney flues pushed out on brack- 
ets to save room, and arched windows with projecting sills of Istrian 
stone, and gleams of green leaves here and there where a fig-tree branch 
escapes over a lower wall from some inner cortile, leading the eye up to 
the narrow stream of blue sky high over all. On each side, a row of 
shops, as densely set as may be, occupying in fact, intervals between 
the square stone shafts, about eight feet high, which carry the first floors : 
intervals of which one is narrow and serves as a door ; the other is, in 
the more respectable shops, wainscoted to the height of the counter and 
glazed above, but in those of the poorer tradesmen left open to the 
ground, and the wares laid on benches and tables in the open air, the 
light in all cases entering at the front only, and fading away in a few feet 
from the threshold into a gloom which the eye from without cannot 
penetrate, but which is generally broken by a ray or two from a feeble 
lamp at the back of the shop, suspended before a print of the Virgin. 
The less pious shopkeeper sometimes leaves his lamp unlighted, and is 
contented with a penny print ; the more religious one has his print 
coloured and set in a little shrine with a gilded or figured fringe, with 
perhaps a faded flower or two on each side, and his lamp burning bril- 
liantly. Here at the fruiterer's, where the dark-green water-melons are 
heaped upon the counter like cannon balls, the Madonna has a taber- 


nacle of fresh laurel leaves ; but the pewterer next door has let his lamp 
out, and there is nothing to be seen in his shop but the dull gleam of 
the studded patterns on the copper pans, hanging from his roof in the 
darkness. Next comes a ' Vendita Frittole e Liquori,' where the Virgin, 
enthroned in a very humble manner beside a tallow candle on a back 
shelf, presides over certain ambrosial morsels of a nature too ambiguous 
to be defined or enumerated. But a few steps further on, at the regular 
wine-shop of the calle, where we are offered ' Vino Nostrano a Soldi 
28 — 32,' the Madonna is in great glory, enthroned above ten or a dozen 
large red casks of three-year-old vintage, and flanked by goodly ranks 
of bottles of Maraschino, and two crimson lamps ; and for the evening, 
when the gondoliers will come to drink out, under her auspices, the 
money they have gained during the day, she will have a whole chande- 

" A yard or two farther, we pass the hostelry of the Black Eagle, and, 
glancing as we pass, through the square door of marble, deeply moulded 
in the outer wall, we see the shadows of its pergola of vines resting on 
an ancient well, with a pointed shield carved on its side ; and so pre- 
sently emerge on the bridge and Campo San Moise, whence to the 
entrance into S. Mark's Place, called the Bocca di Piazza (mouth of the 
square), the Venetian character is nearly destroyed, first by the frightful 
fa9ade of San Moise, and then by the modernizing of the shops as they 
near the piazza, and the mingling with the lower Venetian populace of 
lounging groups of foreigners. We will push past through them into 
the shadow of the pillars at the end of the ' Bocca di Piazza,' and then 
we forget them all ; for between those pillars there opens a great light, 
and, in the midst of it, as we advance slowly, the vast tower of S. Mark 
seems to lift itself visibly forth from the level field of chequered stones ; 
and, on each side, the countless arches prolong themselves into ranged 
symmetry, as if the rugged and irregular houses that pressed together 
above us in the dark alley had been struck back into sudden obedience 
and lovely order, and all their rude casements and broken walls had 
been transformed into arches charged with goodly sculpture, and fluted 
shafts of delicate stone. 

"And well may they fall back, for beyond those troops of ordered 
arches there rises a vision out of the earth, and all the great square 
seems to have opened from it in a kind of awe, that we may see it far 
away ; — a multitude of pillars and white domes, clustered into a long 
low pyramid of coloured light ; a treasure-heap, it seems, partly of gold, 
and partly of opal and mother-of-pearl, hollowed beneath into five great 
vaulted porches, ceiled with fair mosaic, and beset with sculpture of 
alabaster, clear as amber and delicate as ivory, — sculpture fantastic and 


involved, of palm-leaves and lilies, and grapes and pomegranates, and 
birds clinging and fluttering among the branches, all twined together 
into an endless network of buds and plumes ; and, in the midst of it, 
the solemn forms of angels, sceptred, and robed to the feet, and leaning 
to each other across the gates, their figures indistinct among the gleam- 
ing of the golden ground through the leaves beside them, interrupted 
and dim, like the morning light as it faded back among the branches of 
Eden, when first its gates were angel-guarded long ago. And round 
the walls of the porches there are set pillars of variegated stones, jasper 
and porphyry, and deep green serpentine spotted with flakes of snow, 
and marbles, that half refuse and half yield to the sunshine. Cleopatra- 
like, ' their bluest veins to kiss ' — the shadow, as it steals back from 
them, revealing line after line of azure undulation, as a receding tide 
leaves the waved sand ; their capitals rich with interwoven tracery, 
rooted knots of herbage, and drifting leaves of acanthus ai*d vine, and 
mystical signs, all beginning and ending in the Cross ; and above them, 
in the broad archivolts, a continuous chain of language and of life — 
angels, and the signs of heaven, and the labours of men, each in its 
appointed season upon the earth ; and above these, another range of 
glittering pinnacles, mixed with white arches edged with scarlet flowers, 
— a confusion of delight, amidst which the breasts of the Greek horses 
are seen blazing in their breadth of golden strength, and the S- Mark's 
Lion, lifted on a blue field covered with stars, until at last, as if in 
ecstacy, the crests of the arches break into a marble foam, and toss 
themselves far into the blue sky in flashes and wreaths of sculptured spray, 
as if the breakers on the Lido shore had been frost-bound before they 
fell, and the sea-nymphs had inlaid them with coral and amethyst," — 
Ruskifi, Stones of Venice. 

Glorious indeed is this piazza and the succession of build- 
ings which surrounds it. On the north are the Procuratie 
Vecchie, built by Bartolomeo Buono da Bergamo, 15 17. 
Then comes the tower called Torre del Orologio, built 1466 
— 1495, conspicuous from its dial of blue and gold, and 
surmounted by bronze figures who strike the hours upon 
a bell. The arch beneath leads into the busy street of the 
Merceria. On Ascension and for many days after, the Magi 
come forth in procession and salute the Virgin and Child on 
this tower, when the clock strikes twelve. 


On the opposite side of the piazza are the Biblioteca and 
Procuratie Nuove, built from designs of Scamozzi. The 
latter are converted into a palace : they occupy the site of 
the fine church of S. Geminiano, which was built by Sanso- 
vino and where he was buried. The Libreria Vecchia is 
continued down the west side of the Fiazzetta, which opens 
from the piazza opposite the Torre del Orologio. The 
foundation of the library was the collection of Petrarch, who 
came to settle in Venice in 1529, and made " S. Mark the 
heir of his library." It was afterwards greatly enriched by 
Cardinal Bessarion and others. The great hall is very 
handsome and has some paintings by Paul Veronese and 
Tintoret. The adjoining building, facing the lagoon, is the 
Zecca, built as a mint by Sansovino in 1536, and which gave 
its name to the Zecchino or Sequin, the favourite coin of the 
republic. It contains some portraits by Tintoret. At the 
end of the Piazzetta towards the lagoon are two granite 
pillars, one surmounted by the Lion of S. Mark, the other 
by a statue of S. Theodore standing on a crocodile (by 
Pietro Guilombardo, 1329), — the saint who was patron of the 
Republic before the body of S. Mark was brought from 
Egypt in 827, The columns themselves were brought from 
Palestine in 1927. Then Doge Sebastiano Ziani (i 172 — 78), 
having promised any " onesta grazia " to the man who should 
safely lift them to their places, it was claimed by Nicolo il 
Barattiere, who demanded that gambling, prohibited else- 
where, should be permitted between these pillars. The 
promise could not be revoked, but to render it of no effect, 
all public executions were also ordained to be held on this 
spot, so as to render it one of ill-omen. 

At the inner entrance of the Piazzetta, between the Ducal 


Palace and the church, are the richly sculptured Pillars of S. 
yean d'Acre, once part of a gateway of S. Saba in Ptolemais. 
They were brought back in a Venetian triumph in 1256. 
Near these, at the comer of the church, is a low pillar of red 
porphyry, which is also said to have come from Acre. It is 
called Pietra del Pando, and the laws of the Republic are 
said to have been promulgated from hence. 

At the opposite angle is the great Campafiile begun by 
Doge Pietro Tribuno in 888, but not finished till 151 1. It 
is entered by a small door on the west (2 soldi), whence a 
winding and easy footpath (no steps) leads to the summit. 
The view is truly magnificent, and should be one of the first 
l)oints visited in Venice. It is the only way of understand- 
ing the intricate plan of the wonderfiil water-city, which from 
hence is seen like a map, with all its towers and churches 
and distant attendant islands, while beyond it the chain of 
Alps girds in the horizon with a glistening band of snowy 

At the foot of the Campanile is the Loggia (" sotto il Cajti- 
panile" ) \)Vi\\X. by Sansovino in 1569 as a meeting-place for 
the Venetian nobles. It is richly adorned with reliefs and 
has bronze statues of Minerva, Apollo, Mercury, and a God 
of Peace, by Satisovino. 

In front of the church, rise from richly decorated bronze 
sockets, by Alessandro Leopardo, the tall flagstaffs which 
bore the banners of the Republic. Here, in the piazza, we 
may always see flocks of pigeons, sacred birds in Venice, 
which are so tame that they never move out of your way, 
but run before you as you walk, and perch on the sill of 
your open window. 

VOL. 11, 2' 


*' Ces pigeons remontent aux anciens temps de Venise. Alors il etait 
d' usage, le jour des Rameaux, de lacher d'au-dessus de la porte princi- 
pale de Saint -Marc un grand nombre d'oiseaiix avec de petits rouleaux 
de papier attaches a la patte, qui les fonjaient a tomber ; le peuple, 
malgre leurs efforts pour se soutenir quelque temps en I'air, se les dispu- 
tait aussitot avec violence. II arriva que quelques uns de ces pigeons se 
delivrerent de leurs entraves, et trainant la ficelle chercherent un asile 
sur les toits de Saint-Marc. lis s'y multiplierent rapidement ; et tel fiit 
I'interet qu' inspirerent ces refugies que, d'apres le voeu general, un de- 
cret fut rendu portant qu'ils seraient non-seulement respectes, mais 
nourris aux frais de I'Etat." — Valery. 

The distinctive wonders of the Tisizza. S. Marco are thus 
popularly enumerated in the Venetian dialect : — 

" In piazza San Marco ghe xe tre standard!, 
Ghe xe quatro cavai che par che i svola 
Ghe xe un relogio che '1 par una tore, 
Ghe xe do mori che bate le ore." 

" It is a great piazza, anchored, like all the rest, in the deep ocean. 
On its broad bosom, is a palace, more majestic and magnificent in its 
old age than all the buildings of the earth, in the high prime and fulness 
of their youth. Cloisters and galleries ; so light, they might be the work 
of fairy hands ; so strong that centuries have battered them in vain ; 
wind round and round this palace, and enfold it with a cathedral, gor- 
geous in the wild luxuriant fancies of the East. At no great distance 
from its porch, a lofty tower, standing by itself, and rearing its proud 
head above, into the sky, looks out upon the Adriatic Sea. Near to the 
margin of the stream, are two ill-omened pillars of red granite ; one 
having on its top, a figure with a sword and shield ; the other, a winged 
lion. Not far from these, again, a second tower, richest of the rich in all 
its decorations, even here, where all is rich, sustains aloft a great orb, 
gleaming with gold and deepest blue ; the twelve signs painted on it, 
and a mimic sun revolving in its course around them ; while above, two 
bronze giants hammer out the hours upon a sounding bell. An oblong 
square of lofty houses of the whitest stone, surrounded by a light and 
beautiful arcade, forms part of this enchanted scene ; and, here and there, 
gay masts for flags rise, tapering from the pavement of the unsubstantial 
ground." — Dickens. 

As we are now standing under the shadow of S. Mark's, 
we may give a few moments to its origin and story. 


" * And so Barnabas took Mark, and sailed unto Cyprus.' If as the 
shores of Asia lessened upon his sight, the spirit of prophecy had entered 
into the heart of the weak disciple who had turned back when his hand 
was on the plough, and who had been judged, by the chiefest of Christ's 
captains, unworthy henceforward to go forth with him to the work, how 
wonderful would he have thought it, that by the lion symbol in future 
ages he was to be represented among men ! how woful, that the war-cry 
of his name should so often re-animate the rage of the soldier, on those 
very playis where he himself had failed in the courage of the Christian, 
and so often dye with fruitless blood that very Cypriot Sea, over whose 
waves, in repentance and shame, he was following the Son of Consola- 
tion I 

"That the Venetians possessed themselves of his body in the ninth 
century there appears no sufficient reason to doubt, nor that it was 
principally in consequence of their having done so, that they chose him 
for their patron saint. There exists, however, a tradition that before he 
went into Egypt he had founded the church at Aquileia, and was thus, 
in some sort, the first bishop of the Venetian isles and people." — Rtiskin, 
Stones of Venice. 

The translation of the body of S. Mark to Venice is said to 
have been caused by the rapacity of the king of Alexandria, 
who plundered the church where he was enshrined in that 
city to adorn his own palace. Two Venetian sea-captains 
who were then at Alexandria implored to be allowed to re- 
move the relics of the saint to a place of safety, and at last 
the priests, fearful of further desecration, consented. " They 
placed the corpse in a large b'asket covered with herbs and 
swine's flesh which the Mussulmans hold in horror, and the 
bearers were directed to cry Khawzir (pork), to all who 
should ask questions or approach to search. In this manner 
they reached the vessel. The body was enveloped in the 
sails and suspended to the mainmast till the moment of de- 
parture, for it was necessary to conceal this precious booty 
from those who might come to clear the vessel in the roads. 
At last the Venetians quitted the shore full of joy. They 
were hardly in the open sea when a great storm arose. We 


are assured that S. Mark then appeared to the captain and 
warned him to strike all his sails immediately, lest the ship, 
driven before the wind, should be wrecked upon hidden 
rocks. They owed their safety to this miracle." 

The first church erected at Venice in honour of S. Mark 
was destroyed by fire in 976. Its rebuilding was immedi- 
ately commenced, and the existing church was consecrated 
in 1085. Since that time every succeeding Doge has added 
to the richness of its decorations. The main body of the 
church is of the eleventh century, the Gothic additions of the 
fourteenth, and the restored mosaics of the seventeenth. 

"Venice, we must never forget, is for architectural purposes no part 
of Italy, no part of the dominions of the Western Emperor. 'H^tlff 
hovKoi BtXofiiv ilvai tov ''Paifiaiuiv j3a(Ti\fa>c are the words put into the 
mouth of the islanders by the imperial historian, and they ceased to be 
subjects of the Eastern Csesar only in becoming Lords of One Fourth 
and One Eighth of his empire. Both as subjects and as lords they were 
equally disciples. The ducal chapel of Venice repeats the patriarchal 
church of Constantinople, as it is itself so strangely repeated in the far 
distant abbey of Perigueux. " — Freeman. 

Over the doorways are five mosaics, beginning from the 
right, viz : 

The translation of the Relics of S. Mark from Alexandria, 1650. 
Pietro Vecchio. 

Landing of the Relics. Pietro Vecchio. 

The Last Judgment, 1836. L. Guerena. 

The magistrates of Venice venerating the Relics of S. Mark, 1728. 
Sebastiano Rizzi. 

The Enshrining of the Relics, and the fa9ade of the church, an ancient 
work of the early part of the 1 3th century. 

Over the portico are the four famous Bronze Horses, 
brought from Constantinople by the Venetians after the 
fourth Crusade. 

" A glorious team of horses, — I should like to hear the opinion o£ a 
good judge of horse-flesh. What seemed strange to me was, that closely 


viewed, they appear heavy, while from the piazza below they look light 

as deer." — Goethe. 

" In this temple-porch, 
Old as he was, so near his hundredth year. 
And blind — his eyes put out — did Dandolo 
Stand forth, displaying on his crown the cross. 
There did he stand, erect, invincible. 
Though wan his cheeks, and wet with many tears, 
For in his prayers he had been weeping much ; 
And now the pilgrim and the people wept 
With admiration, saying in their hearts, 
' Surely those aged limbs have need of rest ! ' 
There did he stand, with his old armour on, 
Ere, gonfalon in hand, that streamed aloft, 
As conscious of its glorious destiny. 
So soon to float o'er mosque and minaret, 
He sailed away, five hundred gallant ships. 
Their lofty sides hung with emblazoned shields, 
Following his track to fame. He went to die ; 
But of his trophies four arrived ere long, 
Snatched from destruct'on— the four steeds divine. 
That strike the ground, resounding with their feet, 
And from their nostrils snort ethereal flame 
Over that very porch." — Rogers. 

On entering the vestibule, we see, in front of the central 
doorway, a lozenge of red and white marble. This marks 
the spot where the celebrated reconciliation took place be- 
tween the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and Pope Alex- 
ander III., July 23, 1 1 77. 

" The Emperor, with the Doge and senators, and with his own Teu- 
tonic nobles, advanced to the portal of S. Mark, where stood the Pope 
in his pontifical attire. Frederick no sooner beheld the successor of 
S. Peter, than he threw off his imperial mantle, prostrated himself, and 
kissed the feet of the Pontiff. Alexander, not without tears, raised him 
up, and gave him the kiss of peace. Then swelled out the Te Deum ; 
and the Emperor, holding the hand of the Pope, was led into the choir, 
and received the Papal benediction." — Alilman's Hist, of Latin Chris- 

All around are columns of precious marbles, chiefly 


brought from the East, and above these equally precious 
mosaics. That over the principal door of S. Mark, is by 
the brothers Zuccati in 1545, from designs of Titian. The 
representation of the Crucifixion opposite, is also by the 
Zuccati. The earlier mosaics are of the nth century, and 
many of these are of great interest. We may especially 
notice, on the left, as a figure seldom represented in art, 
that of Phocas, the sainted gardener of Sinope in Pontus 
(a.d. 303), who being much given to hospitality, courteously 
received and lodged the executioners sent to put him to 
death ; who received his kindness not knowing, but in the 
morning, when he revealed himself to them, w^ere comj>elled 
to behead him, and they buried him in a grave he had dug 
for himself, amongst his flowers. 

"The custom of burying illustrious persons in Roman or early 
Christian sarcophagi prevailed until the 14th century. Vitale Faliero, 
for instance, lies in the atrium of S. Mark's, to the right of the great 
portal, in a sarcophagus with shapeless octagonal columns. Had 
Venice had any fitter resting-place for this doge, in whose reign occurred 
the miraculous recovery of the body of S. Mark and the visit of the 
EmpercM- Henry IV., she would not thus have buried him in a tomb 
made up of old fragments. In a similar sarcophagus on the other side 
of the great portal lies the wife of Vitale Mich^Ie, who ruled the 
Republic at the time of the first Crusade, in which Venice co-operated 
but coldly, fearing that it would interfere with her commerce with the 
E^t ; the fleet she sent to Syria was employed in fighting with the 
Pisans off Smyrna for possession of the bodies of SS. Teodoro and 
Niccol6, and in plundering the richly-laden Genoese ships in their 
homeward voyage. Another doge, Marino Morosini, whose short 
and uneventful reign is summed up by Maestro Martino da Canale in 
the words, ' fu si grazioso ch' egli uso sua vita in pace, ne nullo os6 
assalire di guerra,' also lies buried in the atrium of S. Mark's in an old 
Christian sarcophagus, sculptured with rude figures of Christ and the 
Apostles, angels bearing censers, and ornate crosses." — Perkin's Italian 

On the right is the entrance of the Zeno Chapel, built 
1505 — 15 1 5, by Cardinal Giambattista Zeno, and contain- 


ing his grand bronze tomb by Antonio Lombardo and Ales- 
sandro Leopardo. The altar has a beautiful figure of the 
Madonna delta Scarpa between SS. Peter and John Baptist. 
The mosaics, which tell the story of S. Mark, are of the 12 th 

A door to the right of the principal entrance leads to the 
Baptistery, or Chapel of S. Giovanni Battista — San Zuane 
in the soft Venetian vernacular. 

'* We are in a low vaulted room ; vaulted, not with arches, but 
with small cupolas starred with gold, and chequered with gloomy 
figures : in the centre is a bronze font charged with rich bas-reliefs, a 
small figure of the Baptist standing above it in a single ray of light that 
glances across the narrow room, dying as it falls from a window high in 
the wall, and the first thing that it strikes, and the only thing that it 
strikes rightly, is a tomb. We hardly know if it be a tomb indeed ; for 
it is like a narrow couch set beside the window, low-roofed and curtain- 
ed, so that it might seem, but that it is some height above the pavement, 
to have been drawn towards the window, that the sleeper might be 
wakened early ; — only there are two angels who have drawn the curtains 
back, and are looking down upon him. Let us look also, and thank 
that gentle light that rests upon his forehead for ever and dies away 
upon his breast. 

'* The face is of a man in middle life, but there are two deep furrows 
right across the forehead, dividing it like the foundations of a tower; 
the height of it above is bound by the fillet of his ducal cap. The rest 
of the features are singularly small and delicate, the lips sharp, perhaps 
the sharpness of death being added to that of the natural lines ; but 
there is a sweet smile upon them, and a deep serenity upon the whole 
countenance. The roof of the canopy above has been blue, filled with 
stars ; beneath, in the centre of the tomb on which the figure rests, is a 
seated figure of the Virgin, and the border of it all around, is of flowers 
and soft leaves, growing rich and deep, as if in a field in summer. 

"It is the Doge Andrea Dandolo, a man early great among the great 
of Venice, and early lost. She chose him for her king in his 36th year; 
he died ten years later, leaving behind him that history to which we owe 
half of what we know of her former fortunes. 

" Look round the room in which he lies. The floor of it is in rich 
mosaic, encompassed by a low seat of red marble, and its walls are of 
alabaster, but worn and shattered, and darkly stained with age, almost 
a ruin— in places the slabs of marble have fallen away altogether, and 


the rugged brickwork is seen through the rents, but all beautiful ; the 
ravaging fissures fretting their way among the islands and channelled 
zones of the alabaster, and the time-stains on its translucent masses 
darkened into fields of rich golden brown, like the colour of sea-weed 
when the sun strikes on it through deep sea. The light fades away into 
the recess of the chamber towards the altar, and the eye can hardly 
trace the lines of the bas-relief behind it of the Baptism of Christ : but 
on the vaulting of the roof the figures are distinct, and there are seen 
upon it two great circles, one sun-ounded by the 'principalities and 
powers in heavenly places,' of which Milton has expressed the ancient 
division in the single massy line, 

'Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms, Virtues, Powers,' 

and around the other, the Apostles; Christ the centre of both: and 
upon the walls, again and again repeated, the gaunt figure of the Bap- 
tist, in every circumstance of his life and death ; and the streams of the 
Jordan running down between their cloven rocks ; the axe laid to the 
root of a fruitless tree that springs upon their shore." — Ruskin, Stones 
of Venice. 

From a door on the left of the Baptistery we enter the 
church itself. 

"The church is lost in a deep twilight, to which the eye must be 
accustomed for some moments before the form of the building can be 
traced ; and then there opens before us a vast cave, hewn out into the 
form of a cross, and divided into shadowy aisles by many pillars. Round 
the domes of its roof the light enters only through narrow apertures like 
large stars ; and here and there a ray or two from some far away case- 
ment wanders into the darkness, and casts a narrow phosphoric stream 
■upon the waves of marble that heave and fall in a thousand colours along 
the floor. What else there is of light is from torches, or silver lamps, 
burning ceaselessly in the recesses of the chapels ; the roof sheeted with 
gold, and the polished walls covered with alabaster, give back at every 
curve and angle some feeble gleaming to the flames ; and the glories 
round the heads of the sculptured saints flash out upon us as we pass 
them, and sink again into the gloom. Under foot and over head, a con- 
tinual succession of crowded imagery, one picture passing into another, 
as in a dream ; forms beautiful and terrible mixed together ; dragons 
and serpents, and ravening beasts of prey, and graceful birds that in the 
midst of them drink from running fountains and feed from vases of 
crystal ; the passions and the pleasures of human life sjTnbolized toge- 
ther, and the mystery of its redemption ; for the mazes of interwoven 
lines and changeful pictures lead always at last to the Cross, lifted 

S. MARCO. 25 

and carved in every place and upon every stone ; sometimes with 
the serpent of eternity wrapt round it, sometimes with doves beneath its 
arms and sweet herbage growing forth from its feet ; but conspicuous 
most of all on the great rood that crosses the church before the altar, 
raised in bright blazonry against the shadow of the apse. And although 
in the recesses of the aisles and chapels, when the mist of the incense 
hangs heavily, we may see continually a figure traced in faint lines upon 
their marble, a woman standing with her eyes raised to heaven, and the 
inscription above her, 'Mother of God,' she is not here the presiding 
deity. It is the Cross that is first seen, and always, burning in the centre 
of the temple ; and every dome and hollow of its roof has the figure of 
Christ in the utmost height of it, raised in power, or retunung in judg- 
ment." — Rtiskin, Stones of Venice. 

It is the general impression, not the detail, of S. Mark's, 
which makes it so transcendent. The dim effects of shadow 
amid which golden gleams here and there illuminate some 
precious fragment of marble wall, or the peacock hues of 
a portion of the undulating and uneven pavement, makes 
those who have any artistic feeling care little for the technical 
details of architecture and sculpture. On the left is the 
beautiful little octagonal chapel or shrine of the Holy Cross. 
The screen of the choir is Greek, surmounted by statues by 
"yacobello and Pierpaolo delle Massegne, 1394, and between 
these the bronze crucifix of Jacopo di Marco Benato, 1394. 
The choir is richly adorned with intarsiatura work, above 
which are six bronze reliefs telling the story of S. Mark, by 
Jacopo Sansovino, 1546. 

Behind the High Altar is the famous Pala d'Oro, which 
is only shown on the highest church festivals. 

The High Altar itself covers the supposed relics of S. 
Mark. The original relics were destroyed in 976, by fire, 
but a legend has made them good. 

"After the repairs undertaken by the Doge Orseolo, the place in 
which the body of the holy Evangelist rested had been altogether for- 
gotten ; so that the Doge Vital Falier was entirely ignorant of the place 


of the venerable deposit. This was no light affliction, not only to the 
pious Doge, but to all the citizens and people ; so that at last, moved by- 
confidence in the Divine mercy, they determined to implore, with prayer 
and fasting, the manifestation of so great a treasure, which did not now 
depend upon any human effort. A general fast being therefore proclaimed, 
and a solemn procession appointed for the 25th day of June, while the 
people assembled in the church interceded with God in fervent prayer 
for the desired boon, they beheld, with as much amazement as joy, a 
slight shaking in the marbles of a pillar (near the place where the altar 
of the Cross is now), which presently falling to the earth, exposed to 
the view of the rejoicing people the chest of bronze in which the body 
of the Evangelist was laid." — Corner. 

Behind the High Altar on the left is a small bronze door 
by J. Sansovino, with delicate reliefs. This leads to the 
Sacristy, adorned with 16th-century mosaics, and intarsiatura 
work by Antonio and Faolo da Mantova, and Fra Vincenzo da 
Verona, 1523. 

Beneath the Choir is an interesting O7// (open from 12 
to 2) supported by 50 pillars of Greek marble. 

From the south Transept is the entrance to the Treasury 
(shown on Mondays and Fridays from 12^ to 2), which con- 
tains a very interesting collection of Byzantine work. The 
Episcopal Throne is said to have been given by the 
Emperor Heraclius to the Patriarch of Grado. The 
reliquary of the True Cross was given in 11 20 to Santa 
Sophia of Constantinople by Irene, wife of the Emperor 
Alexius Comnenus. 

Having visited the church to form a general impression 
of its glories, the traveller should return with the single in- 
tention of studying the Mosaics and observing how com- 
pletely they are, as it were, an epitome and history of the 
Christian faith. 

' ' A large atrium or portico is attached to the sides of the church, a 
space which was especially reserved for unbaptized persons and new 


converts. It was thought right that, before their baptism, these persons 
should be led to contemplate the great facts of the Old Testament 
history ; the history of the Fall of Man, and of the lives of the Patriarchs 
up to the period of the Covenant by Moses ; the order of the subjects in 
this series being very nearly the same as in many Northern churches, 
but significantly closing with the Fall of the Manna, in order to mark 
to the catechumen the insufficiency of the Mosaic covenant for salvation, 
— 'Our fathers did eat Manna in the wilderness, and are dead,' — and 
to turn his thoughts to the true bread of which that Manna was a type. 
" Then, when after his baptism he was permitted to enter the church, 
over its main entrance he saw, on looking back, a mosaic of Christ en- 
throned, with the Virgin on one side and S. Mark on the other, in 
attitudes of adoration. Christ is represented as holding a book open 
upon his knee, on which is written : ' I am the door ; by me if any man 
enter in, he shall be saved.' On the red marble moulding which sur- 
rounds the mosaic is written : ' I am the gate of Life ; Let those who 
are mine enter by me.' Above, on the red marble fillet which forms 
the cornice of the west end of the church, is written, with reference to 
the figure of Christ below : ' Who He was, and from whom Eie came, 
and at what price He redeemed thee, and why He made thee, and gave 
thee all things, do thou consider.' 

" Now observe, this was not to be seen and read only by the cate- 
chumen when he entered the church ; every one who at any time 
entered, was supposed to look back and to read this writing ; their daily 
entrance into the church was thus made a daily memorial of their first 
entrance into the spiritual Church ; and we shall find that the rest of the 
book which was opened for them upon its walls, continually led them 
in the same manner to regard the visible temple as in every part a type 
of the invisible Church of God. 

"Therefore the mosaic of the first dome, which is over the head of 
the spectator as soon as he has entered by the great door (that door 
being the type of baptism), represents the effusion of the Holy Spirit, 
as the first consequence and seal of the entrance into the Church of God. 
In the centre of the cupola is the Dove, enthroned in the Greek manner, 
as the Lamb is enthroned, when the Divinity of the Second and Third 
person is to be insisted upon together with their peculiar offices. From 
the central symbol of the Holy Spirit twelve streams of fire descend 
upon the heads of the twelve apostles, who are represented standing 
around the dome ; and below them, between the windows which are 
pierced in its walls, are represented, by groups of two figures for each 
separate people, the various nations who heard the apostles speak, at 
Pentecost, every man in his own tongue. Finally, on the vaults, at the 


four angles which support the cupola, are pictured four angels, each 
bearing a tablet upon the end of a rod in his hand ; on each of the 
tablets of the three first angels is inscribed the word ' Holy ' ; on that 
of the fourth is written * Lord '; and the beginning of the hymn being 
thus put into the mouths of the four angels, the words of it are continued 
round the border of the dome, uniting praise to God for the gift of the 
Spirit, with welcome to the redeemed soul received into his Church ; 

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth : 
Heaven and earth are full of thy glory : 

Hosanna in the highest : 
Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. 

And observe in this writing that the convert is required to regard the 
outpouring of the Holy Spirit especially as a work of sanctification. It 
is the holiness of God manifested in the giving of His Spirit to sanctify 
those who had become His children, which the four angels celebrate in 
their ceaseless praise ; and it is on account of this holiness that the 
heaven and earth are said to be full of His glory. 

" After, then, hearing praise rendered to God by the angels for the 
salvation of the newly-entered soul, it was thought fittest that the wor- 
shippers should be led to contemplate, in the most comprehensive forms 
possible, the past evidence and the future hopes of Christianity, as 
summed up in the three facts without assurance of which all faith is vaiu ; 
namely, that Christ died, that He rose again, and that He ascended 
into heaven, there to prepare a place for His elect. On the vault be- 
tween the first and second cupolas are represented the crucifixion and 
resurrection of Christ, with the usual series of intermediate scenes — the 
treason of Judas, the judgment of Pilate, the crowning with thorns, the 
descent into Hades, the visit of the women to the sepulchre, and the 
apparition to Mary Magdalone. The second cupola itself, which is the 
central and principal one of the church, is entirely occupied by the sub- 
ject of the Ascension. At the highest point of it Christ is represented 
as rising into the blue heaven, borne up by four angels, and throned 
upon a rainbow, the tyj^e of reconciliation. Beneath him, the twelve 
apostles are seen upon the Mount of Olives, with the Madomia, and, in 
the midst of them, the .two men in white apparel who appeared at the 
moment of the Ascension, above whom, as uttered by them, are in- 
scribed the words, * Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into 
heaven ? This Christ, the Son of God, as He is taken from you, shall 
so come, the arbiter of the earth, trusted to do judgment and justice.' 

" Beneath the circle of the apostles, between the windows of the cupola, 
ar« represented the Christian virtues, as sequent upon the cnicifixioa of 


the flesh, and the spiritual ascension together with Christ. Beneath 
them, on the vaults which support the angles of the cupola, are placed 
the four evangelists, because on their evidence our assurance of the fact 
of the Ascension rests ; and finally beneath our feet, as symbols of the 
sweetness and fulness of the Gospel which they declared, are represented 
the four rivers of Paradise, Pison, Gihon, Tigris, and Euphrates. 

" The third cupola, that over the altar, represents the witness of the 
Old Testament to Christ ; showing Him enthroned in its centre, and 
surrounded by the patriarchs and prophets. But this dome was little 
seen by the people ; their contemplation was intended to be chiefly 
drawn to that of the centre of the church, and thus the mind of the wor- 
shippers was at once fixed on the main ground-work and hope of Christi- 
anity, — 'Christ is risen,' and 'Christ shall come.' If he had time to 
explore the minor lateral chapels and cupolas, he could find in them the 
whole series of New Testament history, the events of the Life of Christ, 
and the apostolic miracles in their order, and finally the scenery of the 
Book of Revelation ; but if he only entered, as often the common people 
do at this hour, snatching a few moments before beginning the labour 
of the day to offer up an ejaculatory prayer, and advanced but from the 
main entrance as far as the altar screen, all the splendour of the glitter- 
ing nave and variegated dome, if they smote upon his heart, as they 
might often, in strange contrast with his reed cabin among the shallows 
of the lagoon, smote upon it only that they might proclaim the two 
great messages, — 'Christ is risen,' and 'Christ shall come.' Daily, as 
the white cupolas rose like wreaths of sea-foam in the dawn, while 
the shadowy campanile and frowning palace were still withdrawn into 
the night, tlrey rose with the Easter Voice of Triumph, — ' Christ is 
risen ; ' and daily, as they looked down upon the tumult of the people, 
deepening and eddying in the wide square that opened from their feet 
to the sea, they uttered above them the sentence of warning, — 'Christ 
shall come.' 

' ' And this thought may dispose the reader to look with some change of 
temper upon the gorgeous building and wild blazonry of that shrine of 
S. Mark's. He now perceives that it was in the hearts of the old 
Venetian people far more than a place of worship. It was at once a 
type of the Redeemed Church of God, and a scroll for the written word 
of God. It was to be to them, both an image of the Bride, all glorious 
within, her clothing of wrought gold ; and the actual Table of the Law 
and the Testimony, written within and without. And whether honoured 
as the Church, or as the Bible, was it not fitting that neither the gold 
nor the crystal should be spared in the adornment of it ; that, as the 
symbol of the Bride, the building of the wall thereof should be of jasper, 


and the foundations of it garnished with all manner of precious stones ; 
and that, as the channel of the Word, the triumphant utterance of the 
Psalmist should be true of it, — * I have rejoiced in the way of thy testi- 
monies, as much as in all riches ' ?" — Ruskin, Stones of Venice. 

Travellers will find it wearisome, almost impossible, to 
examine all the mosaics of S. Mark's. But among the col- 
lateral series is one of special interest upon the soffit of the 
arch which overhangs the western triforium. 

" This series of compositions, from the early history of the Virgin, is 
derived from the Protevangelion or apocryphal gospel of S. Thomas, 
little known in the Latin Church. In her Marriage, she is represented 
as a little girl of twelve years old. In the Annunciation, she is in the 
act of drawing water at a fountain in front of the house, and the angel 
addresses her, floating in the air. In the compartment which follows, 
she receives from the hand of the High Priest, at the doors of the temple, 
a vase containing the purple with which it had fallen to her lot to dye 
the new veil of the sanctuary — six virgins, of the house of David, are in 
attendance on her. In the Salutation, she is represented as of full 
stature, being then, according to the Protevangelion, fourteen years old ; 
— to the right, in the same composition, Joseph — to whom she had been 
entrusted, not so much as a husband as a guardian of her virginity — vin- 
dicates himself by the ' water of trial ' from the suspicion of having ' pri- 
vately married ' her. In the seventh of the series, the angel appears to 
Joseph, revealing the mystery of her conception ; and in the eighth is 
represented the journey to Bethlehem before Our Saviour was bom. 
The series is continued on the adjacent wall, but by modem artists, the 
earlier compositions having perished. These eight mosaics have much 
merit, and are evidently a good deal later than those of the cupolas, the 
porch, Murano and Torcello." — Lord Lindsay's Christian Art. 

From S. Mark's the traveller must turn to the Palace by 
its side, of which till a few years ago it was only the chapel 
(Capella Ducale). Its court-yard is always open. Its 
chambers may be visited on week-days from 9 to 4. 

A Palazzo Ducale was first built in 820 by Doge Angelo 
Participazio, the first ruler of the Venetian colonists. It was 
a Byzantine Palace, and we know from contemporary writers 
that it was of great magnificence. Probably it somewhat 


resembled the " Fondaco dei Turchi." It received great 
additions during the 12th century, especially from the Doge 
Sebastiano Ziani, who " enlarged it in every direction." In 
the 14th century the great saloon was built, with many other 
important additions ; but the palace of Ziani still remained, 
though contrasting ill with the splendours of the later build- 
ing, and so strong was the feeling that it ought to be rebuilt, 
that, to save the vast expense, and fearing their own weak- 
ness, the Senate passed a decree forbidding any one to speak 
of rebuilding the old palace, under a penalty of a thousand 
ducats. But in 1419 a fire occurred which destroyed part 
of the old buildings ; a decree for rebuilding the palace 
was passed under Doge Mocenigo in 1422, and the work 
was carried out under his successor Doge Foscari. 

" The first hammer-stroke upon the old palace of Ziani was the first 
act of the period properly called the ' Renaissance. ' It was the knell of 
the architecture of Venice — and of Venice herself. 

" A year had not elapsed since the great Doge Mocenigo : his patriot- 
ism, always sincere, had been in this instance mistaken ; in his zeal for 
the honour of future Venice, he had forgotten what was due to the Venice 
of long ago. A thousand palaces might be built upon her burdened 
islands, but none of them could take the place, or recall the memory, of 
that which was first built upon her unfrequented shore. It fell ; and, as 
if it had been the talisman of her fortunes, the city never flourished 
again. " — Ruskin. 

In 1574 another great fire destroyed the upper rooms of 
the sea fa9ade and almost the whole of the interior of the 
palace, and it was debated in the Great Council whether the 
ruin should not be destroyed and an entirely new palace 
built ; but it was saved by the advice of an architect named 
Giovanni Rusconi, and the completion of the repairs necessi- 
tated at this time brought the edifice into its present form ; 
the architects employed were three members of the family 


of Bon or Buono, and to them the two principal colonnades 
are due. 

The outer walls of the palace rest upon the pillars of open 
colonnades, which have a more stumpy appearance than was 
intended, owing to the raising of the pavement in the piazza. 
They had however no bases, but were supported by a con- 
tinuous stylobate. The chief decorations of the palace were 
employed upon the capitals of these pillars, and it was felt 
that the peculiar prominence and importance given to its 
angles, rendered it necessary that they should be enriched 
and softened by sculpture. One of the corners of the 
palace joined the irregular buildings, connected with S. 
Mark's, and is not generally seen. There remained there- 
fore only three angles to be decorated. The first main 
sculpture may be called " the Fig-tree angle," and its sub- 
ject is "the Fall of Man." The second is "the Vine 
angle," and represents the " Drunkenness of Noah." The 
third sculpture is the " Judgment angle," and portrays the 
" Judgment of Solomon." 

" In both the subjects of the Fall and the Drunkenness, the tree forms 
the chiefly decorative portion of the sculpture. Its trunk, in both cases, 
is the true outer angle of the palace — boldly cut separate from the stone- 
work behind, and branching out above the figures so as to encompass 
each side of the angle, for several feet, with its deep foliage. Nothing 
can be more masterly or superb than the sweep of this foliage on the 
Fig-tree angle ; the broad leaves lapping round the budding fruit, and 
sheltering from sight, beneath their shadows, birds of the most graceful 
form and delicate plumage. The branches are, however, so strong, and 
the masses of stone hewn into leafage so large, that, notwithstanding 
the depths of the under cutting, the work remains nearly uninjured ; 
not so at the (opposite) Vine-angle, where the natural delicacy of the 
vine-leaf and tendril having tempted the sculptor to greater effort, he 
has passed the proper limits of his art, and cut the upper stems so deli- 
cately that half of them have been broken away by the casualties to 
which the situation of the sculpture necessarily exposes it." — Ruskin, 



The varied sculpture of the capitals of the thirty-six pillars 
of the colonnade is most interesting and often most beautiful. 

The Doge's Palace was not merely the residence of the 
chief of the state. It was, like our Palace of Westminster, 
the place where all the councils of state were held. 

" In the early times of Venice, the Doges possessed supreme power, 
unfettered by councils. But defects being perceived in this form of 
government, a Grand Council was established by consent of the people, 
consisting of four hundred and eighty men of high birth. 

"The grand council soon limited the Doge's prerogatives, and ap- 
pointed a Council of Forty to administer criminal justice. A Council of 
Sixty assisted the Doge in administering domestic and foreign affairs, 
and the famous Council of Ten held authority over the other councils, 
and privately investigated and punished all state crimes. 

" The Doge was bound to have no private correspondence with foreign 
states, to acquire no property beyond the Venetian dominions, to inter- 
fere in no judicial process, and to permit no citizen to use tokens of sub- 
jection in saluting him. 

" It was a serious matter to be Doge of Venice. Five of the first 
fifty Doges abdicated ; five were banished, with their eyes put out; nine 
were deposed ; five were massacred ; and two fell in battle."— .S/(7;j of 

The Palace is entered from the Piazzetta by the beau- 
tiful Porta delta Carta, which is inscribed with the name of 
its architect Bartolo7tieo Bon (1440 — 1443). The statues 
of Courage, Prudence, Hope, and Charity, with Justice 
throned above between the Lions, are also by the Bon or 
Buoni family. A beautiful sculpture which formerly existed 
here, representing Doge Francesco Foscari kneeling before 
the Lion of S. Mark, Avas destroyed by the mob in 1797. 

Opposite the gate is the famous Scala dei Giganti, built 
by Antonio Rizzi in 1485. It derives its name from the 
colossal statues of Mars and Neptune wrought by Jacopo 
Sansovino in 1554. At the head of the stairs the Doges 
were crowned, with the words : " Accipe coronam ducalem 

VOL. II. 3 


ducatus Venetorum." Here also a tradition, followed by- 
Byron, places the execution of Doge Marino Faliero. 

Marino Faliero, formerly Podesta of Treviso, was chosen Doge in 
1354, being then an old man. Of very choleric temper, resentment at 
the slight punishment inflicted by the Council of Forty upon Ser Michele 
Steno, who had written some scurrilous abuse of him upon his wooden 
chair, and the desire of punishing them, was his first incentive to seize 
the supreme power. A conspiracy was engaged in by which all the 
principal citizens, called together by the great bell on April 15, 1355, 
were to be cut to pieces, and Faliero proclaimed sovereign. It was 
exposed, through the warning given to his master by Beltram, a servant 
of one of those who were doomed. The Council of Ten was hastily 
summoned, the minor conspirators were first executed. Then the Doge, 
stripped of his insignia of office, was beheaded in the closed palace, and 
one of the council, taking the bloody sword to the space between the 
columns where public executions were usually held, brandished it 
saying — " The terrible doom hath fallen on the traitor." 

In the court are two handsome bronze well-heads (Pu- 
teali), one by Nicolh de Conti, 1536, the other by Alfonso 
Alborgetti, 1559. 

On the left of the loggia, reached by the Giant's Staircase, 
is the Scala d'Oro, so called from the richness of its decora- 
tions, built by Jacopo Sansovino, 1556-77. 

Beyond this, are the Tre Stanze degli Avvogadori, the 
lawyers who kept the famous Libro d'Oro, which was the 
peerage of the Venetian aristocracy. In one of the 
chambers of these rooms is a Pietk by Giov. Bellini, 1472. 

Ascending the next staircase to the top, we should next 
enter from the left a suite of rooms which are a perfect 
gallery of 16th-century art at Venice : many of the pictures 
have however been grievously repainted. 

"As the oldest Venetian painting has immortalised itself in the 
Church of S. Mark, so the latest, that of the followers of Titian, has 
perpetuated itself in the Ducal Palace." — Biirckhardt. 


Here we first become acquainted with Tintoret, whom 
we must know intimately before we leave Venice. There 
is probably no great master upon whose excellence so great 
a difference of opinion has existed. Before his vast pictures 
were illuminated and explained by the writings of Ruskin, 
there were few who saw more than their huge uncouthness, 
coarseness, and blackness. Now the deep meaning and 
careful intention with which they were painted has been re- 
vealed to us. Yet even now most of those who look upon 
them, and all those who look upon them hastily, will see 
only their dark side : 

" Along with much that was grand, there was in Tintoret a certain 
coarseness and barbarism of feeling ; even his artistic morality often 
wavered, so that he was capable of descending to the most unconscien- 
tious daubing. He fails in the higher sense of law, which the artist 
must impose on himself, especially in experiments and innovations. In 
his enormous works which in square feet of painted surface amount 
perhaps to ten times as much as the fruits of Titian's century of life, 
one begins to surmise that he undertook such things like a contractor, 
and executed them very much as an improvisor." — Burckhardt. 

We first enter the Sala della JBussoIa, which was the Ante- 
Chamber of the Council of Ten. In the time of the Re- 
public ' chiamar a la Bussola ' meant to drag a man before 
the state Inquisition. Here is the inner opening of the 
famous Bocca di Leone — the Lion's Mouth — through which 
secret denunciations were handed in. On the walls are 
pictures by Aliense, of the surrender of Bergamo and 
Brescia to the Venetians. 

Hence we enter the Sala del Capi, that is — of the three 
Presidents of the Council of Ten. The fine 15th-century 
chimney-piece is by Pietro da Salb; the ceiling by Paul 

The Atrio Quadrate, which leads to the Scala d'Oro, has 
a ceiling by Tintoret. 


The Sala delle Quattro Porte, built by Palladio in 1575, 
has a ceiUng designed by Palladio and Sansovino, and car- 
ried out by Vittoria. Its frescoes are by Tuitoret. The 
principal pictures are : — 

Wall of Entrance. — 

Giov. Contarini. The capture of Verona by the Venetians in 1439. 
Titian. Antonio Grimani at the feet of Faith. 
Contarini. Marino Grimani kneeling before the Virgin. 

Wall of Exit. — 

Carletto Cagliari. The ambassadors of Nuremberg. 

Andrea Vicentino. Henry III. of France arriving at the Lido, and 

his reception by the Doge Mocenigo. 
C. Caliari. The reception of the Persian ambassadors by Doge 

Cicogna, 1585. 

The door opposite that by which we entered leads to — 
The Anticollegio, containing : 

Tintoretto. Ariadne and Bacchus, 

Id. Minerva and Mars. 

P. Veronese. Tlie Rape of Europa. 

"La merveille de ce sanctuaire de I'art est I Enlhjement <! Europe. 
La belle jeune fille est assise, comme sur un trone d'argent, sur le dos 
du taureau divin, dont le poitrail de neige va s'enfoncer dans la mer 
bleue qui tache d'atteindre de ses lames amoureuses la plante des pieds 
qu'Europe releve par une enfantine peur de se mouiller, detail ingenieux 
des metamorphoses que le peintre n'a eu garde d'oublier. Les com- 
pagnes d'Europe, ne sachant pas qu'un dieu se cache sous la noble 
forme de ce bel animal si doux et si familier, s'empressent sur la rive et 
lui jettent des guirlandes de fleurs, sans se douter qu'Europe, ainsi 
enlevee, va nommer un continent et devenir la maitresse de Zeus aux 
noirs sourcils et a la chevelure ambroisienne. Quelles belles epaules 
blanches ! quelles nuques blondes aux nattes enroulees ! quels bras ronds 
et charmants ! quel sourire d'etemelle jeunesse dans cette toile merveil- 
leuse, oil Paul Veronese semble avoir dit son dernier mot ! Ciel, nuages, 
arbres, fleurs, terrains, mer, carnation, draperies, tout parait trempe 
dans la lumiere d'un Elysee inconnu." — Gautier. 

Leandro Bassano. The Return of Jacob to Canaan. 


Tintoretto. The Workshop of Vulcan. 

Id. Mercury with the Graces. 

P. Veronese. Venice throned (on the ceiling). 

The chimney-piece and a beautiful door are by Scamozzu 
Through this we reach ; 

The Sala di Collegio, in which foreign ambassadors were 

received by the Doge. 

" Nous retrouvons ici Tintoret et Paul Veronese, I'un roux et violent, 
I'autre azure et calme ; le premier fait pour les grands pans de muraille, 
le second pour les plafonds immenses." — Gantier. 

The best pictures, beginning at the further side on the 
right, are : 

C. CagUari. Doge Alvise Mocenigo adoring the Saviour. 

P. Veronese (over the throne). A votive allegorical picture representing 
the triumph of Venice after the victory of Lepanto, 15 71. Por- 
traits are introduced of Doge Sebastiano Venier, the hero of the 
Battle of Lepanto, and of Agostino Barbarigo, who perished there. 

Tintoretto. Doge Andrea Gritti adoring the Virgin and Child. 

"It was no doubt the passage of the Psalmist — Non nobis, Domine, 
non nobis, sed nomini tuo da gloriam, — which was so often repeated by 
the Venetians in the crusades, which suggested to the doges and naval 
commanders the idea of being represented in a kneeling attitude before 
the infant Christ or the holy Virgin, in the pictures destined to transmit 
their names, or the recollection of their exploits, to future generations. 
This mode of pious commemoration, which offers the touching contrast 
of a humble attitude with great dignity or glory, continued in use during 
the whole of the sixteenth century, in spite of the paganism so univer- 
sally triumphant elsewhere. After Giovanni Bellini and Catena, came 
the celebrated artists who adorned the second period of the Venetian 
school, and who also paid the tribute of their pencil to this interesting 
subject. It is on this account that pictures representing the Madonna 
seated, with a doge or a general kneeling before her, are so frequently 
to be met with in private collections, in the churches, and above all in 
the Ducal palace, in which these allegorical compositions, intended to 
express the close alliance between Religion and the State, seem to have 
been purposely multiplied." — Rio. 

The chimney-piece is by Girolatno Campag7ia, the ceiling 


designed by Antonio da Ponte and painted by Paul Veronese. 
The Sala del Senato or dei Pregadi contains (turning to 
the left from the main entrance) : — 

Palma Giovane, (Over door) The two Doges Priuli in prayer. 

y. Tintoretto. Doge Pietro Loredan praying to the Virgin. 

Marco Vecelli. The election of S. Lorenzo Giustiniani to the Patri- 
archate of Venice. 

Palma Giovane. The League of Cambray — Venice seated in de- 
fiance upon a lion. 

Id. Doge Pasquale Cicogna kneeling before the Saviour. 

Id. Doge Francesco Venier before Venice. 

J. Tintoretto, The Deposition of Christ, with saints and doges 

Id. (In the centre of the ceiling) Venice as Queen of the Sea. 

The Ante-Chapel contains : — 

Bonifazio. Christ expelling the Money-changers. 

Seb. Rizzi. Cartoons for the mosaics of the story of S. Mark on the 

y. Tintoretto. Saints. 

The Chapel, an oratory where the Doge heard mass, has 
an altar by Scatnozzi, and a statue of the Madonna by 

At the foot of the staircase leading dowTi from the Chapel 
to the Doges' private apartments is a fresco of S. Christopher, 
of great interest, as being the only known fresco of Titian. 
It is supposed to have been painted in honour of the arrival 
of the French (Sept. 13, 1523)* at the village of S. Cristo- 
foro near Milan. This was the political event of the year, and 
much to the satisfaction of Titian's patron. Doge Andrea 
Gritti, concerning whom Richard Pace wrote from Venice 
to Wolsey in May, 1523, — " He is maydde to be a perfect 
Frenchman and for thys consideration the French ambas- 

* " 15231 Sept. 13." Vennero (i Frances!) a San Cristoforo a un miglio pressa a 
Milano tra Porta Ticinese e Porta Romana." — Guicciardini, vol. III. 404. 


sador resident here made grete festes and triumphs when he 
was chosen." The satisfaction of the Doge and the poHtical 
allusion were better concealed than if S. Louis or S. Denis 
had been represented. This fresco is only shown by special 
permission of the Conservatorio. It is one of the grandest 
pictures in Venice — the head of S. Christopher most care- 
fully executed, and of the noblest Venetian type. The 
Child is a mundane infant, afraid of falling, and very 

Returning by the Sala del Senato and the Sala delle 
Quattro Porte, we reach the Sala del Consiglio del Died, 
containing, with other pictures : — 

Leandro Bassano. Pope Alexander III. meeting Doge Sebastiano 
Ziani on his return from his victory over Frederick Barbarossa. 

Aliense. The Visit of the Magi. 

Marco Vecelli, The Treaty between Charles V. and Clement VII. 

Paul Veronese. (On the ceiling) '* The old man with the young 

From the Anti-CoUegio a staircase leads to the famous 
Fiombi, the " Prisons under the leads," of which G. Casanova, 
who was imprisoned there in 1755, has left such a dramatic 

" But let us to the roof, 
And, when thou hast surveyed the sea, the land, 
Visit the narrow cells that cluster there. 
As in a place of tombs. There burning suns, 
Day after day, beat unrelentingly ; 
Turning all things to dust, and scorching up 
The brain, till Reason fled, and the wild yell 
And wilder laugh burst out on every side, 
Answering each other as in mockery ! 

Few Houses of the size were better filled ; 
Though many came and left it in an hour. 
' Most nights,' so said the good old Nicolo, 
(For three and thirty years his uncle kept 


The water-gate below, but seldom spoke, 

Though much was on his mind,) ' most nights arrived 

The prison-boat, that boat with many oars, 

And bore away as to the Lower World, 

Disburdening in the Canal Orfano, 

That drowning-place, where never net was thrown, 

Summer or Winter, death the penalty ; 

And where a secret, once deposited. 

Lay till the waters should give up their dead.' " — Rogers. 

The Ponte dei Sospiri across which prisoners were led to 
hear their condemnation (whence the name) leads from the 
palace to the prisons on the other side of the Rio Canal, 

" The Rio Fa9ade of the Ducal Palace (seen from the Bridge of 
Sighs) though very sparing in colour, is yet, as an example of finished 
masonry in a vast building, one of the finest things, not only in Venice, 
but in the world. It differs from every other work of the Byzantine 
Renaissance, in being on a very large scale ; and it still retains one pure 
Gothic character, which adds a little to its nobleness, that of perpetual 
variety. There is hardly one window of it, or one panel, that is like 
another ; and this continual change so increases its apparent size by con- 
fusing the eye, that though presenting no bold features, or strikmg 
masses of any kind, there are few things in Italy more impressive than 
the vision of it overhead, as the gondola glides from beneath the Bridge 
of Sighs."' — Stones of Venice, iii. 25. 

The most dreaded of the Prisons are the Pozzi. 

" I descended from the cheerful day into two ranges, one below an- 
other, of dismal, awful, horrible stone cells. They were quite dark. 
Each had a loop-hole in its massive wall, where, in the old time, every 
day, a torch was placed, to light the prisoners within, for half-an-hour. 
The captives, by the glimmering of these brief rays, had cut and 
scratched inscriptions in the blackened vaults. I saw them. For their 
labour with the rusty nail's point, had outlived their agony and them, 
through many generations. 

" One cell, I saw, in which no man remained for more than four and 
twenty hours ; being marked for dead before he entered it. Hard by, 
another, and a dismal one, whereto, at midnight, the confessor came — 
a monk brown-robed, and hooded — ghastly in the day, and free bright 
air, but in the midnight of that murky prison, Hope's extinguisher, 
and Murder's herald. I had my foot upon the spot, where, at the 


same dread hour, the shriven prisoner was strangled ; and struck my 
hand upon the guilty door — low-bro'.ved and stealthy — through which 
the lumpish sack was carried out into a boat and rowed away, and 
drowned where it was death to cast a net. 

"Around this dungeon stronghold, and above some parts of it, licking 
the rough walls without, and smearing them with damp and slime 
within : stuffing dank weeds and refuse into chinks and crevices, as if 
the very stones and bars had mouths to stop : furnishing a smooth road 
for the removal of the bodies of the secret victims of the state— a road 
so ready that it went along with them, and ran before them, like a cruel 
officer — flowed the water." — Dickens. 

Entered by the same staircase we have ascended, on the 
second floor, is the Library (open from 9 to 4) — founded 
in 13 1 2 by Petrarch, who bequeathed all his collection to 
Venice, where he had found a refuge during the plague. 
A very small portion, however, of this donation reached the 
destination he intended, as is abundantly proved by the 
number of his MSS, at the Vatican, Laurentian, Ambrosian, 
and other libraries. The person who really was the greatest 
amongst many benefactors (Grimani, Contarini, &c.) was 

The greatest treasure of the Library is the famous Gri- 
mani Breviary, perhaps the most beautiful illuminated work 
in existence. Its miniatures are exquisite works of Mem- 
ling, Gerard van der Meire, Antonello da Messina, Ales- 
sandro Vittoria, Ugo d'Anversa, and Livien de Gand. It is 
only shown on Wednesday at 3 p.m. 

From the Ante-chamber of the Library we enter the Sala 
del Maggior Consiglio, an immense room (i75|- feet long, 
84^ broad, 51^ high) originally decorated with frescoes by 
Guariento, which were destroyed by fire in 1577, and re- 
placed by pictures of the later Venetian school. 

" The greater allegorical pictures of the Ducal palace remain. Those 
of Paul Veronese are celebrated as compositions of the highest poetry. 


Their subjects are surely poetical ; but the works themselves are full of 
such heads and such gestures as were common at Venice, of such satins 
and velvets as were peculiarly studied in that portrait and pageant- 
painting school. Tintoret's Paradise is a multitudinous confusion of 
hurried figures, which none but that furious ' fulmine di pennello ' could 
assemble. Palma's Last Judgment is another immense composition, but 
more intelligibly detailed. These artists seem fond of introducing their 
friends into such pictures. In one part of this work you see Palma's 
mistress in heaven, in another the fickle lover sends her to hell. The 
paintings of the great council-chamber form a continued epic on the 
triumph which the republic pretends to claim over Frederic Barbarossa. 
In one picture the suppliant Pope is discovered by the Doge ; in another, 
the Venetians defeat the imperial galleys ; in a third, young Otho, their 
prisoner, bears to his father the demands of the conqueror ; in a fourth, 
the emperor is prostrate at S. Mark's. Most of this, I believe, is a 
romance ; but a romance more pardonable in a Venetian painting, 
than in some grave histories which admit it without any warrant." — 

The greatest of the Venetian masters were employed upon 
the decorations of the ceiling. 

" Of the three large ceiling pictures, those of Tinforetto and Palma 
Giovane are far surpassed by that of Paul Veronese : Venice crowned by 
Fame. First, the view from below, and the architectural perspective, 
are far more carefully treated ; also Paolo has confined the allegorical 
and historical part to the upper group, where his cloud-life is brought 
quite harmoniously into connection with the architecture in lines and 
colour ; on the lower balustrade one sees only beautiful women ; 
farther below, riders keeping watch, and a populace, spectators of the 
heavenly ceremony ; most wisely, two great pieces of sky are left free, 
a breathing space which Tintoretto never allows his beholder; and, in 
fine, Paolo has given himself up to the full enjoyment of his own cheerful 
sense of beauty, the leeling of which inevitably affects the beholder." — 

The whole of the entrance wall is occupied by one vast 
subject : 

Tintoretto. Paradise. 

"At first this Paradise of Tintoret is so strange that no wonder the 
lovely world outside, the beautiful court-yard, the flying birds, and 
drifting Venetians, seem more like heaven to those who are basking in 
their sweetness. But it is well worth while, by degrees, with some 


pain and self-denial, to climb in spirit to that strange crowded place 
towards which old Tintoret's mighty soul was bent. Is it the heaven 
towards which his great heart yearned? He has painted surprise and 
rapture in the face of a soul just born into this vast circling vortex: with 
its sudden pools and gleams of peace. Mary Mother above is turning 
to her Son, with outstretched arms, and pointing to the crowds with 
tender motherhood. In the great eventful turmoil a man sits absorbed 
in a book, reading unmoved. Angels, with noble wings, take stately 
flights, cross and re-cross the darkened canvas. A far away procession 

passes in radiance " — Miss Thackeray. 

'* In the Paradise of Tintoret, the Angel is seen in the distance 
driving Adarn and Eve out of the Garden. Not, for Tintoret, the 
leading to the gate with consolation or counsel ; his strange ardour of 
conception is seen here as everywhere. Full speed they fly, the angel 
and the human creatures ; the angel wrapt in an orb of light floats on, 
stooped forward in his fierce flight, and does not touch the ground ; the 
chastised creatures rush before him in abandoned terror. All this might 
have been invented by another, though in other hands it would assuredly 
have been offensive ; but one circumstance which completes the story 
could have been thought of by none but Tintoret. The angel casts a 
shadffio before him towards Adam and Eve." — Ruskin's Modern 

The walls are surmounted by a noble series of pictures 
illustrating the history of Venice, and though greatly black- 
ened and often injured by the coarsest re-painting, they 
may be studied with profit. They are, beginnhig from the 
left :— 

1. Carlo and Gahriele Cagliari. Pope Alexander III. taking refuge 

from Frederic II. 1 177, in the convent of La Carita, where he 
was found by Doge Ziani. 

2. Id. The Embassy from the Pope and the Republic to Frederic 

II. at Pavia. 

3. (Above the window) leandro Bassano. The Doge receiving a 

lighted taper from the Pope. 

4. yacopo Tintoretto. The ambassadors implore Frederic at Pavia to 

restore peace to the Church. He replies that unless the Vene- 
tians deliver up the Pope he "will plant his eagles on the por- 
tals of S. Mark." 

5. Francesco Bassano. The Pope presents the Doge with a con- 

secrated sword. 


6. (Above the window) Fiammingo. The Doge receives the parting 

benediction of the Pope. 
7- Dom. Tintoretto. The legendary battle of Salvore in which the 

imperialists are said to have been totally defeated by the 

Venetians, and Otho, son of Frederic II., to have been taken 


8. (Over a door) Andrea Vicentino. Otho is presented by Doge 

Ziani to the Pope. 

9. Palma Giovane. Otho is released by the Pope. 

10. F. Zucchero. The Emperor makes his submission to the Pope. 

1 1 . (Over a door) Girola?no Gainberato. The Doge lands at Ancona 

with the Pope and the Emperor, after the peace. 

12. Giulio dal Moi-o. The Pope (Alexander III.) presents conse- 

crated banners to Doge Ziani in the church of S. J. Lateran. 

To continue the pictures chronologically we must now 
return to the Paradise, when we shall find on the right : 

13. Le Clerc. The Alliance concluded in S. Mark's, 1201, between 

the Venetians and the Crusaders. 

14. Andrea Vicentino. The Siege of Zara (1202), under Doge Andrea 

Dandolo and the Crusaders. 

15. Domenico T/'w/orf//;?, (over the window). The surrender of Zara. 

16. Andrea Vicentino. Alexius Comnenus implores the help of the 

Venetians in behalf of his father Isaac. 

17. Palma Giovane. The Venetians and French, led by the blind 

Doge Dandolo, take Constantinople in 1203. 

18. Domenico Tintoretto. The Crusaders and Venetians take Con- 

stantinople for the second time (when the bronze horses were 
carried oflQ, in 1204. 

19. And. Vicentino. Baldwin of Flanders elected Emperor of the 

East by the Crusaders in Santa Sophia. 

20. Aliense. The Coronation of Baldwin of Flanders by Enrico 


21. Paul Veronese. The return of Doge Contarini after his victojy 

over the Genoese at Chioggia. 

Above these pictures are the portraits of 72 Doges, be- 
ginning from A.D. 809. The space which should have the 
portrait of Marino Faliero is covered with black, and has the 


inscription : " Hie est locus Marini Falethri decapitati pro 

From this Hall we enter the Sala de Scruthiio, occupying 
the rest of the fa9ade towards the Piazzetta. Here the 41 
nobles were elected, by whom the Doge was afterwards 
chosen. Opposite the entrance is a representation of the 
Triumphal Arch erected by the Senate in 1694 to Doge 
Francesco Morosini, suniamed Peloponnesiaco, after his con- 
quest of the Morea. The walls are covered with historical 
pictures. On the entrance wall is a Last Judgment, by 
Palma Giovane. 

Opposite the entrance of the Library is that of the Archao- 
logical Museum. A passage, lined with indifferent sculpture, 
leads to the Stanza degli Scarlatti, once the bedroom of the 
Doge, with a grand chimney-piece erected for Doge Agostino 
Barbarigo 1480 — 1501. The best piece of sculpture here is, 

102. Cupid. 

The Sala dello Scudo is the room where the shield of arms 
of a Doge was placed on his election. The walls are hung 
with maps of the discoveries made by Venetian navigators. 
Here is the map of the world — Mappamondo — of Fra Mauro, 


The Stanza degli Scudieri, now called Sala de' Relievi, 
is filled with poor sculpture. 

The Sala d Udienza del Doge (which also opens from the 
Sala dello Scudo) is now occupied by a collection of ancient 



HAVING visited the group of buildings around S. Mark's 
the traveller cannot do better than engage a gondolier 
at the Piazzetta and bid him row leisurely up and down the 
Grand Canal, which will give him a general impression of the 
palaces, to be more minutely studied afterwards. The 
buildings also of the Grand Canal, unlike the rest of Venice, 
can in most cases only be seen from the water. Those who 
visit its palaces on foot must make constant use of the tra- 
ghetti, which, shaded by their little pergolas, " send out the 
perfume of vine flowers along the canal." Here the public 
gondolas cross as ferry boats, and here, in the shade, the 
most picturesque groups may usually be seen, of facchini 
gossiping with the gondoliers, or market-women from Mestre 
waiting with their baskets overflowing with fruits and green- 
ery. Here we may see that the type of the lagunes, 
especially the masculine type, is now that which Gozzi de- 
scribes as " bianco, biondo, e grassotto," rather than the dark, 
bronzed, and grave figures of Giorgione. Gravity certainly 
is washed out of the Venetian character, and, in the places 
where dry land affords a meeting ground, nothing can exceed 
the energy, excitement, and vivacity displayed — almost like 


that of Naples, and even where a shrine is marked by its 
red lamp on some little landing place, you seldom see one 
silent figure kneeling, but two or three votaries pressing for- 
ward to the Madonna at once, as if they had a secret to 
confide in her. It is an ever-changing diorama. 

" You will see Venice — glide as though in dreams 

Midmost a hollowed opal : for her sky, 
Mirrored upon the ocean pavement, seems 

At dawn and eve to build in vacancy 

A wondrous bubble-dome of wizardry, 
Suspended where the light, all ways alike 
Circumfluent, upon her sphere may strike. 

"There Titian, Tintoret and Giambellin, 

And that strong master of a myriad hues. 
The Veronese, like flowers with odours keen. 

Shall smite your brain with splendours : they confuse 
The soul that wandering in their world must lose 
Count of our littleness, and cry that then 
The gods we dream of walked the earth like men. " 

y. A. Symonds. 

As S. Maria Salute is the most prominent object, we will 
begin by noting the principal objects on the left, marking 
those on the right as we return. 

Passing the Dogana of 1676, we may land at the grand 
marble steps of the Church of Santa Maria della Salute. 

" Santa Maria della Salute was built by Baldassare Longhena in 1632, 
according to a decree of the Senate, as a votive offering to the Virgin 
for having stayed the plague which devastated the city in 1630. Con- 
sidering the age in which it was erected, it is singularly pure, and it is 
well adapted to its site, showing its principal fa9ade to the Grand Canal, 
while its two domes and two bell-towers group most pleasingly in every 
point of view from which Venice can be entered on that side . Extern- 
ally it is open to the criticism of being rather too overloaded with 
decoration ; but there is very little of even this that is unmeaning, or 
put there merely for the sake of ornament. Internally the great dome 


is only 65 ft. in diameter, but it is surrounded by an aisle, or rather by 
eight side-chapels opening into it through the eight great pier arches ; 
making the whole floor of this, which is practically the nave of the 
church, 107 ft. in diameter." — Fergusson. 

The pillars of this church were brought from the amphi- 
theatre of Pola. Before the high-altar is a grand bronze 
candelabrum by Andrea Bresciano. The ceiling of the choir 
is by Titian; a picture of Venice imploring deliverance from 
pestilence, by Fiammingo. 

The Ante-Sacristy contains, amongst other pictures, 

* Titian. S. Mark, a most grand figure, with the shadow of a cloud 
thrown across him. On the left are SS. Cosmo and Damian ; 
on the right, S. Roch, and S. Sebastian with an arrow lying at 
his feet. 

*Marco Basaiti. S. Sebastian, a grand figure, in a beautiful land- 
scape of Umbrian scenery. 
Opposite, these is a Pieta, a relief of the 15th century, by Antonio 

The Sacristy contains : 

Entrance Wall. Girolaino da Treviso. S. Roch with SS. Sebastian 

and Jerome. 
Sassoferrato. Two beautiful Madonnas. 
Salviati. The Last Sujiper, and Saul and David. 
Right. Tintorct. Marriage of Cana. 

" An immense picture, some twenty-five feet long by fifteen high, and 
said by Lazari to be one of the few which Tintoret signed with his name. 
I am not surprised at his having done so in this case. Evidently the 
work has been a favourite with him, and he has taken as much pains as 
it was even necessary for his colossal strength to take with anything. 
The subject is not one which admits of much singularity or energy in 
composition. It has always been a favourite one with Veronese, be- 
cause it gave dramatic interest to figures in gay costumes and of cheerful 
countenances ; but one is surprised to find Tintoret, whose tone of mind 
was always grave, and who did not like to make a picture out of bro- 
cades and diadems, throwing his whole strength into the conception of 
a marriage feast ; but so it is, and there are assuredly no female heads 
in any of his pictures in Venice elaborated so far as those which here 


form the central light. Neither is it often that the works of this mighty 
master conform themselves to any of the rules acted upon by ordinary 
painters ; but in this instance the popular laws have been observed, and 
an academy student would be delighted to see with what severity the 
principal light is arranged in a central mass, which is divided and made 
more brilliant by a vigorous piece of shadow thrust into the midst of it, 
and which dies away in lesser fragments and sparkling towards the ex- 
tremities of the picture. This mass of light is as interesting by its com- 
position as by its intensity. The cicerone who escorts the stranger 
round the sacristy in the course of five minutes, which allows him some 
forty seconds for the contemplation of a picture which the study of six 
months would not entirely fathom, directs his attention very carefully to 
the 'beir effetto di prospettivo, ' the whole merit of the picture being, in 
the eyes of the intelligent public, that there is a long table in it, one end 
of which looks farther off than the other ; but there is more in the ' bell' 
effetto di prospettivo ' than the observance of the common law of optics. 
The table is set in a spacious chamber, of which the windows at the end 
let in the light from the horizon, and those in the side wall the intense 
blue of an eastern sky. The spectator looks all along the table, at the 
farther end of which are seated Christ and the Madonna, the marriage 
guests on each side of it, — on one side men, on the other women ; the 
men are set with their backs to the light, which, passing over their 
heads and glancing slightly on the table-cloth, falls in full length along 
the line of young Venetian women, who thus fill the whole centre of the 
picture with one broad sunbeam, made up of fair faces and golden hair.* 
Close to the spectator a woman has risen in amazement, and stretches 
across the table to show the wine in her cup to those opposite ; her dark 
red dress intercepts and enhances the mass of gathered light. It is rather 
curious, considering the subject of the picture, that one cannot dis- 
tinguish either the bride or bridegroom ; but the fouith figure from the 
Madonna in the line of women, who wears a white head-dress of lace 
and rich chains of pearls in her hair, may well be accepted for the 
former, and I think that between her and the woman on the Madonna's 
left hand the unity of the line of women is intercepted by a male figure. 
The tone of the whole picture is sober and majestic in the highest 
degree ; the dresses are all broad masses of colour, and the only parts 
of the picture which lay claim to the expression of wealth or splendour 
are the head-dresses of the women. In this respect the conception of 
the scene differs widely from that of Veronese, and approaches more 

• To give the golden tint thanded down in Venetian pictures) to their hair, the city 
beauties used to steep their hair in a special preparation and then dry it in the sun. 
For this purpose they sat for hours in their balconies, with broad-brimmed hats, 
without crowns, shading their complexions, and their hair falling over them. 
VOL. II. 4 


nearly to the probable truth. Still the marriage is not an unimportant 
one ; an immense crowd, filling the background, forming superbly rich 
mosaic of colour against the distant sky. Taken as a whole, the picture 
is perhaps the most perfect example which human art has produced of 
the utmost possible force and sharpness of shadow united with richness 
of local colour. This picture unites colour as rich as Titian's with light 
and shade as forcible as Rembrandt's, and far more decisive. " — RusMn, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 

Palma Giovane. Samson and Jonas. 

The altar piece of the Virgin and Child is by Padovanino. 

The Little Sacristy contains the tomb of Antonio Correr, 
and above it a 14th-century relief of the Coronation of the 

The Cloister should not be left unvisited. 

" It might have been thought that the ashes of the great Doge Fran- 
cesco Dandolo were honourable enough to have been permitted to rest 
undisturbed in the chapter-house of the Frari, where they were first laid. 
But, as if there was not room enough, nor waste houses enough in the 
whole desolate city, to receive a few convent papers, the monks, want- 
ing an 'archivio,' have separated the tomb into three pieces; the 
canopy, a simple arch sustained on brackets, still remains on the blank 
walls of the desecrated chamber ; the sarcophagus has been transported 
to a kind of museum of antiquities, established in what was once the 
cloister of Santa Maria della Salute ; and the painting which filled the 
lunette behind it is hung far out of sight, at one end of the sacristy of 
the same church. The sarcophagus is completely charged with bas- 
reliefs ; at its two extremities are the types of S. Mark and S. John ; in 
front, a noble sculpture of the death of the Virgin ; at the angles, angels 
holding vases. The whole space is occupied by the sculpture ; there 
are no spiral shafts or pannelled divisions ; only a basic plinth below, 
and crowning plinth above, the sculpture being raised from a deep 
concave field between the two, but, in order to give piquancy and 
picturesqueness to the mass of figures, two small trees are introduced at 
the head and foot of the Madonna's couch, an oak and a stone pine." — 
Rtiskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 

Close to S. Maria, on the right, is the rich Gothic Church 
of S. Gregorio, now a wine magazine. 

Beyond S. Maria, as the canal opens, we see a vista of 


" The charm which Venice still possesses, and which for the last fifty 
years has made it the favourite haunt of all the painters of picturesque 
subjects, is owing to the effect of the Gothic palaces, mingled with those 
of the Renaissance. 

"The effect is produced in two different ways. The Renaissance 
palaces are not more picturesque in themselves than the club-houses of 
Pall Mall ; but they become delightful by the contrast of their severity 
and refinement with the rich and rude confusion of the sea-life beneath 
them, and of their white and solid masonry with the green waves. Re- 
move from beneath them the orange sails of the fishing-boats, the black 
gliding of the gondolas, the cumbered decks and rough crews of the 
barges of traffic, and the fretfulness of the green water along their founda- 
tions, and the Renaissance palaces possess no more interest than those of 
London or Paris. But the Gothic palaces are picturesque in themselves, 
and wield over us an independent power. Sea and sky, and every other 
accessory might be taken away from them, and still they would be 
beautiful and strange." — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, ii. ch. vii. 

' While other Italian cities have each some ten or twelve prominent 
structures on which their claim to architectural fame is based, Venice 
numbers her specimens by hundreds ; and the residence of the simple 
citizen is often as artistic as the palace of the proudest noble. No other 
city possesses such a school of Architectural Art as applied to domestic 
purposes ; and if we must look for types from which to originate a style 
suitable to our modem wants, it is among the Venetian examples of the 
early part of the 1 6th century that we shall probably find what is best 
suited to our purposes." — Fergusson. 

Passing the beautiful Lombard front of the Palazzo Dario, 
of 1450, inlaid with circular disks of precious coloured 
marbles, we reach the mosaic manufactory of Salviati, then 
the Lombard Palazzo Manzoni of c. 1465. Here, passing 
under the iron bridge, we arrive at the steps of the ancient 
convent of La Carita, where Alexander III. took refuge. 
The conventual buildings are now occupied by — 

The Academy, (open daily, free ; on week days from 
II to 3 ; on Sundays, from 11 to 2).* 

• The Academy may be reached on foot in lo minutes from the Piazza S. Marco, 
by S. Moise, S. Maria Zobenigo, and the Campo S. Stefano, on the left of which is 
the entrance to the bridge, — toll 2 centimes. The bridge itself is almost the only 
modem thing in Venice and utterly disgraceful to it. 


The gallery is reached by a corridor lined with marble. 
A passage leads to the — 

1st Hall. Sala degli Antichi Dipinti. In this and in 
the other rooms only the most remarkable paintings are 
noticed ; those of the greatest importance are indicated by 
an asterisk. 

1. BartolomeoVrvaHni, \\(>^ Madonna and four saints. One of the 

earliest works of the artist, painted on a gold ground. 

2. Michele Mattei (or Lambertini), Bolognese. The Virgin and saints. 

Above, the Crucifixion. Below, the Story of S. Helena. 
4. Marco Basaiti. S. James. 
•5. Lorenzo Veneziano and Bissolo Francesco. The Annunciation, 
with saints. 
8. Giovanni and Antonio da Murano, 1440. The Coronation of the 
23. Giovanni d'Alemagna and Antonio da Murano, 1496. The Ma- 
donna enthroned, with the Doctors of the Church. 

The 2nd Hall, Sala deW Assunta, has a ceiling by 
Chernbino Ottali, with a painting by P. Veronese in the 
centre : it contains : 

♦24. Titian. The Assumption. Tlie most important picture of the 

master, brought from the Church of the Frari. 

"The Madonna is a powerful figure, borne rapidly upwards as if 

divinely impelled. Head, figure, attitude, drapery, and colour are all 

beautiful. Fascinating groups of infant angels surround her, beneath 

stand the Apostles, looking up with solemn gestures." — Kugler. 

25. Jacopo Tintoretto. Adam and Eve. A splendid example of the 

27. Bonifazio Veneziano. S. Mark. 

31. Marco Basaiti, 15 10. The calling of the sons of Zebedee. 

"In this picture the naive simplicity of the attitudes, the expression 
of humility in the countenances of the two brothers, and their strictly 
apostolical character, cannot fail to excite our admiration." — Rio. 

32. Jacopo Tintoretto. The Virgin and Child, with three senators. 

33. Titian. The Burial of Christ, completed by Palma Vecchio. 
"Les Beaux- Arts renferment le dernier tableau de Titien, tresor in- 
estimable ! Les annees, si pesantes pour tous, glisserent sans appuyer 


sur ce patriarche de la peinture, qui traversa tout un siecle et que la 
peste surprit a quatre-vingt-dix-neuf ans travaillant encore. 

"Ce tableau, grave et melancholique d'aspect, dont le sujet funebre 
semble un pressentiment, represente un Christ depose de la Croix ; le 
ciel est sombre, un jour livide eclaire le cadavre pieusement soutenu par 
Joseph d'Arimathie et sainte Marie-Madeleine. Tous deux sont tristes, 
sombres, et paraissent, a leur morne attitude, desesperer de la resur- 
rection de leur maitre. On voit qu'ils se demandent avec une anxiete 
secrete si ce corps, oint de baumes, qu'ils vont confier au sepulchre, en 
pourra jamais sortir ; en effet, jamais Titien n'a fait de cadavre si mort. 
Sous cette peau verte et dans ces veines bleuatres il n'y a plus une 
goutte de sang, la pourpre de la vie s'en est retiree pour toujours. Pour 
la premiere fois, le grand Venetien a ete abandonne par son antique et 
inalterable serenite. L'ombre de la mort prochaine semble lutter avec 
la lumiere du peintre qui eut toujours le soleil sur sa palette, et enve- 
loppe le tableau d'un froid crepuscule. La main de I'artiste se gla9a 
avant d'avoir acheve sa tache, comme le temoigne I'inscription en lettres 
noires tracee dans le coin de la toile : Quod Tizianus inchoatum reliquit 
Palma reverenter absolvit Deoque dicavit opus. ' L'ceuvre que Titien 
laissa inachevee, Palma I'acheva respectueusement et I'offrit a Dieu.' 
Cette noble, touchante, et religieuse inscription fait de ce tableau un 
monument. Certes, Palma, grand peintre lui-meme, ne dut approcher 
qu'avec tremblement de I'oeuvre du maitre, et son pinceau, quelque 
habile qu'il fut, hesita et vacilla sans doute plus d'une fois en se posant 
sur les touches du Titien. " — Theophile Gautier. 

35. Titian. The Visitation. 

36. Jacopo Tintoretto. The Resurrection, and three Senators. 
•37. Giorgione. The famous legend of S. Mark and the Fisherman. 

" On the 25th of February, 1340, there fell out a wonderful thing in 
this land ; for during three days the waters rose continually, and in the 
night there was fearful rain and tempest, such as had never been heard 
of. So great was the storm that the waters rose three cubits higher 
than had ever been known in Venice ; and an old fisherman being in 
his little boat in the canal of St. Mark, reached with difficulty the Riva 
di San Marco, and there he fastened his boat, and waited the ceasing 
of the storm. And it is related that, at the time this storm was at the 
highest, there came an unknown man, and besought him that he would 
row him over to San Giorgio Maggiore, promising to pay him well ; 
and the fisherman replied, ' How is it possible to go to San Giorgio ? 
we shall sink by the way ! ' but the man only besought him the more 
that he should set forth. So, seeing that it was the will of God, he 


arose and rowed over to San Giorgio Maggiore; and the man landed 
there, and desired the boatman to wait. In a short time he re- 
turned with a young man ; and they said, ' Now row towards San Niccol^ 
di Lido. ' And the fisherman said, ' How can one possibly go so far 
with one oar ? ' and they said, * Row boldly, for it shall be possible 
with thee, and thou shalt be well paid.' And he went ; and it appear- 
ed to him as if the waters were smooth. Being arrived at San Niccol6 
di Lido, the two men landed, and returned with a third, and having 
entered into the boat, they commanded the fisherman that he should 
row beyond the two castles. And the tempest raged continually. Being 
come to the open sea, they beheld approaching, with such terrific speed 
that it appeared to fly over the waters, an enormous galley full of 
demons (as it is written in the Chronicles, and Marco Sabellino also 
makes mention of this miracle) : the said bark approached the castles 
to overwhelm Venice, and to destroy it utterly ; anon the sea, which 
had hitherto been tumultuous, became calm ; and these three men, 
having made the sign of the cross, exorcised the demons, and com- 
manded them to depart, and immediately the galley or the ship vanish- 
ed. Then these three men commanded the fisherman to land them, 
the one at San Niccolo di Lido, the other at San Giorgio Maggiore, 
and the third at San Marco. And when he had landed the third, the 
fisherman, notwithstanding the miracle he had witnessed, desired that he 
■would pay him, and he replied, ' Thou art right ; go now to the Doge and 
to the Procuratore of St. Mark, and tell them what thou hast seen, for 
Venice would have been overwhelmed had it not been for us three. I am 
St. Mark the evangelist, the protector of this city ; the other is the brave 
knight St. George, and he whom thou didst take up at the Lido is the 
holy bishop St. Nicholas. Say to the Doge and to the Procuratore 
that they are to pay you, and tell them likewise that this tempest arose 
because of a certain schoolmaster dwelling at San Felice, who did sell 
his soul to the devil, and afterwards hanged himself.' And the fisher- 
man replied, ' If I should tell them this, they would not believe me ! ' 
Then St. Mark took off a ring which was worth five ducats ; and he 
said, * Show them this, and tell them when they look in the sanc- 
-tuary they will not find it,' and thereupon he disappeared. The next 
morning, the said fisherman presented himself before the Doge, and 
related all he had seen the night before, and shewed him the ring for a 
sign. And the Procuratore having sent for the ring, and sought it in 
the usual place, found it not ; by reason of which miracle the fisherman 
was paid, and a solemn procession was ordained, giving thanks to God, 
and to the relics of the three holy saints who rest in our land, and who 
delivered us from this great danger. The ring was given to Signor 


Marco Loredano and to Signer Andrea Dandolo the procuratore, who 
placed it in the sanctuary ; and, moreover, a perpetual provision was 
made for the aged fisherman above mentioned." — Jamesoti s Sacred Art. 

*38. Giovanni Bellini. The Virgin and six saints. A most beautiful 

*45* JcLcopo Tintoretto. S. Mark delivering a slave condemned to 


' ' Ce tableau a pour sujet le saint patron de Venise venant ^ I'aide d'un 
pauvre esclave qu'un maitre barbare faisait tourmenter et gehenner a 
cause de I'obstinee devotion que ce pauvre diable avait a ce saint. L' es- 
clave est etendu a terre sur une croix entour^e de bourreaux affaires, qui 
font de vains efforts pour I'attacher au bois infame. Les clous rebrous- 
sent, les maillets se rompent, les haches volent en eclats ; plus miseri- 
cordieux que les hommes, les instruments de supplice s'emoussent aux 
mains des tortionnaires : les curieux se regardent et chuchotent etonnes, 
le juge se penche du haut du tribunal pour voir pourquoi Ton n' execute 
pas ses ordres, tandis que S. Marc, dans un des raccourcis les plus 
violemment strapasses que la peinture ait jamais risques, pique une tete 
du ciel et fait un plongeon sur la terre, sans nuages, sans ailes, sans 
cherubims, sans aucun des moyens aerostatiques employes ordinairement 
dans les tableaux de saintete, et vient delivrer celui qui a eu foi en lui. 
Cette figure vigoureuse, athletiquement muselee, de proportion colossale, 
fendant I'air comme le rocher lance par une catapulte, produit I'effet le 
plus singulier. Le dessin a une telle puissance de jet, que le saint 
massif se soutient a I'oeil et ne tombe pas ; c'est un vrai tour de force." 
— T. Gautier. 

47. Alessandro Varotari (H Padovanino). The Wedding at Cana. 

50. Bonifazio. The Woman taken in Adultery. 

51. ^ Tintoretto. Portrait of Doge Alvise Mocenigo. 

54. Paul Veronese. The Madonna in glory, with S. Dominic be- 
neath distributing garlands of roses. 
*55. Bonifazia. The Judgment of Solomon — who is represented as 

very young and beautiful. 
*57. Bonifazio. The Adoration of the Magi. 
63. J. Tintoretto. The Death of Abel. 

The ■^rd Hall, with a ceiling painted by Tintoretto, con- 
tains : — 

65. J. Tintoretto. Portrait of Pietro Marcello. 


66. Giuseppe Porta [Salviatt) . The Baptism of Christ. 
71. Giovanni Bellini. Madonna and Child. 

•(Unnumbered). Cima da Conegliano. The Angel and Tobias. 
*{Id.). Giovanni Bellini. The Supper at Emmaus. 
*74. Cima da Conegliano. S. John Baptist with SS. Peter, Mark, 
Jerome, and Paul. 

The 4fh Hall (open Tuesdays and Saturdays from 1 2 to 
3) contains original sketches by the great masters. 

The ^th Z^// contains a collection presented in 1843 ^^ 
Count Girolamo Coutarini. It includes : — 

Left Wall— 

84. Palma Vecchio. Christ and the widow of Nain. 
•94. Giovanni Bellini. Madonna and Child. A most exquisitely 

beautiful picture. 
96. Marco Marziale. The Supper at Emmaus. 
no. Fordenone. Madonna and Child, with SS. Catherine and J. 

117. Francesco Bissolo, The Dead Christ, carried by angels. 

End Wall.— 

124. Vituenzo Catena. The Virgin and Child, with SS. John Baptist 
and Jerome. 
*I25. Cima da Conegliano. Virgin and Child, with SS. John and 

132. Bocaccino da Cremona. The Virgin and Child, with SS. Peter, 

John Baptist, Catherine, and Barbara. 

133. Folidoro Veneziano. Virgin and Child, with S. J. Baptist and 

an angel. 

Jitgki Wall.— 

138. Morone. Female Portrait. 

151. ^ Callot. "The Market of Impruneta " (still held near 

Florence), a curious picture, with innumerable figures. 
155. Schiavone. The Circumcision. 

Entrance Wall. — 

168. Tintoretto. A Portrait. 

186. Francesco Bissolo. Madonna and Child. 


In the dth Hall we may notice : — 
234 — 238. Giovanni Bellini. Miniature allegorical pictures. 

The ^th Hall contains curious old furniture. 
In the ?>th Hall we may observe : — 

254. Lorenzo di Credi. Holy Family and S. John. 
263. Canaletto. A good specimen of a bad master. 
268. Holbein. A portrait. 
273. Andrea Mantegna. S. George. 

In the ^th Hall are : — 

295. y. Tintoretto. Portrait of Antonio Capello. 

310. M. A. Caravaggio. A Portrait. 

313. Giovanni Bellini. Madonna and Child. 

315. Engelbrechten. The Crucifixion. 

318. G. Schiavone. Madonna and Child. 
*3I9. Titian. Jacopo Lorenzo. A magnificent portrait. 
•326. Bonifazio. Madonna and saints — with glowing colour and 
beautiful background. 

337. Francesco Bissolo. Madonna and Child, with saints. 

348. Bernardo Darentino. The Nativity. 

349. Antonello da Messina. The Madonna. 

350. Titian. Portrait of Priamo da Lezze. 
352. Tomaso da Modena. S. Catherine. 

The \oth Hall contains : — 

365. A. Schiavone. The Virgin and Child, with SS. John, Catherine, 

Jerome, and James. 
•368. Bonifazio. Adoration of the Magi. 
372. Giovanni Bellini. The Virgin and sleeping Child. 

In the wth Hall are : — 

385. Vincemo Catena. The Virgin and Child, with SS. Francis and 


386. Polidoro Veneziano. Virgin and Child, with two saints and the 

388. Giovanni da Udine. Christ amongst the Doctors. 

" Christ is represented seated on a throne, and disputing with the 
Jewish doctors, who are eagerly arguing or searching their books. In 


front of the composition stand St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, 
and St. Gregory, who, with looks fixed on the youthful Saviour, appear 
to be reverentially listening to, and recording, his words. This is a 
wholly poetical and ideal treatment of a familiar passage in the life of 
Christ." — Jameson's Sacred Art. 

The \ith Hall contains a collection bequeathed by 
Countess Renier in 1850. It includes : — 

421. Cima da Conegliano. Virgin and Child. 

423. Marco Bello. Virgin and Child with S. John. 

•424. Giovanni Bellini. The Virgin with SS. Paul and George. 

429. Cima da Conegliano. Pieta. 

433. Morone. A Portrait. 

435. Francesco Bissolo. The Presentation in the Temple. 

436. Giov. Bellini. Virgin and Child with SS. Mary Magdalen and 


The 14//^ Hall contains : — 

441. y. Tintoretto. Portrait of Marco Grimani. 

447. Sebastiano Lazzaro. A saint seated in a tree with a book, and 

two other saints beneath— very curious- 
456. Cima da Conegliano. The Saviour with SS. Thomas and 


In the i^th Hall (which contains the original model for 
the Hercules and Lycas of Canova, and which has a ceiling 
by Tiepolo) are : — 

486. Pordenone. Our Lady of Carmel and Saints. 
*487. Titian. The Presentation of the Virgin. This beautiful picture 
is one of the earliest works of the master, and is said to have 
been executed in his 15 th year. The old woman with the 
^gs is one of his most powerful representations. 

" Au sommet d'un enorme escalier grisatre se tiennent les pretres et 
le grand pontife. Cependant, au milieu des gradins, la petite fiUette, 
bleue dans une aureole blonde, monte en relevant sa robe ; elle n'a rien 
de sublime, elle est prise sur le vif, ses bonnes petites joues sont rondes ; 
elle leve sa main vers le grand pretre, comme pour prendre garde et lui 
demander ce qu'il veut d'elle ; c'est vraiment une enfant, elle n'a point 
encore de pensee ; Titien en trouvait de pareilles au catechisme. Au 


premier plan, en face du spectateur, sur le bas de I'escalier, il a pose 
une vieille grognonne en robe bleue at capuchon blanc, vraie villageoise 
qui vient faire son marche k la ville, et garde aupres d'elle son panier 
d'ceufs et de poulets ; un Flamand ne risquerait pas davantage. On se 
sent dans uiie viile reelle, peuplee de bourgeois et des paysans, oii Ton 
exerce des metiers, oii Ton accomplit ses devotions, mais ornee d'an- 
tiquites, grandiose de structure, paree par les arts, illuminee par le 
soleil, assise dans le plus noble et le plus riche des paysages. Plus 
meditatifs, plus detaches des choses, les Florentins creent un monde ideal 
et abstrait par dela le notre ; plus spontane, plus heureux, Titien aime 
notre monde, le comprend, s'y enferme, et le reproduit en I'embellissant 
sans le refondre ni le supprimer."— 7am^. 

488. Vittore Carpaccio. The Presentation of Christ. 

489. Paul Veronese. The Annunciation. 

490. Pordenone. SS. Lorenzo Giustiniani, J. Baptist, Francis, and 

Augustine, with the Lamb. 
*492. Paris Bonione. Tiie Fisherman presenting to the Doge the 
ring he received from S. Mark. 

"This picture is like a grand piece of scenic decoration : we have 
before us a magnificent marble hall, with columns and buildings in per- 
spective ; to the right, on the summit of a flight of steps, sits the Doge 
in Council ; the poor fisherman, ascending the steps, holds forth the 
ring. The numerous figures, the vivid colour, the luxuriant architecture, 
remind us of Paul Veronese, with, however, more delicacy, both in 
colour and execution." — yameson's Sacred Art. 

"The splendid execution gives this picture the most attractive air of 
truth, to which the view of the grand Venetian buildings much con- 
tributes." — Kugler. 

495. Rocco Marconi. The Descent from the Cross — full of grandeur 
and touching expression. This master recalls the Spanish 
artist Juan de Juanes. 

500. Bonifazio. Lazarus and the Rich Man. 

" Bonifazio peignait le portrait. Ses physiognomies etudiees et 
individuellement caracteristiques, rappellent avec fidelite les types patri- 
ciensde Venise, qui ont si souvent pose devant I'artiste. L'anachronisme 
du costume fait voir que Lazare n'est qu'un pretexte et que le veritable 
sujet du tableau est un repas de seigneurs avec des courtisanes, 
leurs maitresses, au fjnd d'un de ces beaux palais qui baignent leurs 
pieds de marbre dans I'eau verte du grand canal." — T. Gautier. 

503. y. Tintoretto. The Virgin and Child and four Senators. 


505. Bonifazio. Our Saviour enthroned, with Saints. 
513. Paul Veronese. The Marriage of Cana. 

519. Paul Veronese. The Virgin with SS. Joseph, J. Baptist, Jus- 
tina, Francis, and Jerome. 

"Certes, les amateurs de la verite vraie ne retrouveront pas ici 
I'humble interieur du pauvre charpentier. Cette colonne en brocatelle 
rose de Verone, cet opulent rideau ramage, dont les plis a riche cassure 
forment le fond du tableau, annoncent une habitation princiere ; mais la 
sainte famille est plutot une apotheose que la representation exacte du 
pauvre menage de Joseph. La presence de ce S. Fran9ois portant une 
palme, de ce pretre en camail et de cette sainte sur la nuque de laquelle 
s'enroule, comme une come d' Ammon, une brillante torsade de cheveux 
d'or i la mode venitienne, I'estrade quasi royale oil trone la Mere 
divine, presentant son bambin ^ I'adoration, le prouvent surabondam- 
ment." — T. Gautier. 

The xdth Hall contains : — 

•529. Gentile Bellini. Part of the True Cross having fallen into one 
of the canals during a procession to S. Lorenzo, is saved by 
Andrea Vendramin, Guardian of the Confraternity. Catarina 
Comaro, Queen of Cyprus and her suite, are amongst the 
spectators lining the sides of the canal. Foremost amongst a 
kneeling group on the right, is said to be the artist himself. 

" On voit dans ces toiles les anciennes maisons de Venise avec leurs 
murs rouges, leurs fenetres aux trefles lombards, leurs terrasses sur- 
montees de piquets, leurs cheminees evasees, les vieux ponts suspendus 
par des chaines, et les gondoles d' autre fois, qui n'ont pas la forme 
qu'elles affectent aujourd'hui : il n'y a pas de felce, mais un drap tendu 
sur des cerceaux ; comme aux galiotes de Saint Cloud ; aucune ne 
porte cette espece de manche de violon en fer poll qui sert de contre-poids 
au rameur place a la poupe ; elles sont aussi beaucoup moins effilees." — 
T. Gautier. 

•533. Vittore Carpaccio. The Dream of S. Ursula, the daughter of 
Theonotus, King of Brittany, that she must imdertake a pil- 
grimage to the shrine of the martyrs. 

"Rien n'est plus elegant, plus juvenilement gracieux que la suite de 
peintures ofl Vittore Carpaccio a represente la vie de sainte Ursule. 
Ce Carpaccio a le charme ideal, la sveltesse adolescente de Raphael 
dans le Mariage de la Vierge, un de ses premiers et peut-etre le plus 
charmant de ses tableaux ; on ne saurait imaginer rien des airs de tete 


plus naivement adorables, des tournures d'une plus angelique coquetterie. 
II y a surtout un jeune homme a longs cheveux vu de dos, laissant 
glisser \ demi sur son epaule sa cape au collet de velours, qui est d'une 
beaute si fiere, si jeune et si seduisante, qu'on croirait voir le Cupidon 
de Praxitele vetu d'un costume moyen age, on plutot un ange qui aurait 
eu la fantaisie de se travestir en magnifiqtie de Venise." — T. Gauiier. 

*534. Marco Basaiti. The Agony in the Garden — a lovely example 
of the master. 

537. Vittore Carpaccio. King Theonotus dismisses the ambassadors 
of the pagan Agrippinus, king of England, who had come to 
ask the hand of the Christian princess Ursula, for his son 

539. Id. The ambassadors ask of Theonotus the hand of his daughter, 
and he confers with the princess Ursula, who demands that 
Conon should first be baptised, and that she should be allowed 
three years for her pilgrimage with a thousand virgins her 

542. Id. Prince Conon agreeing to the conditions of Ursula, takes 
leave of his father. In the same picture he is seen meeting his 
betrothed. He embarks with her upon her pilgrimage. 

544. Id. S. Ursula and her virgins arrive at Cologne. 

546. Id. Pope Cyriacus, with his cardinals, receives S. Ursula, with 
her bridegroom, and the Virgins, at Rome. (This should pre- 
cede 554.) 
*547. Paul Veronese, 1 572. The Supper in the Rich Man's house. 

548. Giovanni Manstieti. A Miracle of the True Cross, when the 

monks who carried it were stopped by an invisible power on 
the bridge of S. Leone. 

549. Vittore Carpaccio. The Ambassadors of Agrippinus bringing 

back the answer of king Theonotus. 

551. Sebastiano Florigerio. SS. Francis, Anthony, and John the 


552. Vittore Carpaccio. Meeting of SS. Joachim and Anna. SS. 

Louis and Ursula are introduced. 
554. Vittore Carpaccio. The Martyrdom of S. Ursula and her 
*555- Gentile Bellini. A miracle of the Holy Cross. The scene is 
the Piazza S. Marco. The church is exhibited in minute de- 
tail. The procession has issued from a gate between the 
church and the ducal palace. Near the shrine kneels Jacopo 
Salis, the merchant of Brescia, whose son is supposed to have 
been healed in consequence of a vow which he then made. 


The picture is wonderfully harmonious and delicate, and is full 
of interesting architecture and detail. 

" In each of these three magnificent compositions which were painted 
by Gentile for the confraternity of S. John the Evangelist, is represented 
a miracle worked by a fragment of the true Cross in the possession of 
the brotherhood. In the first, a young man of Brescia, dangerously 
wounded in the head, is miraculously cured in consequence of a vow 
made by his father when this relic was carried in a procession, and as a 
proof that the disposition of his heart was in perfect harmony with the 
occupation of his pencil, the artist has inscribed the following touching 
words beneath : — 

Gentilis Bellinus amore incensus crucis, 1466. 

" The next miracle which he represented was the recovery of this very 
relic from the canal, into which it had fallen on the day that it was 
carried in procession to the church of S. Lorenzo, by the intervention of 
the pious Andrea Vendramini after its rescue had been vainly attempted 
by the profane. In representing this beautiful legend, the heart of the 
painter was even more powerfully affected than by the former work, 
and in order to express his increasing devotion for the holy sign of the 
Redemption, he inscribed underneath these still more forcible words : — 

Gentilis Bellinus pio sanctissimse crucis aflfectu lubens fecit 1500. 

" The third picture was worthy to be the companion of the two others. 
The subject he had to represent was the miraculous cure of a member 
of the confraternity from a quatemian fever, who is contemplating the 
instrument of his recovery with ecstatic admiration. This gave the 
aged Bellini another opportunity of displaying his pious imagination ; 
and it was perhaps his last work, for he died a few years after its com- 
pletion, and we may be permitted to suppose that he often dwelt on 
the consoling thought that it embodies, and looked himself to the Cross 
for the cure of all his infirmities." — Rio. 

560. Vittore Carpaccio, 1491. S. Ursula with her virgins and Pope 

Ciriacus, receiving the reward of her martyrdom. This pic- 
ture is the last of the series, which is arranged in the gallery 
in the order of the dates at which it was painted. 

561. Luigi Vivarini, 1480. The Virgin and Child throned between 

saints - of the greatest dignity and expression. 
564. Vittore Carpaccio. A sick man healed by the True Cross which 
is presented from a balcony by the Patriarch of Grado. The 
old Rialto— called *' Del Bagatin " — is introduced. 



In the 1 7M Hall are : — 

566. Domenico Tintoretto, 1595. Benedetto Marcello, Procuratore 

of S. Marco. 
568. yacopo Tintoretto. The Descent from the Cross. 
*572. Bonifazio. Adoration of the Magi. 
582. Ciina da Conegliano. The Virgin and Child throned, wnth SS. 

Sebastian, George, Jerome, Nicholas, Catherine and Lucy. 
586. Bonifazio. SS. Benedict and Sebastian. 
593. Palma Vecchio. S. Peter throned, with other saints. 

The remaining Halls are of no importance. 

Re-entering our gondola, we see on the left the Pa- 
lazzo Contarini degli Scrtgni, of which one side is built in 
the Lombard style, 1504 — 1546, the others in the Gothic of 
the 15th century. On the 'latter are two Renaissance 
statues, probably by Ant. Rizzi. There were eight doges 
of the Contarini family, and their wealth was so great that 
the people called their residence II Palazzo degli Scrigni, or 
" of the money chests." 

Beyond this is the Palazzo Rezzonico, which belongs to 
the Infante of Spain, begun by Lofighena in t68o, finished 
by Massari, 1745. The Rezzonico family was founded 
here by the merchant Aurelia : one of its members mounted 
the papal throne as Clement XIII. Passing the two Palazzi 
Giustiniani oi the 15 th century, we reach the noble Palazzo 
Foscari of 1437. 

This palace will always be connected with the touching story of Doge 
Foscari. His son Giacopo was accused to the Council of Ten of having 
received presents from foreign princes, by a nobleman named Loredano 
who believed that the death of two of his own relations had been due 
to the Doge, and who wrote in his books " Francesco Foscari, debtor 
for the deaths of my father and uncle. " 

Giacopo was tortured on the rack and, being found guilty, his father 
was forced to pronounce his sentence of banishment. For five years 
he languished in exile at Treviso, at the end of which time he was accused 
of having compassed the murder of Donato, a Venetian senator, from 


the mere fact of a servant of his being found near at the time. He was 
brought back to Venice, again tried on the rack, and banished for life, 
on presumptive evidence, to Candia. Hence Giacopo unwisely wrote 
to entreat the intercession of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. The 
letter was carried to the Council of Ten. He was brought again to 
Venice, flogged, and then tortured. Being asked what had induced him to 
write to a foreign prince, he replied that he had done it knowing the 
risk, but feeling that it would be worth while to undergo the torture a 
third time, to breathe once more the same air with his parents, his wife, 
and children. He was again condemned to be banished, but this time 
a sentence of close imprisonment was added. 

One farewell interview was allowed with the aged Doge and Dogar- 
essa, his wife Marina, and his children. " Ah, my lord, plead for me," 
he cried, stretching out his hands to his father, who replied firmly 
— " O Giacopo, obey what thy country commands and seek nothing 

On reaching his prison Giacopo died of a broken heart. Immediately 
afterwards, but too late, his innocence was completely established : 
Erizzo, a Venetian nobleman, confessed, on his death-bed, that he was 
the murderer of Donato. 

Yet the vengeance of Loredano was not yet complete. The sobs of the 
Doge on taking leave of his unhappy son were made the foundation of 
an accusation of imbecility and incapacity for government. He was 
formally deposed and ordered to quit the Ducal palace within eight 
days. Loredano had the cruel pleasure of carrying the mandate to the 
Doge, who listened quietly and then answered — " I little thought that 
my old age would be injurious to the State ; but I yield to the decree." 
Stripping himself of his robes, and accompanied by all his family, he 
left the palace where he had reigned for thirty-five years and returned 
to his own house on the canal. But the sound of the great bell which 
announced the election of his successor was his death-knell ; he burst a 
blood-vessel and died instantly. 

" When the bell rang 
At dawn, announcing a new Doge to Venice, 
It found him on his knees before the Cross, 
Clasping his aged hands in earnest prayer ; 
And there he died. Ere half its task was done, 
It rang his knell." — Rogers. 

So great was the popular excitement on hearing of this event, that the 
senate forbade " the affair of Francesco Foscari to be mentioned on 
pain of death." 


The Foscari and its two adjoining palaces form a most 
conspicuous group at the end of the first reach of the Grand 

" They certainly form a most magnificent group, and are in every way 
worthy of their conspicuous position. The palace at the junction of the 
two waters is that of the Foscari ; the others belonged, I believe, to the 
Giustiniani family. The date of the smaller palaces, and probably of 
the large one also, is very early in the fifteenth century ; and the latter 
had, in 1574, the honour of being the grandest palace that the Venetians 
could find in which to lodge Henry III. of France. They are all three 
very similar in their design. Their water-gates are pointed, and the 
windows in the water-stage small and unimportant. The second stage 
is more important, and has cusped ogee window-heads and balconies. 
The third stage is, however, the piano tiobile, all the windows having 
deep traceried heads and large balconies. The fourth stage is very 
nearly like the first, save that instead of balconies there is a delicate 
balustrading between the shafts of the windows, which is very frequent 
in good Venetian work, and always very pretty in its effect." — G. E. 

We should enter the narrow canal called Rio di Ca' 
Foscari at the side of the Palace. 

" Here, almost immediately after passing the great gateway of the 
Foscari court-yard, we shall see on the left, in the ruinous and time- 
stricken walls which tower over the water, the white cur\'e of a circu- 
lar (Byzantine) arch covered with sculpture, and fragments of the bases 
of small pillars, entangled among festoons of the Erba della Madonna. " 
— Ruskin, Stones of Venice, Appendix ii. 

Next comes the Palazzo Balbi oi 1582, followed by the 
Palazzo Grimani a S. Polo (1475 — '^A^S)i with beautifully 
sculptured capitals. Close to this, near the Ponte S. Toma, 
is an ancient doorway of the 12 th century. There is a good 
early Gothic door on the bridge itself 

Passing the Palazzo Persico and the Palazzo Tiepolo 
(1501), we reach the noble Palazzo Pisant, a splendid build- 
ing of the 15th century. There is a gallery here hung with 
fine old Venetian mirrors. It was from this palace that the 
VOL. II. 5 


Paul Veronese of " the Family of Darius " was purchased for 
the British National Gallery for ,^13,560. 

The neighbouring Palazzo Barbarigo delta Terrazza, of 
the 15 th century, is the work of Scamozzi, and was at one 
time the residence of Titian. Its fine collection of pictures 
is now at S. Petersburgh. 

The Palazzo Bernardo is a fine building of the 15 th century. 

Passing the Traghetto della Madonnetta, is a small palace, 
with vestiges of arcades and Byzantine work, called by 
Ruskin The Madonnetta House. 

The, Palazzo Dona is much restored. Of this family were 
the Doges Francesco Benzon, 1545, and Leonardo Nicolo, 
16 18. The Palazzo Tiepolo is Renaissance of the i6th cen- 
tury, but possesses five central windows with a plaited or 
braided border of Byzantine work : hence it is called by 
Ruskin, The Braided House. Close by is the Casa Busi- 
tiello, on the side of which the Byzantine mouldings appear 
in the first and second stories of a house lately restored. 

Immediately opposite the Palazzo Grimani is the Byzan- 
tine building described by Ruskin as The Terraced House. 
** It has a small terrace in front of it, and a little court with 
a door to the water, beside the terrace. Half the house is 
visibly modern, and there is a great seam, like the edge of a 
scar, between it and the ancient remnant, in which the cir- 
cular bands of the Byzantine arches will be instantly recog- 

Near the bend of the canal we now pass the Church of S. 
Silvestro, which is only of interest as containing, 

1st Altar on the left. — 

Cirolamo de Santa Croce. S. Thomas a Becket with the Baptist and 
S. Fiancis. 


1st Altar on the right. — 

Tintoret. The Baptism of Christ (the upper part an addition). 

" There is simply the Christ in the water, and the S. John on the 
shore, without attendants, disciples, or witnesses of any kind ; but the 
power of light and shade, and the splendour of the landscape, which is 
on the whole well-preserved, render it a most interesting example. The 
Jordan is represented as a mountain-brook, receiving a tributary stream 
in a cascade from the rocks, in which S. John stands : there is a rounded 
stone in the centre of the current ; and the parting of the water at 
this, as well as its rippling among the roots of some dark trees on the 
left, are among the most accurate resemblances of nature to be found in 
any of the works of the great masters. I hardly know whether most to 
wonder at the power of the man who thus broke through the neglect of 
nature which was universal at his time ; or at the evidences, visible 
throughout the whole of the conception, that he was still content to 
paint from slight memories of what he had seen in hill-countries, in- 
stead of following out to its full depth the fountain which he had opened. 
There is not a stream among the hills of Friuli which in any quarter of 
a mile of its course would not have suggested to him finer forms of 
cascade than those which he has idly painted at Venice." — Ruskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 

The famous Adoration of the Magi, by Paul Veronese, in our National 
Gallery, was painted for this church in 1573. 

We now approach the bridge — till lately the only bridge 
over the Grand Canal — which is called by English abbre- 
viation the Rialto. Venetians speak of it as Ponte di RialtOy 
for this part of the town was the ancient city of Venice, and 
derives its name from Rtvo-alto, as the land on the left of 
the canal was called here. After the limits of the town 
were extended, it continued, like the city of London, to be 
the centre of commerce and trade. In this quarter were the 
Fabriche, or warehouses and custom-houses, and many of 
the handsomest buildings, such as the Fondaco dei Turchi, 
and the Fondaco de' Tedeschi. The Rialto which Shake- 
speare alludes to, when Shylock is made to say — 


*' Signer Antonio, many a time and oft 
In the Rialto you have rated me 
About my monies " 

refers, of course, to this quarter of the town, and not to the 

The J^on^e di Rialto (span of arch 91 ft., height 24|- ft., 
width 72 ft.), was begun in 1588, under Doge Pasquale 
Cicogna, by Antonio da Ponte. It is covered with shops. 

Close to the bridge is the Church of S. Giacomo di Rialto, 
said to date from the earUest foundation, but possessing no 
remains of its antiquity. Over the high-altar is a statue of 
the patron saint by Alessandro Vittoria. The statue of S. 
Antonio is by Girolamo Campagna. 

" The campanile of S. Giacomo is a perfectly fine example. It is 
almost entirely of brick, and the long lines of its arcades give great effect 
of height, while the details are all good and quite Gothic in their charac- 
ter. " — Street. 

Facing the church, is the curious statue of a hunch-back, 
// Gobbo di Rialto, the work of Pietro da Salo, supporting a 
pillar from whose back the Laws of the Republic used to be 

In the times of the RepubHc this was the centre of mer- 
cantile life in Venice. 

" These porticoes are daily frequented by Florentine, Genoese, and 
Milanese merchants, by those from Spain and Turkey, and all the other 
different nations of the world, who assemble here in such vast multi- 
tudes, that this piazza is celebrated amongst the first in the universe. " — 
Sansovino, 1580. 

The market-place is still full of colour and picturesque- 

ness : — 

"All the pictures out of all the churches are buying and selling in 
this busy market ; Virgins go by, carrying their infants ; S. Feter is 
bargaining his silver fish ; Judas is making a low bow to a fat old monk, 


who holds up his brown skirts and steps with bare legs into a mysterious 
black gondola that has been waiting by the bridge, and that silently 
glides away. . . Then a cripple goes by upon his crutches ; then comes 
a woman carrying a beautiful little boy, with a sort of turban round her 
head. One corner of the market is given up to great hobgoblin pump- 
kins ; tomatos are heaped in the stalls ; oranges and limes are not yet 
over ; but perhaps the fish-stalls are the prettiest of all. Silver fish tied 
up in stars with olive-green leaves, gold fish, as in miracles ; noble 
people serving. There are the jewellers' shops too, but their wares do 
not glitter so brightly as all this natural beautiful gold and silver." — 
Miss Thackeray. 

We must now return to our gondola at the little wharf 
near the bridge, one of the most picturesque sites on the 
Grand Canal. 

" Venice is sad and silent now, to what she was in the time of Cana- 
letto ; the canals are choked gradually, one by one, and the foul water 
laps more and more sluggishly against the rent foundations ; but even 
yet could I but place the reader at the early morning on the quay below 
the Rialto, when the market boats, full laden, float into groups of golden 
colour ; and let him watch the dashing of the water about their glitter- 
ing steelly heads, and under the shadows of the vine leaves ; and shew 
him the purple of the grapes and the figs, and the glowing of the scarlet 
gourds carried away in long streams upon the waves ; and among them 
the crimson fish baskets, plashing and sparkling, and flaming as the 
morning sun falls on their wet tawny sides ; and above, the painted 
•sails of the fishing boats, orange and white, scarlet and blue ; and 
better than all such florid colour, the naked, bronzed, burning limbs of 
the seamen, the last of the old Venetian race, who yet keep the right 
Giorgione colour on their brows and bosoms, in strange contrast with 
the sallow sensual degradation of the creatures that live in the cafes of 
the Piazza, he would not be merciful to Canaletto any more. " — Ruskin, 
Modern Painters. 

We should visit the little piazza which opens to the 
Rialto, on the S. Mark's side of the canal, for the sake of 
some very interesting examples of the third order of Vene- 
tian windows in one of its houses. 

" The house faces the bridge, and its second story has been biiilt in 
the thirteenth century, above a still earlier Byzantine cornice remaining. 


or perhaps introduced from some other ruined edifice, m the walls of 
the first floor. The windows of the second story are of pure third order, 
and have capitals constantly varying in the form of the flower or leaf in- 
troduced between their oolites." — Riiskin, Stones of Venice, ii. vii. 

Close to the Rialto on the left is the Palazzo del Camer- 
lenght, built in 1525 by Guglielmo Bergamesco, but of irregular 
form owing to the space afforded. Here the three Camer- 
lenghi dwelt as Treasurers of the State under the Republic. 

Passing the Traghetto of the Pescheria, we reach the 
Palazzo Corner della Pegina,%o called from Caterina Cornaro, 
Queen of Cyprus, who lived here. It was bequeathed by 
her to Pope Pius VII,, who gave it to the Counts of Cavanis, 
founders of the Scuole Pie. The palace was built in 1724 
by Domenico Rossi. It is now used as a Monte de Pietk. 

Passing the Traghetto of S. Felix, we reach the magnificent 
Palazzo Pesaro, built by Baldassare Longhena, i6-jg. The 
Pesaro family is one of the most illustrious in Venetian 
history. They first came to Venice in 1225, being descended 
from Jacopo Palmieri of Pesaro. Besides the famous gen- 
eral Bernardo Pesaro, and the Doge Giovanni, many illus- 
trious generals and procurators were of this house. 

"The Pesaro Palace, built by Longhena, though over ornamented, 
has no striking faults. Though not in the purest taste, it still perfectly 
expresses the fact that it is the residence of a wealthy and luxurious 
noble, and is, taken as a whole, a singularly picturesque piece oi 
palatial architecture. From the water-line to the cornice, it is a rich, 
varied, and appropriate design, so beautiful as a whole that we can 
well afford to overlook any slight irregularities in detail." — Fergusson. 

A little beyond this is the Church of S. Stae (S. Eustachio) 
built by Dom. Possi, in 1 709. To the right of the second 
altar is the bust of Giovanni Grassi, beheaded for political 
crimes in April, 1622, and pardoned in the following year 


by a decree of the Council of Ten, which declared him 
innocent ! 

Passing first the Palazzo Duodo, built originally in Gothic 
of the 15th century, but altered, then the classic Palazzo 
Tron, and the Palazzo Capovilla, we reach the Fondaco dei 
Turchi, a Byzantine palace of the 9th century, and one of 
the earliest buildings, not ecclesiastical, in Venice. It 
belonged originally to the house of Este, but was purchased 
by the Republic in the i6th century for the Turkish mer- 
chants. A few years ago it was one of the most unique 
and curious buildings in Europe, but it was modernized 
and almost rebuilt by the present Government in 1869.* 

We now reach the Museo Correr, open from 10 to 4 on 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Saturdays. It contains a vast 
amount of rubbish. The better part of its collection are 

Entrance Hall. — 
Two curious wells of the 9th and 13th centuries. 

\st Floor, 2nd Room Right. — 
The Cup of Doge Manin. 

The Door of the Bucentaur through which the Doge threw the 
ring into the sea. 


14. Gentile Bellini. Doge Francesco Foscari. 
16. Giovanni Bellini. Doge Mocenigo. 
49. V. Carpcucio. The Salutation. 
52. Marco Palmezzano. The Cross-bearing. 

The last side canal on the left before the Iron Bridge 
leads almost immediately to the Church of S. Simeone 
Grande, dating from the loth century. It contains a picture 
of the Trinity by Vincenzo Catena. Behind the high altar 

• Ruskin speaks of seven other Byzantine palaces in Venice, which he enumerates 
as, the Casa Loredan, Ca<a Farsetti, Rio-Fosciri House, Terraced House, Madon- 
netta House, Braided House, and Casa Businello. 


is the Statue of S. Simeone Profeta, a glorious work of Marco 
Romano, 131 7. 

"The face is represented in death ; the mouth partly open, the lips 
thin and sharp, the teeth carefully sculptured beneath ; the face full of 
quietness and majesty, though very ghastly ; the hair and beard flowing 
in luxuriant wreaths, disposed with the most masterly freedom yet 
severity of design, far down upon the shoulders ; the hands crossed 
upon the body, carefully studied, with the veins and sinews perfectly 
and easily expressed, yet without any attempt at extreme finish or play 
of technical skill. This monument bears date 131 7, and its sculptor 
was justly proud of it ; thus recording his name : 

' Celavit Marcus opus hoc insigne Romanus, 
Laudibus haud parcis est sua digna manus.' " 

Ruskitt, Stones of Venue. 

A visit to this marvellous statue, which no one should 
omit seeing, forms a satisfactory close to our examination of 
the left bank of the Grand Canal (for S. Simeone Piccolo 
and the Giardino Papadopoli beyond the Iron Bridge, are 
not worth seeing). 

Turning our attention to the opposite bank, we find, 
immediately beyond the Railway Station, the Church 
of the Scalzi (S. Maria di Scalzi) — or Bare-footed Friars, built 
at the expense of six noble families by Baldassare lAjnghena, 
1649 — 1689. The interior is most gorgeous in marbles 
and inlaid work, and doubtless finds many admirers. 
The last Doge of Venice, Lodovico Manin, is buried here. 
He fell down in a fainting fit from his anguish, at the 
moment of taking the oath to Austria, and one cannot read 
without sympathy his simple epitaph — " Manini Cineres." * 
Behind the high-altar is the gem of the church — a Madonna 
and Child, by Giovanni Bellini. 

* It is curious that a Buonaparte \n restoring '^''enice to Italy, after 6q ^ears of 
servitude, should have given back the national independence which another Buona- 
parte had taken away. 


" This church is a perfect type of the vulgar abuse of marble in every 
possible way, by men who had no eye for colour, and no understanding 
of any merit in a work of art but that which arises from costliness of 
material. " — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 

A little further, where the broad canal called Canareggio 
opens, is the Church of S. Geremia, a Greek cross, designed 
by Carlo Corcellini, 1753. It is of no interest. 

Close to the church is the Palazzo Labia, built 1720 — 
1750, by Andrea Cominelli, a good specimen of its time. It 
contains a magnificent dining-room, painted by Tiepolo — a 
glorious specimen of an old palace-chamber. 

On the Canareggio, a little beyond the church, is the 
Palazzo Manfrin^ of the 17th century, with a picture-gallery 
which is open daily, but contains nothing worth seeing, all 
the good pictures having been sold. 

Returning to the Grand Canal, we pass the Campo and 
Church of S. Marcuola. This is the vulgar name for the 
church dedicated to SS. Ermegora and Fortunato. Bernoni, 
in his amusing book on the legends of Venice, gives a ghost 
story connected with this building — of the parish priest 
who was dragged out of bed and soundly kicked and cuffed 
by all the corpses buried in his church, because he had 
declared in his sermons his disbelief in ghosts — and had 
dared to say — " Where the dead are, there they stay." 

A little beyond this is the Palazzo Vendramin Calerghi. 
This is one of the few Venetian palaces which are well 
kept up, and it has " a garden beside it, rich with ever- 
greens, and decorated by gilded railings and white statues 
that cast long streams of snowy reflection down into the 
deep water," It was built in 1481 by Pietro Lombardo 
for Andrea Loredan. A hundred years afterwards it 
was sold to the Duke of Brunswick, who, in his turn, 


sold it to the Duke oi Mantua. A lawsuit afterwards 
compelled its re-sale, and, in 1589, it was bought by Vittore 
Calerghi, whose family becoming extinct in the male line, it 
passed to the Grimani, and thence to the Vendramini, 
by whom it was sold in 1842 to the Duchesse de Berri, 
mother of Henri V., Comte de Chambord. 

The facade (78 ft. long, 63 ft. high) is built of grey Istrian 
stone, with pillars of Greek marble, and medallions ot 
porphyry. The wing towards the garden is by V. Scamozzi. 
In the interior are two beautiful statues of Adam and Eve 
by Tallio Lombardo. 

" In the Palazzo Vendramini nothing can exceed the beauty of the 
proportions of the three cornices, and the dignity of that which crowns 
the whole. The base, too, is sufficiently solid without being heavy, 
and the windows being all mullioned, and the spaces between rein- 
forced with three-quarter columns, there is no appearance of weakness 
anywhere, while there is almost as much opening for light and air as in 
any building of its age." — Fergusson. 

The neighbouring Palazzo Marcello was the residence of 
Benedetto Marcello, the musician. The Palazzo Erizzo, 
of the 15th century, has pictures of the heroic exploits 
of Paolo Erizzo at the defence of Negroponte. 

At the opening of the next side canal is the Palazzo 
Grimani of the i6th century. It was formerly decorated 
outside by frescoes of Tintoret which have disappeared. 
There were three Doges of the Grimani family. 

No building of importance now occurs till the fairy-like 
Co' Doro, so named from its ancient owners, the family of 
Doro. It is one of the most beautiful and graceful of the 
15th-century palaces, and is crowned, like the Ducal Palace, 
by an adaptation of the delicate "crown-like ornaments 
which crest the walls of the Arabian mosque." 


Beyond this is the Palazzo Morosini or Sagredo, dating 
from the 13th century, but altered in later times. It has a 
grand staircase by Andrea Tirali, decorated with a picture 
of the Fall of the Giants by Longhi, 1734. Nicolo Sagredo 
was Doge in 1674. 

Close by is the Palazzo Micheli delle Colonne, of the 1 7th 
century. It contains some fine old tapestries of the history 
of Darius and Alexander the Great. Three Doges belonged 
to the Micheli family; Vitale (1095) distinguished in the 
Holy Land ; Domenico (i 1 17) who fought in the East ; and 
Vitale II. (son of the last, 1155) who espoused the cause of 
Pope Alexander III. against Frederick Barbarossa. Ad- 
joining this palace is the Corte del Rener with Gothic win- 
dows of the 15 th century, and an interesting house inlaid with 
bands of colour. 

" One of the houses in the Corte del Rener is remarkable as having 
its great entrance ou the first floor, attained by a bold flight of steps, 
sustained on four pointsd arches wrought in brick. The rest of the 
aspect of the building is Byzantine, except only that the rich sculptures 
of its archivolt show in combats of animals, beneath the soffit, a be- 
ginning of the Gothic fire and energy. The moulding of its plinth is 
of a Gothic profile, and the windows are pointed, not with a reversed 
curve, but in a pure straight gable, very curiously contrasted with the 
delicate bending of the pieces of marble armour cut for the shoulders of 
each arch. There is a two-lighted window, on each side of the door, 
sustained in the centre by a basket- worked Byzantine capital : the mode 
of covering the brick archivolt with marble, both in the windows and 
doorway, is precisely like that of the true Byzantine palaces." — Raskin, 
Stones of Venice, ii. vii. 

The neighbouring Church of the Apostoli is for the most 
part modern, but the tower of the 13th century 

Close to the Riaito is the Fondaco del Tedeschi, built for 
the German merchants by decree of the Senate, by Girolamo 
Tedesco* in 1505. The side towards the Grand Canal was 

• A German named Jerome. 


painted by Giorgione, and that towards the Merceria by 
Titian, whose works on this occasion so excited the jealousy 
of his companion, as to break off an old friendship between 
the two artists. The frescoes have now perished. 

Passing the Rialto, we reach the Palazzo Manin (built in 
the 1 6th century by Jacopo Sansovino). It is now the 
National Bank. The Manin family came from Florence and 
was ennobled during the war of Chioggia for a sum of money 
paid to the State. The last Doge of Venice was a Manin 
and lived here. 

Just beyond this, grouping well with the Rialto, is the 
Palazzo Bembo, of the beginning of the 15th century. There 
is a beautiful Byzantine cornice above the entresol. Next 
comes Palazzo Dandolo, of the 1 2th century, interesting as 
having been the residence of Enrico Dandolo, the conqueror 
of Constantinople. 

"Enrico Dandolo, when elected Doge, in 1192, was eighty-five years 
of age. When he commanded the Venetians at the taking of Constan- 
tinople, he was consequently ninety-seven years old. At this age he 
annexed the fourth and a half of the whole empire of Romania, for so 
the Roman empire was then called, to the title and territories of the 
Venetian Doge. 

" Dandolo led the attack on Constantinople in person : two ships, the 
Paradise and the Pilgrim, were tied together, and a drawbridge or 
ladder let down from their higher yards to the walls. The Doge was 
one of the first to rush into the city. Then was completed, said the 
Venetians, the prophecy of the Erythraean sybil : ' A gathering to- 
gether of the powerful shall be made amidst the waves of the Adriatic, 
under a third leader ; they shall beset the goat — they shall profane 
Byzantium — they shall blacken her buildings — ^her spoils shall be dis. 
persed ; a new goat shall bleat until they have measured out and run 
over fifty-four feet, nine inches, and a half. ' " — Byron, Notes to Childe 

We now reach Palazzo Loredan, of the 12 th century, 
covered with the richest sculpture. The capitals of the 
second story resemble those of S. Vitale at Ravenna. 


" This palace, though not conspicuous, and often passed with neglect, 
will be felt at last, by all who examine it carefully, to be the most beau- 
tiful palace in the whole extent of the Grand Canal. It has been 
restored often, once in the Gothic, once in the Renaissance times, — some 
writers say, even rebuilt ; but, if so, rebuilt in its old form. The 
Gothic additions harmonize exquisitely with its Byzantine work, and it 
is easy, as we examine its lovely central arcade, to forget the Renais- 
sance additions which encumber it above." — Ruskin. 

Here from 1363 to 1366, lived Peter V. Lusignan, King 
of Cyprus, as the guest of Federigo Corner Piscopia. His 
arms are over some of the windows. Here the learned 
Elena Cornaro Piscopia was bom. 

Passing the Traghetto di S. Luca, we reach Palazzo Far- 
setti (once Dandolo, now Municipio). In the latest years 
of the Republic an academy was established here, in which 
the sculptor Canova received his first education. The front is 
modernized and exceedingly rich, but the ground floor and 
first floor have nearly all their shafts and capitals from an 
original building of the 12 th century, only they have been 
much shifted from their original positions. The adjoining 
Palazzo Grimani (now the post-office), is a noble work of 

*' San Micheli's masterpiece is the design of the Grimani Palace. It 
does not appear to have been quite finished at his death, in 1542, but 
substantially it is his, and, though not so pleasing as some of the earlier 
palaces, is a stately and appropriate building. The proportions of the 
whole fa9ade are good, and its dimensions (92 ft. wide by 98 in height) 
give it a dignity which renders it one of the most striking facades on 
the Grand Canal, while the judgment displayed in the design elevates 
it into being one of the best buildings of the age in which it was erected. " 
— Fergus son. 

The Palazzo Cavalli is of the 15 th, the Palazzo Marti- 
tiengo of the i6th century. The Palazzo Benzon is only 
interesting as having been the residence of Byron, Moore, 


Canova, and others. The Palazzo Comer- Spinelli is a 
beautiful Renaissance building, by Pietro Lo?nbardo, c. 1500. 
The balconies are exquisitely decorated. Portions of the 
interior are by Sanmichele. 

The Palazzo Mocenigo (1520 — 1524) is exceedingly rich. 

The Palazzo Contarini is of 15 14 — 1546, and very 


" In the intervals of the windows of the first story, certain shields and 
torches are attached, in the form of trophies, to the stems of two trees 
whose boughs have been cut off, and only one or two of their faded 
leaves left, scarcely observable, but delicately sculptured here and there, 
beneath the insertions of the severed boughs. It is as if the workman 
had intended to leave us an image of the expiring naturalism of the 
Gothic school." — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 

The Palazzo Moro-Lin, by the Florentine Seb Mazzont, 
has a facade of the four orders of classic architecture. It 
contains frescoes by Lazzarini. This palace first belonged 
to the family of Lin, on whose extinction it passed to that of 
Moro, of whom was Doge Cristoforo Moro, by some believed 
to have been the original of Othello. 

The Palazzo Grasst, by Giorgio Massari, only dates from 
the last century. The Grassi family came from Chioggia in 
1 7 1 8, and bought their nobility. 

The Palazzo Giustiniani Lonin was built in the 17th 
century by Baldassare Longhetia. The family claim descent 
from the emperor Justinian. They were settled in Venice 
from the earliest period of its history. All the males of the 
house were killed in battle against Emanuel Comnenus, 
except one, who was a monk, and who was released from his 
vows for a year by the Pope, in order to refound the family. 
He married the daughter of Doge Vitale, became father of 
the direct ancestor of the present Prince Giustiniani, and 
re-entered his convent 


Passing the iron bridge we reach the Campo S. Vidal. 
Th-e Church of S. Vitale contains a picture of the patron 
saint on horseback by Vittore Carpaccio, 15 14. 

The Palazzo Cavalli, the property of the Due de Bordeaux, 
is of the 15th century. The family were founded here by 
Giacomo CavalH, who came from Verona and defended 
Venice against the Genoese in 1380. 

The Palazzo Corner della Cd Grande is a noble work of 
'J^acopo Sansovino of 1532, with a beautiful courtyard, in the 
centre of which is a fountain with a statue, by Francesco 
Penso. Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus, belonged to 
this family. 

Passing Palazzo Fini, and Casa Ferro, with a beautiful 
four-sided pergola of the 14th century, we reach one of the 
most exquisite of the small Gothic buildings, the Palazzo 
Contarini Fasan (often shewn as the House of Desdemona), 
with corded edges, and balconies of surpassing richness sup- 
ported on richly sculptured corbels. 

The Palazzo Emo, or Treves, is of 1680. It contains a 
beautiful staircase, a ceiling telling the story of Psyche, by 
Giovanni Demiti, and colossal statues of Hector and Ajax 
by Canova. 

The Palazzo Giustijiiani, now Hotel Europa, is of the 
15th century. 

We now reach the gardens of the Royal Palace, and the 
opening to the lagoon, opposite S. Giorgio. 



In a Gondola to — 

S. Zaccaria ; S. Giorgio dei Greci ; S . Antonino ; Palazzo Grimani ; 
S. Maria Formosa ; Ponte del Paradiso ; SS. Giovanni e Paolo ; S. 
Lazzaro ; S. Francesco della Vigna ; S. Pietro di Castello ; S. Giuseppe 
di Castello ; Giardini Publici ; S. Biagio. The Arsenal ; S. Gio- 
vanni in Bragora. 

Those who wish to select, should leave their gondola for S. Zaccaria, 
the pictures in S. Maria Formosa, SS. Giovanni e Paolo, and the 

A LITTLE archway on the left of the Hotel d'Angleterre 
leads from the Riva degli Schiavoni to the beautiful 
Church of S. Zaccaria, built by An f onto di Marco, 1457 — 1477. 
The fa9ade is by another unknown architect, 1477 — 1490. 
The statue of S. Zaccaria over the principal entrance is by 
Alessandro Vittaria. The tower is of the 12 th century. 

*' One of the finest of tlie early facades of Italy is that of San Zaccaria 
at Venice. The church was commenced in 1446, and internally shows 
pointed arches and other peculiarities of that date. The fa(,'ade seems 
to have been completed about 15 15, and though not so splendid as that 
of the Certosa at Pavia, and some of the more elaborate designs of the 
previous century, it is not only purer in detail, but reproduces more cor- 
rectly the internal arrangements of the church. Though its dimensions 
are not greater than those of an ordinary Palladian front, the number 
and smallness of the parts make it appear infinitely larger, and, all the 
classical details being merely subordinate ornaments, there is no false- 
hood or incongruity anywhere ; while, the practical constructive lines 
being preserved, the whole has a unity and dignity we miss so generally 


in subsequent buildings. Its greatest defect is perhaps the circular form 
given to the pediment of the central and side aisles, which does not in 
this instance express the form of the roof." — Fergusson. 

The interior is semi- Byzantine in the nave, and Gothic in 
the choir. The side aisles, which are divided from the nave 
by very slender columns, are exceedingly lofty. 

Right Aisle. Over the 2nd Altar is the monument of Marco Sanudo, 
1505, by Leopardi. 

From the '})rd arch is the entrance of the monastic choir, with tarsia 
work of Francesco and Marco da Vlcenza, 1464. Here also are : 

Raima Vecchio. Madonna and Saints. 

Tintoretto. Birth of the Baptist. 

The Cappella di S. Tarazlo (locked) contains curious 15th-century 
altars. The tabernacle over the central altar is by Ludovico da Friuli : 
those at the sides by Antonio and Giovanni da Murano, 1443. Be- 
neath this chapel is a crypt, which is part of the ancient church in which 
the eight Doges who ruled from 836 to 1 1 72 were buried. 

In the '^rd Choir Chapel is : — 

Giovattni Bellini. The Circumcision. 

*Left Aisle, 2nd Altar. Giovanni Bellini. The Virgin and Child, 
with SS. Peter, Jerome, Catherine, and Lucy, — a glorious picture. 

Near the door into the sacristy is the monument of Alessandro Vit- 
toria, 1608, probably designed by himself. 

There is a beautiful early Gothic gateway at the further 
entrance of the Campo S. Zaccaria^, with a relief, by the 
Massegne, of the Virgin between two saints. Passing 
through this, in the direction of S. Marco, in the Canonka, 
near the palace of the Patriarch, is the Palazzo Trevisan, of 
the 1 6th century, by Guglielmo Bergamesco. In 1577, this 
palace was sold by Domenico Trevisan to the famous 
Bianca Capello, who purchased it for her brother Vittore. 
It was afterwards for some time called the Palazzo Capello. 

" In the inlaid design of the dove with the olive branch, in the Casa 
Trevisan, it is impossible for anything to go beyond the precision with 
which the olive leaves are cut out of the white marble ; and, in some 
VOL. II. 6 


wreaths of laurel below, the rippled edge of each leaf is finely and 
easily drawn, as if by a delicate pencil. No Florentine table is more 
exquisitely finished than the facade of this entire palace ; and as an ideal 
of executive perfection, this palace is most notable amidst the archi- 
tecture of Europe." — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 

Returning to the Schiavoni, and taking the first side 
canal on the left, we reach the Church of S. Giorgio dei 
Greci, built by Sante Lombardo and Gian Antonio Chionia, 
1539 — 1570. The dome was added in 1571 by Maestro 
Andrea; the beautiful\e by Bernardino Angarin, 1587 
— 1592. The west front and the interior are decorated with 
Greek mosaics. Three Gospels of the loth century, and a 
Ravenna papyrus of 553, are preserved here, A few steps 
(on foot), behind this church, is S. Antonino, where Alvise 
Tiepolo is buried in a tomb by Alessandro Vittoria, 1590. 

The Palazzo Bembo, in the Calle Magno near this, has a 
beautiful open-air staircase in its courtyard. 

The gondola quickly takes us from S. Giorgio to the 
Palazzo Grimani, of the i6th century. In its court is a 
noble colossal statue of M. Agrippa, brought from the 
Pantheon at Rome. 

Close by, are the Campo and Church of S. Maria For- 
mosa. The latter was built by Marco Bergamesco, 1492, 
but has been added to at later times. It contains one 
glorious picture — 

* Right Aisle, 1st Altar. Palma Vecchio. S. Barbara — being a por- 
trait of the painter's daughter, Violante, beloved by Titian. 

" She is standing in a majestic attitude, looking upwards with inspired 
eyes, and an expression like a Pallas. She wears a tunic or rc5be of a 
rich warm brown, with a mantle of crimson ; and a white veil is twisted 
in her diadem and among the tresses of her pale golden hair : the 
whole picture is one glow of colour, life, and beauty ; I never saw a 
combination of expression and colour at once so soft, so sober, and so 
splendid. Cannon are at her feet, and her tower is seen behind. Be- 


neath, in front of the altar, is a marble bas-relief of her martyrdom ; 
she lies headless on the ground, and fire from heaven destroys the execu- 
tioners." — yameson^s Sacred Art, ii. 495. 

" The head is of a truly typical Venetian beauty, the whole is finished 
with the greatest power and knowledge of colour and modelling." — 

The picture was painted for the Bombardieri. S. Barbara was the 
patroness of soldiers, who come hither to adore her shrine. At its sides 
are SS. Anthony and Sebastian, SS. J. Baptist and Dominic : above is 
the Madonna bending over the dead Christ. 

2nd Altar. Bart. Vivarini, 1473. A Madonna (sheltering the faith- 
ful under her robe) — with Joachim and Anna and the Birth of the 

Right Transept. Leandro Bassano. The Last Supper. 

In this church the annual " Festa delle Marie " com- 
memorating the safe return of the brides carried off with 
their arcelle (coffers containing their dowries), was held till 
the time of the Republic. The doge and signory were 
received at the door by the priests of the church, who 
offered, in the name of the parishioners, hats of straw, 
flacons of wine, and oranges. 

One of the houses in the Cavipo S. Maria Formosa has an 
interesting example of a cross let in, above a window. 

To the left of the west front of the church is a beautiful 
Gothic canopy of the 14th century, over the entrance to a 
bridge called Ponte del Paradiso. It is a lovely remnant, 
and leads into a street called Via del Paradiso, so curiously 
narrow that one is inevitably reminded of " Strait is the 
gate and narrow is the way that leadeth unto life, and few 
there be that find it" (Matt. vii. 15). 

" This archway, appropriately placed hard by the bridge called ' del 
Paradiso,' is one of the most exquisite little pieces ot detail in the whole 
city. The main points to be noted are the characteristic flatness of the 
details, and the line of dentil-moulding, which defines all the leading 
architectural features, originally invented for borders of incrustations at 


S. Mark's, and here, as everywhere in Venice, used for decoration after- 
wards. The incrusted circles of marble on each side of the figure give 
great life to the spandrel beneath the arch. The windows close by shew 
us a late example of the not unfrequent use of the semi-circular and ogee 
arches together in the same window." — Street. 

A few strokes of the gondolier now bring us to the pic- 
turesque group formed by the west front of SS. Giovanni 
and Paolo, the Scuola di S. Marco, and the statue of the 
famous condottiere, Bartolomeo CoUeoni, who has already 
become familiar to us at Bergamo. He left all his fortune 
to the Republic, on condition of his statue being placed in 
the Piazza S. Marco. This was contrary to the laws, but 
the senate found a loophole for securing the inheritance by 
placing it in front of the Scuola di San Marco. The noble 
equestrian statue was designed by Andrea Verocchio (An- 
drew the keen-eyed), but completed by Alessandro Leopardi. 
The figure looks as if it were riding into space. 

*' I do not believe that there is a more glorious work of sculpture 
existing in the world than the equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni." 

" To make the statue Verocchio came to Venice, and had just model- 
led the horse, when a report reached him that the Signory intended to 
have the rider executed by Donatello's scholar, Vellano of Padua. In- 
dignant at this intended insult, he instantly broke the head and legs of 
the horse in pieces, and returned to Florence, whither he was followed 
by a decree forbidding him under pain of death again to set foot upon 
Venetian territory ; to which he replied, that he never would incur that 
risk, as he was aware that if his head were once cut off, the Signory 
could neither put it on again nor supply its place, while he could at any 
time replace the head of his horse by a better one. Feeling the truth of 
this answer, the Venetians rescinded their unjust edict, and not only in- 
vited Verocchio to resume his work, but doubled his pay, and pledged 
themselves not to allow him to be in any way interfered with. Pacified 
by this 'amende honorable,' he returned to Venice, and had begun to 
restore his broken model, when he was attacked by a violent illness 
which speedily carried him to his grave. How much, or rather how 
little, of his task was then completed, is clearly shown by the passage of 


his Will in which he supplicates the Signory to allow his scholar, Lorenzo 
di Credi, to finish the horse which he had commenced. His request was 
not complied with, and Alessandro Leopardi, a Venetian sculptor, was 
employed to complete the group, but, as he doubtless used Verocchio's 
sketches, the general conception must be ascribed to the latter ; though 
as we look upon this rich and picturesque group, whose ample forms are 
so opposed to the meagreness of the Tuscan sculptor's manner, we are 
led to conclude that Leopardi worked out Verocchio's idea according to 
his own taste, and honour him as the chief author of this, the finest 
modem equestrian statue, as did the Venetians, by giving him the sur- 
name 'del Cavallo.' 

" The stalwart figure of CoUeoni, clad in armour, with a helmet upon 
hifi head, is the most perfect embodiment of the idea which history gives 
us of an Italian Condottiere. As his horse, with arched neck and slightly 
bent head, paces slowly forward, he, sitting straight in his saddle, turns 
to look over his left shoulder, showing us a sternly-marked countenance, 
with deep-set eyes, whose intensity of expression reveals a character of 
iron which never recoiled before any obstacle. It indeed admirably 
embodies the graphic picture of Colleoni's personal appearance, given by 
Bartolomeo Spina in these words : ' Saldo passo, vista superba, risplen- 
dente per le ricche armi e pennachi sopra nobil corsiere — occhi neri — 
nella guardatura ed accutezza del lume, vivi, penetrantie terribili.' The 
stern simplicity of the rider is happily set off by the richness of detail 
lavished upon the saddle, the breast-plate, the crupper, and the knotted 
mane of his steed ; and the effect of the whole group is heightened by 
the very elegant pedestal upon which Leopardi has placed it." — Perkin's 
Tuscan Sculptors. 

The grand Church of SS. Giovanni and Paolo (in Vene- 
tian dialect S. Zanipolo) was built for Dominicans ; begun 
in 1234, but not consecrated till 1430. It is a Latin Cross, 
with three aisles in the nave. It is 290 ft. long, 125 ft. 
broad at the transepts, and 108 ft. high in the centre and 
choir. The central door is good 13th-century Gothic. 
There are some curious reliefs let into the facade ; Daniel 
in the Lion's Den of the 8th, and the Annunciation of the 
7th century. Hither every 7th October the Doge came to 
a state service in honour of the victory of Venice over the 
Turks, and here the Doges lay in state and their funeral 


services were held. The church is full of their monuments. 

"The foundation of this church was laid by the Dominicans about 
1234, under the immediate protection of the Senate and the Doge Gia- 
como Tiepolo, accorded to them in consequence of a miraculous vision 
appearing to the Doge; of which the following account is given in 
popular tradition. 

"In the year 1226, the Doge Giacomo Tiepolo dreamed a dream ; 
and in his dream he saw the little oratory of the Dominicans, and, 
oehold, all the ground around it (now occupied by the church) was 
covered with roses of the colour of vermilion, and the air was filled with 
their fragrance. And in the midst of the roses, there were seen flying 
to and fro a crowd of white doves, with golden crosses upon their heads. 
And while the Doge looked, and wondered, behold, the angels descended 
from heaven with golden censers, and passing through the oratory, and 
forth among the flowers, they filled the place with the smoke of their 
incense. Then the Doge heard suddenly a clear and loud voice which 
proclaimed, ' This is the place that I have chosen for my preachers ! ' 
and having heard it, straightway he awoke, and went to the Senate, and 
declared to them the vision. Then the Senate decided that forty 
paces of ground should be given to enlarge the monastery ; and the 
Doge Tiepolo himself made a still larger grant afterwards." — Ruskin, 
Stones of Venice, iii. 

" The plan of this church is of the same sort as that of the Frari — a 
nave with aisles, and transepts with two chapels opening on each side 
of them. These are all apsidal, but planned in the usual way and not 
as at the Frari. The east end is a fine composition, having an apse of 
seven sides, and is the only part of the exterior to which much praise 
can be given. It is divided into two stages by an elaborate brick cor- 
nice and a good balustraded passage in front of the upper windows. 
The traceries are all unskilfully designed, and set back from the face of 
the wall with a bald plain splay of brickwork round them ; the lower 
windows here have two transomes and the upper a single band of heavy 
tracery which performs the part of a transome in an ungainly fashion, 
though not so badly as in the great south-transept window in the same 
church. Here, just as at the Frari, it is obvious that the absence of 
buttresses to these many-sided apses is the secret of the largeness and 
breadth which mark them ; and, to say the truth, not only are large 
buttresses to an apse often detrimental to its effect, but at the same time 
they are very often not wanted for strength." — Street. 

Making the round of the church from the west end, be- 
ginning on the right, we see : 


The tomb of Doge Pietro Mocenigo, with fifteen allegorical figures, 
by Pietro Lonibardo and his sons Tullio and Antonio, 1477 — 1488. 

The tomb of Admiral Gir. Canal, 1535. Under this is a relief of 
Christ throned between two angels. The grave-stone of Doge Ranieri 
Zen, 1268. 

Right Aisle. Over the First Altar was the famous picture by Bellini 
burnt in 1867. Then comes the black pyramidal tomb of the painter 
Melchior Lancia, 1673, then the tomb to Marc Antonio Bragadin, 1596. 

" The defence of Famagosta, the principal city of Cyprus, was one of 
the most heroic exploits of the age : the combined conduct and valour 
of the Venetian governor, Bragadino, were the theme of universal praise ; 
honourable terms were to be granted to the garrison ; and when he 
notified his intention to be in person the bearer of the keys, the Turkish 
commander replied in the most courteous and complimentary terms, that 
he should feel honoured and gratified by receiving him. Bragadino 
came, attended by the officers of his staff, dressed in his purple robes, 
and with a red umbrella, the sign of his rank, held over him. In the 
course of the ensuing interview the Pasha suddenly springing up, accused 
him of having put some Mussulman prisoners to death ; the officers 
were dragged away and cut to pieces, whilst Bragadino was reserved for 
the worst outrages that vindictive cruelty could inflict. He was thrice 
made to bare his neck to the executioners, whose sword was thrice lifted 
as if about to strike : his ears were cut off : he was driven every morning 
for ten days, heavy laden with baskets of earth, to the batteries, and 
compelled to kiss the ground before the Pasha's pavilion as he passed. 
He was hoisted to the yard-arm of one of the ships and exposed to 
the derision of the sailors. Finally, he was carried to the square of 
Famagosta, stripped, chained to a stake on the public scaffold, and 
slowly flayed alive, while the Pasha looked on. His skin, stuffed with 
straw, was then mounted on a cow, paraded through the streets with 
the red umbrella over it, suspended at the bowsprit of the admiral's 
galley, and displayed as a trophy during the whole voyage to Con- 
stantinople. The skin was afterwards purchased of the Pasha by 
the family of Bragadino, and deposited in an urn in the church of SS. 
Giovanni e Paolo." — Quarterly Revie^u, No. 274. 

Second Altar. A picture in many compartments, probably by V, 

Over the following doors, the immense Tombs of the Doges Silvestro 
and Bertuccio Valier, and the wife of Silvestro, by Tirali, 1708. 

" Towering from the pavement to the vaulting of the church, behold 
a mass of marble, sixty or seventy feet in height, of mingled yellow and 
white, the yellow carved into the form of an enormous curtain, with 


ropes, fringes, and tassels, sustained by cherubs ; in front of which, in 
the now usual stage attitudes, advance the statues of the Doge Bertuccio 
Valier, his son, the Doge Silvester Valier, and his son's wife, Elizabeth. 
The statues of the Doges, though mean and Polonius-like, are partly 
redeemed by the ducal robes ; but that of the Dogaressa is a consum- 
mation of grossness, vanity, and ugliness, — the figure of a large and 
wrinkled woman, with elaborate curls in stiff projection round her face, 
covered from her shoulders to her feet with ruffs, furs, lace, jewels, and 
embroidery. Beneath and around are scattered Virtues, Victories, 
Fames, Genii, — the entire company of the monumental stage assembled, 
as before a drop scene, — executed by various sculptors, and deserving 
attentive study as exhibiting every condition of false taste and feeble 
conception. The Victory in the centre is peculiarly interesting ; the 
lion by which she is accompanied, springing on a dragon, has been in- 
tended to look terrible, but the incapable sculptor could not conceive 
any form of dreadfulness, could not even make the lion look angry. It 
looks only lacrymose ; and its lifted forepaws, there being no spring nor 
motion in its body, give it the appearance of a dog begging. The in- 
scription under the two statues are as follows : — 

" Bertucius Valier, Duke, Great in wisdom and eloquence, Greater 
in his Hellespontic victory. Greatest in the Prince his son. Died, 1658. 

" Elizabeth Quirina, the wife of Silvester, Distinguished by Roman 
virtue. By Venetian piety, And by the Ducal Crown, Died, 1708." — 
Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 

In the Chapel which opens beneath this monument (left) is a picture 
of S. Hyacinth by Leandro Bassano. 

The Chapel of S. Domenic is covered with rich bronze decorations by 
Camillo Alazza. 

Right Transept (on the wall). S. Augustine, by Bart. Vivarini, 
1473. Tomb of Nicolo Orsini, 1509, who commanded the armies of 
the Republic in the war against the league before Cambray — a golden 
warrior on a horse. 

Altar with S. Antonino, by Lorenzo Lotto. 

Over the door. Monument of General Dionigi Naldo, by Lorenzo 
Bregno, 1510 — a standing figure. 

Stained glass by Girolamo Mocetto, from designs of Vivarini, 1473. 

Altar. Rocco Marconi. Christ between SS. Andrew and Peter. 

" This is one of the best pictures of the school, with most beautiful mild 
heads, especially that of Christ, which resembles the Christ of Bellini. 
S. Peter's attitude expresses the deepest devotion. Above him, is a 
choir of angels making music." — Burckhardt. 


I H Chapel, East End. Bonifazio. Three Saints. 

Altar by Alessandro Vittoria, with a crucifix by Cavrioli. 

(Right). Tomb of Paolo Loredan, 1365. 

2nd Chapel. Cappella delta Maddalena {right). Monument of Matteo 
Giustiniani, 1574. Over the altar a statue of the Magdalen, by Gugl. 

{Left). Monument of Marco Giustiniani, 1347, and over it a Ma- 
donna with kneeling Senators, by J. Tintoretto. On a pillar, a pulpit 
of 1 5 10. 

Apse {right of High Altar). The beautiful Gothic tomb of Doge 
Michele Morosini, 1382. Morosini only reigned for four months, but 
they were rendered remarkable by the capture of Tenedos. 

The tomb of Doge Leonardo Loredan, by Grapiglia, 1572 — the statue 
of the Doge is by Campagna. 

{Left). The tomb of Doge Andrea Vendramin, 1478, probably by 
Tullio Lonibardo. The surrounding statuettes are of great beauty. 
Much praise has also been bestowed upon the figure of the Doge, but 
spectators are not generally aware that the effigy has only one side, that 
turned to the beholder. 

" This doge died, after a short reign of two years, the most disastrous 
in the annals of Venice. He died of a pestilence which followed the 
ravage of the Turks, carried to the shores of the lagoons. He died, 
leaving Venice disgraced by sea and land, with the smoke of hostile 
devastation rising in the blue distances of Friuli ; and there was raised 
to him the most costly tomb ever bestowed upon her monarchs. . . . 
Who, with a heart in his breast, could have stayed his hand, as he drew 
the dim lines of the old man's countenance, — could have stayed his hand 
as he reached the bend of the grey forehead, and measured out the last 
veins of it, at so much the zecchin ? 

"... This lying monument to a dishonoured doge, this culminating 
point of the Renaissance art of Venice, is at least veracious, if in nothing 
else, in its testimony to the character of its sculptor. He was banished 
from Venice for forgery in 1487." — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, ch. i. 

Tomb of Doge Marco Corner, with saints above, of beautiful 14th- 
century Gothic ; probably of the Massegne. 

Capella delta Trinity {right). Tomb of Pietro Comer. 

^rd Cfiapel {right). Leandro Bassano. A Coronation of the Virgin. 

{Left). The Monument of Andrea Morosini, 1347. 

4/A Chapel, Cappella di S. Pio {right). Tomb of Jacopo Cavalli, Com- 
mander of the Venetian troops in the famous Chioggian war, by Paolo 
di Jacobello delle Massegne, 1394, with an inscription in Venetian dialect. 
"The sarcophagus is heavily but richly adorned with leaf-mouldings, 


and with roundels containing the symbols of the Evangelists in alto-re- 
lief. Upon it lies the effigy of the brave knight clad in armour. His 
face is very much sunken in his helmet, his hands are crossed upon his 
breast, his head rests upon a lion, and his feet upon a dog, fitting 
emblems of his honour and fidelity. " — Perkin's Italiatt Sculptors. 

Tomb of Doge Giovanni Dolfin, 14th century. 

" The sarcophagus is enriched with statuettes, and with bas-reliefs of 
the doge and the dogaressa kneeling at the feet of the enthroned Christ, 
the Death of the Virgin, and the Epiphany, and has an elaborate leaf- 
work cornice and plinth." — Perkin's Italian Sculptors. 

Beneath this the tomb of Marino Caballo, 1572. 

Left Transept. Marble group, of Vittore Capello (brother of Bianca) 
receiving the staff of command from S. Helena, by Antonio Dentone, 

(Over tlie door). Tomb of Doge Antonio Venier, 1400, of the school 
of the Massegne. Tiirough this door was the entrance to the Capella 
del Rosario, still a ruin from the fire of August 1 6, 1 867, in which the 
two great pictures of the church perished. 

Tomb of Agnese, wife of Doge Antonio Venier, and of their daughter 
Orsola, 141 1. 

Tomb of Leonardo da Prato, knight of Rhodes, 15 11. 

Left Aisle. Over the door of the Sacristy busts of Titian and the two 
Palmas by J. Alberelli. Before this door lie the bones of Palma Gio- 
vane (Giovanni and Gentile Bellini are also buried in this church). In 
the Saeristy are a Cross-bearing of Alvise Vivarini, and a Foundation 
of the Dominican Order, I^andro Bassano. 

Tomb of Doge Pasquale Malipiero, Florentine work of the 15th 

Tomb of the Senator Bonzio, 1508. Beneath this the statue of S. 
Thomas, by Antonio Lombardo, and S. Peter Martyr, by PcloIo da 
Milano. Tomb of Doge Michele Steno, 141 3, and that of Alvise Tre- 
visan, 1528 (these are the only tombs placed sufficiently low for careful 

Monument of Pompeo Giustiniani, with his figure on horseback, by 
Franc Terilli, 1616. Beneath this, the epitaph of Doge Giovanni Dan- 
dolo, 1289. 

Monument of Doge Tomaso Mocenigo, 1424. 

" The tomb of this Doge is wrought by a Florentine ; but it is of the 
same general type and feeling as all the Venetian tombs of that period, 
and it is one of the last which retains it. The classical element enters 
largely into its details, but the feeling of the whole is as yet unaffected. 
Like all the lovely tombs of Venice and Verona, it is a sarcophagus 


with a recumbent figure above, and this figure is a faithful but tender 
portrait, wrought as far as it can be without painfulness, of the Doge as 
he lay in death. He wears his ducal robe and bonnet — his head is laid 
slightly aside upon his pillow —his hands are simply crossed as they fall. 
The face is emaciated, the features large, but so pure and lordly in their 
natural chiselling, that they must have looked like marble even in their 
animation. They are deeply worn away by thought and death ; the 
veins on the temples branched and starting ; the skin gathered in sharp 
folds ; the brow high-arched and shaggy ; the eye-ball magnificently 
large ; the curve of the lips just veiled by the slight moustache at the 
side ; the beard short, double, and sharp-pointed : all noble and quiet ; 
the white sepulchral dust marking like light the stem angles of the 
cheek and brow." — Raskin, Stones of Venice, ch. i. 

Monument of Doge Nicolo Marcello, 1474, a grand specimen of the 
Lombardi style, by Aless. Leopardi. 

Altar of the Rosary. A copy of the S. Peter Martyr of Titian, which 
was destroyed in the Chapel of the Rosario on the morning after the 
festa of the Assumption, 1867, by a fire probably caused by the smould- 
ering wax candles carelessly put away in the chapel. " Painted when 
Luther was at his zenith, it perished in the days of Mazzini and Gari- 

Monument of Hor. Baglioni, 161 7, with an equestrian figure. 

The Last Altar, by Guglielnio Bergamesco, 1523, has a statue of S. 
Jerome, by Aless. Vittoria. 

Monument of Doge Giovanni Mocenigo, 1485, by Tullio Lombardo.* 

Close to the great door. Tomb of Doge Alvise Mocenigo, 1576 ; and 
his wife, Loredana Marcella. Tomb of Doge Giovanni Bembo, by Girol. 

Outside the church, occupying the north side of the 
Campo, is the Scuola di S. Marco, a beautiful specimen of 
the pecuhar architecture of the Lombardi, decorated with 
coloured marbles. The perspective views in marble are very 
curious. The interior is now used as a hospital : it has two 
noble halls. Here was the burial-place of the Falier family. 
When the sarcophagus of the unhappy Doge Marino Faliero 
was opened, his body was found with the head between his 

♦ There were seven Doges of the Mocenigo famil 


In the adjoining Canipo is a beautiful well of the i6th 
century. Another, perhaps even finer specimen, is in the 
adjoining Corte Bressana. 

Returning to our gondola, on the same canal (Rio dei 
Mendicanti), is the Church of S. Lazaro (the Mendicanti 
saint). Its architect was Vine. Scamozzt, 1601 — 1663. It 
contains the tomb of Alvise Mocenigo, by Giuseppe Sardi. 

Entering the lagoon, and turning to the right, we soon 
pass near the great Church of S. Francesco della Vigna 
(entered from a side canal), begun in 1534, but not finished 
till 1634. It was built at the expense of Doge Andrea 

The exterior is by Palladia ; the interior, which was com- 
pleted first, by Sansovino. We may observe : 

Right Aisle, 1st Altar. Paul Veronese. The Resurrection. 

Right Transept, Left Chapel. Fra Antonio da Negroponte. 

"The Madonna, with a kindly round physiognomy, in a mantle 
shining with gold, and with a nimbus painted in relief, is seated before 
a luxuriant rosebush, upon a stone throne of a showy Renaissance style 
of architecture, with genii and antique decorations in relief. Above the 
throne are rich pendants of fruit, and below, a flowery meadow with 
\ery natural birds. She is adoring the Infant who lies in her lap, and 
who, with the true Paduan feeling, is drawn in a hard and sculp- 
turesque style. Four cherubs in gay robes are standing by." — Kugler. 

Over door. Tomb of Dom. Trevisani by Sansovino. 

Left of Altar. Giustiniani Chapel with sculptures of the 15th century. 
Tomb of Doge Marc- Antonio Giustiniani, 1688. 

Left Transept. Tomb of Marc- Antonio Trevisani, 1554, buried in 
front of the high altar. The door beneath this tomb leads to the Cap- 
pella Santa (so called from a miraculous Madonna), containing a picture 
of the Madonna and Saints by Giovanni Bellini. Here is the entrance 
to a pretty cloister. 

The Sacristy has a picture of SS. Antonio, Jerome, and Nicholas, by 
Bernardino di Fiori. 

Over the Pulpit is Christ with God the Father, by Girolamo Santa 

Left Aisle, 1st Chapel. Paul Veronese. Virgin and Child ; S. Antony 


is seen below, turning towards the spectator, his bag at his side; a 
female martyred saint seated by him is gazing upwards. 

yd Chapel. Statue of Gerardo Sagredo and Tomb of Doge Nicol6 
Sagredo, 1743. 

i^h Chapel. Alessandro Vittoria. SS. Antony, Sebastian, and Roch. 

Following the lagoon along the outer wall of the Arsenal 
so often painted by our landscape artists, we enter the broad 
Canale di S. Pietro, under the Island of S. Pietro, where the 
Doges were elected in the earliest times of the Republic. 
It was here that the Rape of the Venetian brides took place, 
Feb. 2, 944 ; they were carried off by pirates, and were 
pursued and rescued (according to Dam and Sismondi) by 
an armament hastily equipped by the Doge in person. 

The Church of S. Pietro di Castello, formerly SS. Sergius 
and Bacchus, is of very ancient foundation, and was the early 
cathedral of the Republic. The church was entirely rebuilt 
at the end of the i6th century, and presents nothing to 
admire except the campanile, which is remarkable for the 
long architectural lines which give it so stately an effect. 
This tower " is one which has forsaken the true Roman- 
esque detail, but in which the true Romanesque feeling is 
not lost." 

" At a distance il has thoroughly the air of a third ancient campanile, 
the compeer of the island basilicas of Murano and Torcello. It is only 
on coming near enough to study the details that one can discern that it 
is really a work of the revived classical style of the sixteenth century. 
So thoroughly has the architect caught the spirit of a type of which he 
despised the detail, and so slight is the boundary which in the native 
land of both, divides the style which continues Roman forms by un- 
broken tradition, and that which fell back upon them by conscious 
imitation. " — Freeman. 

■' It is credibly reported to have been founded in the seventh century, 
and (with somewhat less of credibility) in a place where the Trojans, 
conducted by Antenor, had, after the destruction of Troy, built 'un 
castello, chiamato prima Troja, poscia Olivolo, interpretato, luogo 


pieno.' It seems that S. Peter appeared in person to the Bishop of 
Heraclea, and commanded him to found, in his honour, a church in that 
spot of the rising city on the Rialto. The title of Bishop of Castello 
was first taken in 1091 ; S. Mark's was not made the cathedral church 
till 1807." — Raskin, Stones of Venice. 

The interior of the church is by G. Grapiglia We may- 
notice : 

Right of Entrance. Marco Basaiti. S. George — most beautiful, though 

Right, beyond 2nd Altar. An old Bishop's chair, of Arabian origin, 
engraved with a sentence from the Koran. 

*2,rd Altar. Marco Basaiti. S. Peter throned between four saints — 
a noble and beautiful picture — with the characteristic of the master, who 
loved figures in shadow against a glowing sky. 

" The same exclusively religious character may be remarked in Basaiti, 
who resembles Cima da Conegliano in many respects, although he differs 
from him in the general tone of his compositions, which rather incline to 
softness and grace, whilst those of Cima are characterized by a majestic 
severity. Basaiti is particularly distinguished by the harmony and 
suavity of his colouring, by his knowledge of chiaroscuro, in which he is 
superior to most of his contemporaries, and by the expression of angelic 
beatitude and calm melancholy which he gives to his personages. He 
is inferior to Cima in the arrangement of his landscapes and the disposi- 
tion of his draperies, but these purely external defects are fully compen- 
sated by the deep religious feeling which breathes in all his composi- 
tions. . . In these pictures of S. Pietro in Castello, notwithstanding 
their injured condition, the suave and harmonious touch of the artist may 
still be recognised." — Rio. 

Behind the High Altar. Bust of S. Lorenzo Giustiniani, 1st Patriarch 
of Venice, of the 15th century. 

The neighbouring Church of S. Giuseppe di Castello 
(seldom open) contains the tomb of Marino Grimani, with 
bronze ornaments by Girolamo Campagna, and the tomb 
of Girolamo Grimani by Aless. Vittoria. 

Close to this, is the entrance of the Public Gardens — 
Giardini Pubblici — laid out by Giannantonio Selva in i8io. 
They are approached from the Riva degli Schiavoni by the 


widest street in Venice, now called Via Garibaldi. Here is 
a beautiful Gothic gateway. The gardens are generally- 

" II y a, comme k I'ordinaire, tres-peu de promeneurs. Les Veniti- 
ennes elegantes craignent le chaud et n'oseraient sortir en plein jour, 
mais en revanche elles craignent le froid et ne hasardent guere dehors 
la nuit. II y a trois ou quatre jours, faits expres pour elles dans chaque 
saison, ou. elles font lever la couverture de la gondole, mais elles mettent 
rarement les pieds a terre ; c'est une espece a part, si molle et si delicate 
qu'un rayon de soleil ternit leur beaute, et qu'un souffle de la brise ex- 
pose leur vie. Les hommes civilises cherchent de preference les lieux 
ou ils peuvent rencontrer le beau sexe : le theatre, les conversazioni, les 
cafes, et I'enceinte abritee de la Piazzetta a sept heures du soir. II ne 
reste done aux jardins que quelques vieillards grognons, quelques 
fumeurs stupides, et quelques bilieux melancoliques." — George Satid, 
Lettres (Tun Voyageur. 

The Giardini Pubblici is one of the best points from which 
to watch the glorious Venetian sunset. Here are two de- 
scriptions of it : 

*' Le soleil etait descendu derriere les monts Vicentins. De grandes 
nuees violettes traversaient le ciel au-dessus de Venise. La tour de 
Saint-Marc, les coupoles de Sainte Marie, et cette pepiniere de fleches 
et de minarets qui s'eleve de tous les points de la ville, se dessinaient en 
aiguilles noires sur le ton etincelant de I'horizon. Le ciel arrivait, par 
une admirable degradation de nuances, du rouge-cerise au bleu de smalt ; 
et I'eau, calme et limpide comme une glace, recevait exactement le re- 
flet de cette immense irridation. Au-dessous de Venise elle avait I'air 
d'un grand miroir de cuivre rouge. Jamais je n'avais vu Venise si belle 
et si feerique. Cette noire silhouette jetee entre le ciel et I'eau ardente, 
comme dans une mer de feu, etait alors une de ces sublimes aberrations 
d'architecture que le poete de 1' Apocalypse a du voir flotter sur les 
greves de Patmos, quand il revait sa Jerusalem nouvelle et qu'il la com- 
parait a une belle epousee. 

"Peu a peu les couleurs s'obscurcirent, les contours devinrent plus 
massifs, les profondeurs plus mysterieuses. Venise prit I'aspect d'une 
flotte immense, puis d'un bois de hauts cypres ou les canaux s'enfon- 
5aient comme de grands chemins de sable argente. Ce sont la les 
instants oil j'airae a regarder au loin. Quand les formes s'effacent. 


quand les objets semblent trembler dans la brume ; quand mon imagina- 
tion peut s'elancer dans un champ immense de conjectures et de 
caprices." — George Sand, Lettres dun Voyageur. 

" La ligne de maisons de la Giudecca qu'interrompt le dome de 
I'eglise du Redempteur ; la pointe de la Douane de mer elevant sa tour 
carree, surmontee de deux Hercules soutenant une Fortune ; les deux 
coupoles de Santa Maria della Salute, ferment une decoupure merveil- 
leusement accidentee, qui se detache en vigueur sur le ciel et fait le fond 
du tableau. 

" L'lle de Saint-Georges-Majeur, placee plus avant, sert de repous- 
soir, avec son eglise, son dome et son clocher de briques, diminutif du 
Campanile, qu'on aper9oit a droite, au-dessus de I'ancienne Bibliotheque 
et du palais ducal. 

"Tous ces edifices baignes d'ombre, puisque la lumiere est derriere 
eux, ont des tons azures, lilas, violets, sur lesquels se dessinent en noir 
les agres des batiments a I'ancre ; au-dessus d'eux eclate un incendie de 
splendeurs, un feu d'artifice de rayons ; le soleil s'abaisse dans des 
amoncellements de topazes, de rubis, d'amethysts que le vent fait couler 
a chaque minute, en changeant la forme des nuages ; des fusees eblouis- 
santes jaillissent entre les deux coupoles de la Salute, et quelquefois, 
selon le point oil Ton est place, la fleche de Palladio coupe en deux le 
disque et I'astre. 

" Ce coucher de soleil a la lagune pour miroir : toutes ces lueurs, 
tous les rayons, tous ces feux, toutes ces phosphorescences misellent sur 
le clapotis des vagues en etincelles, en paillettes, en prismes, en trainees 
de flamme. Cela reluit, cela scintille, cela flamboie, cela s'agite dans 
un fourmillement lumineux perpetuel. Le clocher de Saint Georges- 
Majeur, avec son ombre opaque qui s'allonge au loin, tranche en noir 
sur cet embrasement aquatique, ce qui le grandit d'une fa9on demesuree 
et lui donne I'air d'avoir sa base au fond de I'abime. La decoupure des 
edifices semble nager entre deux ciels ou entre deux mers. Est-ce 
I'eau qui reflete le ciel ou le ciel qui reflete I'eau ? L'oeil hesite et tout 
se confonde, dans un eblouissement general." — Gautier, ^^ Italia." 

Very near one end of the gardens is the Church of S. 
Biagio, contauiing the tomb of Angelo Emo by G. Ferrari. 
Close to this our gondolier should turn up the Rio del 
Arsenale, to the principal buildings of the Arsenal, which, 
begun in 1300, is nearly two miles in circuit. Its battle- 
mented walls are attributed to Andrea Fisano. The Renais- 


sance gate-way has quaint red towers. The statue of S. 
Giustina is by Gir. Campagna, and commemorates the Battle 
of Lepanto, fought on her festival, Oct. 7, 1571. 

On either side the entrance stand the two famous Lions 
brought from Athens in 1687 by Doge Francesco Morosini. 

"The lion, in a sitting posture, and ten feet in height, stood on the 
inner shore of the Piroeus harbour, which it seemed to guard. From 
that statue the harbour itself derived the name of Porto Leone, which it 
bore among the Franks all through the Middle Ages and down to our 
own times. As such it is mentioned by Lord Byron in ' the Giaour.' 

"The second statue, also of Pentelic marble, was nearly equal to the 
first in point of art, but far less good in point of preservation. The 
travellers of 1675 saw it on its original base, a little outside the city, 
near the ancient 'Sacred Way.' The animal is represented as couch- 
ing and at rest ; and Spon says that he felt inclined to address it in the 
following words : ' Sleep on, Lion of Athens, since the Lion of the 
Harbour watches for thee. '* 

" Close observers must from the first have noticed with surprise that 
the statue of the sitting lion bore around each of its shoulders, and in 
serpentine folds, the remains of barbaric inscriptions. These strange 
characters were after a time recognised as Norwegian Runes. Their 
interpretation is due to M. Rafnr, an antiquary of Copenhagen. If 
reduced to straight lines the inscription on the lion's left shoulder is as 
follows : 

" ' Hakon, combined with Ulf, with Asmund, and with Om, conquered 
this port (the Piroeus). These men and Harold the Tall.t imposed large 
fines, on account of the revolt of the Greek people. Dalk has been 
detained in distant lands. Egil was waging war, together with Ragnar, 
in Roumania and Armenia.' 

" We will now give the inscription from the right shoulder of the 
lion : 

" ' Asmund engraved these Runes in combination with Asgeir, Thor- 
leif, Thord, and Ivar, by desire of Harold the Tall, although the Greeks 
on reflection opposed it. ' " — Quarterly Reviroj. 

* Voyages de Spon ct Wheler, vol. ii. , pp. 145 et 177, ed. 1679. 

t Harold, son of Sigurd, called Hardrada, or 'the Severe.' In 1040, he overcame 
the Athenian insurgents ; and, in 1042, dethroned the Emperor Michael and pro- 
claimed Zoe and Theodora joint Empresses of Constantinople. He succeeded Mag- 
nus the Good upon the throne of Norway, and on Sep. 25, 1066, was killed by an 
arrow in battle at Stamford Bridge near York, whilst fighting against Harold the 
Saxon in behalf of his brother Tosti. 

VOL. II. 7 


The Annoury and Museum (open from 9 to 3, upon leav- 
ing your name) contains much of interest, especially to those 
conversant with naval affairs. Ordinary travellers will notice : 

Lower Hall. — 

Model of a Venetian house, showing the piles on which it is built. 
Mast of the Bucentaur. 
Model of the Bucentaur. 

The Bucentaur was used in the ceremony of wedding the Adriatic, 
which was enjoined by the gratitude of Pope Alexander III. after 
the victory of the Venetians under Doge Sebastiano Ziani over the 
fleet of Frederick Barbarossa, and which thenceforth annually proclaim- 
ed the naval supremacy of Venice to the world. This was attended by 
the papal Nuncio and the whole of the diplomatic corps, who, without 
protest, every year witnessed the dropping of a sanctified ring into the 
sea, with the prescriptive accompaniment : Desponsanitis te, mare, in sig- 
num veri perpetuique dominii. (We espouse thee, sea, in sign of true and 
lasting dominion.) 

" The spouseless Adriatic mourns her lord ; 

And, annual marriage now no more renewed. 

The Bucentaur lies rotting unrestored, 

Neglected garment of her widowhood ! 

S. Mark yet sees his lion where he stood 

Stand, but in mockery of his withered power. 

Over the proud Place where an Emperor sued, 

And monarclis gazed and envied in tlie hour 
When Venice was a queen with an unequalled dower." 

Byron, Childe Harold. 

Upper Hall.~ 

Banners taken at Lepanto. 

Monument and relics of Vittore Pisani, 1 380. 

Armour of .Sebastiano Venier, hero of Lepanto, Oct. 7, 1571. 

Armour of Agostino Barbarigo, 15 71. 

Armour of Henri IV. of France, given by him to the Republic in 

Armour of Doge Contarini. 
Armour of Doge Sebastiano Ziani, ob. 1 1 78. 
Armour of Gattemelata, 1438. 


Armour of Cristofero More, given by Pope Pius II., 1468. 

Sword of Doge Pesaro. 

Armour of Doge Alvise Mocenigo. 

Armour used in Torture, 

The Doge's Chair, used when he visited the arsenal. 

Beautifully wrought Springal, by the son of Doge Pasquale Cicogna, 

1 6th century. 
Horse Armour, found at Aquileja. 

The Arsenal of Venice furnished Dante with one of the 
most remarkable similes for his Inferno. 

'* Quale neir arzana de' Viniziani 
Bolle I'invemo la tenace pece 
A rimpalmar li legni lor non sani 

Chi navicar non ponno ; e'n quella vece 
Chi fa suo legno nuovo, e chi ristoppa 
Le coste a quel che piii viaggi fece ; 

Che ribatte da proda, e chi da poppa ; 
Altri fa remi, e altri volge sarte ; 
Chi terzeruolo ed artimon rintoppa : 

Tal, non per fuoco, ma per divina arte, 
Bollia laggiuso una pegola spessa." — Inf. xxi. 7 — 18. 

Close to the Arsenal, is the Church of S. Martina, built 
by J. Sansovino, 1540 — 1653. It contains : 

Right, 2nd Chapel. Tomb of Doge Francesco Erizzo, by Matteo 

Right of High Altar. Girolamo da Santa Croce. The Resurrection. 
A Bergamasque master — one of his early pictures. 

On the Organ Gallery. Id. The Last Supper, 1459. 

The font has four angels by Tidlio Lombardo, 1484. 

Returning to the Lagoon, behind the Riva degli Schiavoni, 
is the 15th-century Church of S. Giovanni in Bragora. It 
contains several very fine pictures : 

Right Aisle. Paris Bordone. Last Supper. 
Sacristy. Giovanni Bellini. Madonna. 

Lazzaro Sebastiani, Deposition. 


* Right of High Altar. Cima da Conegliano. Helena and Constan- 

*Apse. Cima da Cone^iano. The Baptism of Christ — one of the 
grandest works of the master, which ought to be thoroughly studied. It 
can only be properly seen by standing on the altar. 

" In the dignity of the head of Christ, in the beauty of the angels, 
and the solemn gestures of the Baptist, this picture is incomparable." — 

Luigi Vivarini. The Resurrection. 

"Here the hardness of Bartolomeo is mellowed, partly through the 
influence of Bellini, into a really noble grace and fulness." — Burck- 

Cima da Conegliano. The story of the True Cross. 

In the Campo di S. Giovanni in Bragora is the fine old 
Palazzo Badoer, of 13 lo, inlaid with coloured marbles. It 
has been infamously modernized. 

" The ogeed arches of the windows are more than usually good ; 
whilst the beauty of the central window, inclosed within a square line 
of moulding, within which the wall is incrusted with marble relieved by 
medallions, is very great. The balconies of the lower windows are 
clearly modem, but there is a trace of the original balustrade between 
the shafts of the windows in the second stage ; and in front of the side- 
lights to the upper window is a grille of iron-work taking the place of 
a balcony, and composed of a combination of quatrefoils. The arrange- 
ment of the windows in this part is not absolutely regular, but still the 
centre is very marked ; and though it is of early date, the true use of the 
arch nowhere appears. The usual dog-tooth cornice fini.shes the walls 
under the eaves." — Street. 



In a gondola to — 

S. Moise, S. Maria Zobenigo, S. Maurizio, S. Stefano, S. Luca, S. 
Salvatore, S. Lio, La Madonna dei Miracoli, S. Apostoli, Palazzo Falier, 
S. Maria Gesuiti, The Misericordia, La Madonna del Orto, S. Giobbe, 
La Maddalena, 

THOSE who wish to select need only leave their gondolas 
at S. Stefano and S. Maria del Orto, and perhaps for 
the staircase in the Corte del Maltese. But the excursion is 
one which gives an admirable idea of the quiet bits of 
beauty in the side canals, of the marvellous variety of the 
palaces rising steeply from the pale green water, of the briUiant 
acacias leaning over the old sculptured walls, of the banksia 
roses falling over the parapets of the little courts like snow- 
drifts, and of the tamarisks feathering down into the water, 
which is ever lapping with melancholy cadence against what 
Ruskin calls " the sea-stories." Travellers may often com- 
plain of the weariness of the Venetian sights and of their 
being so like one another. It is quite true that they are so, 
but let those who are bored sit still in their gondolas. For 
the sake of a few gems many churches must be visited, but 
the gondola-days afford many delightful memories for those 
who never do any definite sight-seeing. 


" Floating down narrow lanes, where carpenters, at work with plane 
and chisel in their shops, toss the light shaving straight upon the water, 
where it lies like weed, or ebbs away before us in a tangled heap. Past 
open doors, decayed and rotten from long steeping in the wet, through 
which some scanty patch of vine shines green and bright, making un- 
usual shadows on the pavement with its trembling leaves. Past quays 
and terraces, where women, gracefully veiled, are passing and repassing, 
and where idlers are reclining in the sunshine on flagstones and on 
flights of steps. Past bridges, where there are idlers too, loitering and 
looking over. Below stone balconies, erected at a giddy height, before 
the loftiest windows of the loftiest houses. Past plots of garden, theatres, 
shrines, prodigious piles of architecture, — ^Gothic — Saracenic — fanciful 
with all the fancies of all times and countries. Past buildings that were 
high, and low, and black, and white, and straight, and crooked ; mean 
and grand, crazy and strong. Twining among a tangled lot of boats 
and barges, and shooting out at last into a Grand Canal ! " — Dickens. 

The part of Venice we are about to visit is divided by a 
wider canal than most into the two principal islands of 
Castello and S. Nicolo. It is curious to see how traces of a 
fierce rivalry, at least 350 years old, still appears in their 
popular songs, e. g. 

" Nu semo Castelani e tanto basta, 
E marciaremo co la fassa rossa, 
E marciaremo co'l sigaro in boca : 
Faremo le cortelae, chi toca, toca ! " 

" E semo Nicoloti e tanto basta, 
E marciaremo co la fassa nera. 
La fassa negra e'l fiore su'l capelo 
Faremo le cortelae co quel de Castelo." 

"NuUe part il n'y a plus de paroles et moins de faits, plus de que- 
relles et moins de rixes. Les barcarolles ont un merveilleux talent pour 
se dire des injures, mais il est bien rare qu'ils en viennent aux mains. Deux 
barques se rencontrent et se heurtent a Tangle d'un mur, par la mala- 
dresse de I'un et I'inattention de I'autre. Les deux barcarolles attendent 
en silence le choc qu'il n'est plus temps d'eviter ; leur premier reijard 
est pour la barque ; quand ils se sont assures I'un et I'autre de ne s'etre 
point endommages, ils commencent a se toiser pendant que les barques 
se separent. Alors commence la discussion. — Pourquoi n'as-tu pas crie, 


siastali t — ^J'ai crie. — Non. — Si fait. — Je gage que non, corpo di Bacto. 
— ^Je jure que si, sangue di Diana. — Mais avec quelle diable de voix ? — 
Mais quelle espece d'oreilles as-tu pour entendre ? — Dis-moi dans quel 
cabaret tu t'eclaircis la voix de la sorte. — Dis-moi de quel ane la mere a 
reve quand elle etait grosse de toi. — La vache qui t'a con9u aurait dA 
I'apprendre a beugler. — L'anesse qui t'a enfante aurait du te donner les 
oreilles de ta famille, — Qu'est-ce que tu dis, race de chien ? ' — Qu'est- 
cequetu dis, fils da guenon? Alors la discussion s'anime, et va toujours 
s'echauffant a mesure que les champions s'eloignent. Quand ils ont mis 
un ou deux ponts entre eux, les menaces commencent. — Viens done un 
peu ici, que je te fasse savoir de quel bois sont faites mes rames. — 
Attends, attends, figure de marsouin, que je fasse sombrer la coque de 
noix en crachant dessus. — Si j'eternuais aupres de ta coquille d'oeuf, je 
la ferais voler en I'air. — Ta gondole aurait bon besoin d'enfoncer un peu 
pour laver les vers dont elle est rongee. — La tienne doit avoir des 
araignees, car tu as vole le jupon de ta maitresse pour lui faire una 
doublure. — Maudite soit la madone de ton traguet pour n'avoir pas 
envoye la peste a de pareils gondoliers ! — Si la madone de ton traguet 
n'etait pas la concubine du diable, il y a longtemps que tu serais noye. 
— Et ainsi de metaphore en metaphore on en vient aux plus horribles 
imprecations; mais heureusement, au moment oil il est question de 
s'egorger, les voix se perdent dans reloignement, et les injures continuent 
encore longtemps apres que les deux adversaires ne s'entendent plus." — 
George Sand. 

The first canal on the right beyond the mole of the Piaz- 
zetta leads speedily to the gorgeous fa9ade of the Church of 
S. Mo'ise, built by A. Tremignano, 1688. It contains, near the 
entrance, the grave of Law, the originator of the South Sea 
Bubble, who died here, 1729. Montesquieu, who met him 
at Venice, wrote : 

" C'etait le meme homme, toujours I'esprit occupe de projets, tou- 
jours la tete remplie de calculs et de valeurs numeraires ou representa- 
tives. II jouait souvent, et assez gros jeu, quoique sa fortune fut fort 

Chapel left of Altar. Palma Giovane. The Last Supper. 

Tintoretto. Christ washing the disciples' feet. 

The neighbouring Church of S. Mar/a Zx)benigo (or del 
Giglio) was founded by the Zobenico family. It contains 


the tomb of Giulio Contarini by Aless. Vitioria, and a statue 
by Giulio del Moro ; also : 

*2nd Altar on right. Tintoret. Christ with SS. Justina and Au- 

" Christ appears to be descending out of the clouds between the two 
saints, who are both kneeling on the sea shore. It is a Venetian sea, 
breaking on a flat beach, hke the Lido, with a scarlet galley, in the 
middle distance, of which the chief use is to unite the two figures by a 
point of colour. Both the saints are respectable Venetians of the lower 
class, in homely dresses and with homely faces. The whole picture is 
quietly painted, and somewhat slightly ; free from all extravagance, and 
displaying little power except in the general truth or harmony of colours 
so easily laid on. It is better preserved than usual, and worth dwelling 
upon as an instance of the style of the master when at rest." — Rnskin, 
Stones of Venice, vol. iii. 

The Church of S. Matirizio contains sculptures by 
Domenico Fadiga. Near it is the Scuola degli Albajiesi, 
founded by Albanian merchants in 1447. The buildings are 
of 1500 : some curious reliefs are let into the walls. 

The Church of S. Stefano was built by Augustinian 
monks, 1294 — 1320. Its handsome Gothic door is pro- 
bably by the Massegne. 

" The want of proper balance between decoration and the thing 
decorated, and of fit subordination of detail to general effect becomes 
more and more palpable as we approach the period of the Renaissance. 
About this Gothic arch the stone vegetation is absolutely rank, and quite 
out of proportion with the dimensions of the arch itself." — PerkirCs 
Italian Sculptors. 

" The interior of S. Stefano is very fine and unlike what is common in 
the North of Europe. The dimensions are very large. The nave is about 
48 ft. wide, and the whole length about 1 70 ft. There are a cloister and 
a chapter-house north of the nave, and a campanile detached at some 
distance to the east. The arcades of six pointed arches dividing the nave 
from either aisle arevery light, and supported on delicate marble column-, 
whose capitals, with square abaci and foliage of classical character, hardly 
look like Gothic work. The masonry and mouldings of these arches 
are not arranged in a succession of orders, as is the case in almost all 

S. STEFANO, S. LUC A. 105 

good pointed work, but have a broad, plain soffit, with a small and 
shallow moulding at the edge, finished with a dentil or fillet ornament, 
which, originally used by the architect of S. Mark's in order to form the 
lines of constructional stonework within which his encrusted marbles 
were held, was afterwards, down to the very decline of pointed archi- 
tecture, used everywhere in Venice, — not only in its original position, 
but, as at S. Stefano, in place of a label round the arch." — Street, 

In the centre of the nave is the slab tomb of Doge 
Morosini, 1694, by Alessandro Leopardi. 

Left of great door. Tomb of the physician Jacopo Sunano (15 n) of 
Rimini, who is represented, with his wife Eugenia, praying, in a bronze 
relief, near the door of the Sacristy. 

Choir. Statues and reliefs by Vittore Camelio. Before the altar the 
grave of the Archduke Frederick of Austria, 1847. 

Chapel left of High Altar. Tomb of G. B. Farretti, 1557, by AficheU 

Baptistery. Statue of the Baptist, by Giidio del Mora. 

Entrance of Cloister. The fine Tomb of Doge Andrea Contarini, 
1382, corbelled out of the wall. " MCCCVII. Dux creatus. 
MCCCLXXXII in ccelum sublatus." 

The arched bridge under the choir (which is built over a 
canal) should be noticed. 

The Campo S. Stefano contains a number of beautiful old 
buildings. The Palazzo Loredan, of Ionic and Corinthian 
architecture; the Palazzo Morosini oi the i6th century, in 
which G. Morosini, surnamed Peloponnesiaco, was born ; the 
huge Palazzo Pisani, of the 17th century; and the Palazzo 
Baffo, of the 15th century. In the calle which leads to the 
Campo S. Samuele is a house with a most beautiful parapet, 
having delicately carved devices in stone let into each pin- 

Behind S. Stefano is the wide Campo S. Angelo, a little 
beyond which is the Church of S. Luca, built 1581, which 
contains a picture of S. Luke and the Virgin by Paul Ve- 
ronese. Here Pietro Aretino is buried. 


" Surle mur est son portrait, par Alvise dal Friso, neveu et eleve de 
Paul Veronese ; mais il n'y a aucune trace de sa sepulture, qui probablc- 
ment aura disparu lorsque I'eglise fut refaite, a la fin du xvinie siecle. 
Les cures de la paroisse se sont transmis de I'un a I'autre que I'Aretin, 
pres de mourir, ayant refu I'extreme-onction, dit en riant ce vers que la 
bouffonnerie italienne rend peut-etre moins impie qu'il ne le parait : 

Guardatemi da' topi, or che son unto." — Valery. 

Opposite this church is the Teatro Rossini, and just 
beyond it, the Palazzo Contarini, a fine Renaissance 
building of the 15th century. Close by is the Calle delle 
Locande, in which, in the court-yard called Corte del Maltese, 
is a beautiful circular twisted staircase of the :5th century. 
" It has continuous open arcades following the rise of the 
steps, the usual shafted balustrade filling the lower part of 
the openings between the columns." 

In the neighbouring Campo S. Benedetto is a splendid 
half-ruined Gothic palace. The brackets of its balconies, 
the flower-work on its cornices, and the arabesques on the 
angles of the balconies themselves, deserve attention. 

Near this, in the Campo S. Faternian, is the red house of 
Daniele Manin (ob. 1857), honoured as having been instru- 
mental in re-estabUshing the independence of Venice in 
1848. His statue was erected here in 1875. 

By a narrow calle, or a winding canal, we reach the 
Church of S. Salvatore, built on the site of a church of 
the 12th century, in the porch of which Pope Alexander 
III. is said to have taken refuge for the night. It contains : 

Right, 2nd Altar. Gir. Campagna. Statue of the Madonna. 

Jacopo Sansavino, 1556. Tomb of Doge Francesco Venier. The 
figure of the dead Doge is magnificent. 

yd Altar. Titian. Coronation of the Virgin. 

Right Transept. The Monument of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of 
Cyprus, 15 10, hy Bernardino Contino. 

Chapel, Right 0/ High Altar. Bonifazio, Martyrdom of S. Tlieodore. 


High Altar. Titian. The Transfiguration. On the altar a beau- 
tiful Pala (T Argento of 1 290. 

Chapel Left of Altar. Giovanni Bellini. The Supper at Emmaus. 

The Organ Gallery is by Sansovino. Left of the organ is an altar by 
Gugl. Berga?nesco with a figure of S. Jerome by Tomrnaso Lombardo. 

The Church of S. Giuliano, a little behind S. Salvatore, 
was finished by A. Vittoria in 1153. Over the entrance is 
a bronze statue of Tomrnaso da Ravenna by Sansovino. It 
contains : 

Gir. da Santa Croce. The Coronation of the Virgin. 
Boccaccino da Cremona. The Virgin and four saints. 

Further east, is the Church of S. Lie (S. Leone). It 
contains : 

Left, 1st Altar. Titian. S. James. 

A few minutes in the gondola bring us to the Church of 
S. Giovanni Cristostomo, which contains : 

Right, 1st Altar. Giov. Bellini. SS. Jerome, Christopher, and 

High Altar. Sebastian del Piombo. S. Christopher and other saints. 

Last Altar but one. Tullio Lombardo (a relief). Coronation of the 

In the Corte del Sabion behind the church, is the Palazzo 
Polo, with beautiful Gothic windows, a lovely cross let into 
the wall, and an Arabic framework. The details of this 
house are well worth study. It was the birth-place of the 
famous Marco Polo, In the Calk del Bazatin near this, is 
a house with a brick parapet with beautiful varied mould- 
ings, crested with Arabian ornament. 

The Church of the Madonna dei Miracoli has a character 
of its own, and is a relief after the conventionally ugly 
churches usual at Venice. It was built by Pietro Lombardo, 


1484 — 1489, and is of rich white marble, inlaid with red 
and black. The decorations are very rich and delicately 
executed. The interior is unimportant; the statues, right 
and left of the high altar, are by Gir. Campagna. 

" It seems almost incredible that eight years sufficed for the construc- 
tion and ornamentation of this church, which is one of the most ela- 
borate examples of Renaissance architecture. Without and within its 
walls, doorways, and pilasters are covered with leaves, flowers, birds, 
and strange creatures born of a fancy wayward but even logical in its 
deductions from nature, not carelessly carved, but conscientiously worked 
out in every detail with equal taste and skill. The rich balustrades of 
the staircase leading to the chapel of the Sanctuary are adorned with 
small half-figures of the Virgin, the Angel of the Annunciation, S. 
Francis, and S. Chiara, and the pilasters and panels about it are filled 
with ornaments inspired by but not copied from the antique." — Perkin's 
Italian Sculptors. 

The Palazzo Sanudo near this is a noble Gothic 14th-century 
palace with Byzantine cornices and fragments, especially in 
its inner court. Its door is quite perfect, "retaining its 
wooden valve richly sculptured, its wicket for examination of 
the stranger demanding admittance, and its quaint knocker 
in the form of a fish." 

Near this, on the Rio dei S. Apostoli, is the Palazzo 
Palier, which occupies the site of the house of Marino 
Faliero, beheaded 1355. It has a beautiful Byzantine 

" But for this range of windows, the little piazza SS. Apostoli would 
be one of the least picturesque in Venice ; to those, however, who seek 
it on foot, it becomes geographically interesting from the extraordinary 
involution of the alleys leading to it from the Rialto. It is only with 
much patience, and modest following of the guidance of the marble 
thread beneath his feet, that the pedestrian will at last emerge over a 
steep bridge into the open space of the Piazza, rendered cheerful in 
autumn by a perpetual market of pomegranates, and purple gourds, like 
enormous black figs ; while the canal, at its extremity, is half blocked 


up by barges laden with vast baskets of grapes as black as charcoal, 
thatched over with their own leaves. 

" Looking back, on the other side of the canal, he will see the windows 
and the arcade of pointed arches beneath them, which are the remains 
of the palace of Marino Faliero. The balcony is, of course, modgm, 
and the series of windows has been of greater extent, once tenninated by 
a pilaster on the left hand, as well as on the right, but the terminal 
arches have been walled up. What remains, however, is enough, with 
its sculptured birds and dragons, to give a very distinct idea of the 
second order window in its perfect form." — Riiskin, Status of Venice, 
ii. vii. 

The Church of the S. Apostoli contains : 

Right. The Cappella Corner, a reproduction of the Lombard style 
in 15 10 by Gugl. Bergamesco. It contains the 16th-century monuments 
of Marco and Giorgio Corner. 

Left of High Altar. Paul Veronese. The Descent of the Manna. 

At the end of this canal to the east is the Church of S. 
Maria dei Gesuiti (or S. Maria Assunta), 1 715— 1730. It 
contains : 

J. Tintoretto. The Assumption. 
Titian. Martyrdom of S. Lawrence. 

Near this, on the Fondamenta Zen, is the Palazzo Zen, of 
1 53 1. Further down the Fondamenta is the Collegio Marco 
Foscarini, occupying the old monastery of S. Catherine, In 
the chapel is : 

Paul Veronese. The Marriage of S. Catherine. 

Crossing a wide bit of canal, we reach the Abbazia della 
Misericordia, dating from the loth century, but modernized. 
Still, it is a picturesque corner of the canal. A gateway of 
1505 remains, and some curious sculpture by Bartolomeo 
Bon. An interesting Gothic Palace of the 15th century on 
the neighbouring Fondamenta belonged to Turkish mer- 


chants. It is adorned with some curious reliefs of Camels 
and Arabs. One of them is said to represent " Sior Antonio 
Rioba," the predecessor of Pantaloon, for 

^ The Planter of the Lion of S. Mark, the standard of the republic, 
is the real origin of the word Pantaloon — Piantaleone, Pantaleon, Pan- 
taloon. " — Byron, Notes to Childe Harold. 

Tintoret lived on this Fondamenta dei Mori, where his 
apartment may still be seen. 

The neighbouring Church of S. Marziale contains : 

Titian. Tobias and the Angel. 

It is a short distance to the Church of the Madonna del 
Orto, erected by Tiberio da Parma in 1372. The admirable 
facade is by Bartolomeo Bon, 1439 — ^47° ; ^^ any rate the 
statues are his. 

" The doorway and rose windows are of red and white marble, and 
in the side windows the tracery and monials are of white marble, and the 
jambs alternately red and white. The rest of the wall is brick, but has 
been plastered and washed with pink. The windows at the end of the 
aisles are remarkable for transoms of tracery supported upon two heights 
of delicate marble shafts, and entirely independent of the glazing that is 
fixed in frames within them. This kind of arrangement, incongruous and 
unsatisfactory as it is here, is wortli recollecting, as being suggestive of an 
obvious opening for the use of traceried windows in domestic work ; 
and it is a plan of most frequent occurrence in the best Italian eccle- 
siastical architecture." — Street. 

To see this church well it should be visited after 2 p.m. 
Internally it is really handsome. It is almost entirely of 
brick. Tintoretto, Alessandro Leopardi, and Ranusio the 
geographer, are buried here. 

"J'ai regrette de ne point trouver de traces du tombeau du Tintoret 
et de celui de Marietta Robusti, sa fille et son eleve, qu'il eut la dou- 
leur de perdre dans un age peu avance ; Marietta, grand peintre de por- 


tr iits, etait encore celebre par les graces de sa personne at ses talens 
coaime musicienne et cantatrice, talens qii'elle devait aux lecons du 
Napolitain Jules Zacchino, le Cimarosa de son temps ; invitee a se rendre 
i la cour de Philippe II., de I'empereur Maximilien, et de I'archiduc 
Ferdinand, son pere ne put jamais se separer de la fille dont il etait si 
fier; il la maria a un joaillier Venitien, homme de bon sens, desinteresse, 
e: qui preferait que sa femme fit le portrait de ses confreres ou de ses 
amis au lieu de peindre les riches et les grands. La mort de Marietta 
fut a Venise une perte publique, et Tintoret voulut qu'elle reposat a Ste 
Marie dell' Orto, au milieu de ses propres chefs-d'oeuvre, qu'il semblait 
en quelque sorte lui consacrer." — Valery. 

The church contains : — 

* Right Aisle. 1st Altar. Citna da Conegliano. The Baptist between 
SS. Mark and Peter, and SS. Jerome and Paul. Behind, a tree stands 
out against a clear sky — beautiful drawing of the leaves and branches, 
also of the flowers in the foreground. 

"The type of S. John the Baptist was, perhaps, the best adapted to 
the genius of Cima, who has not only surpassed himself in it, but in the 
conception of the character has left the greatest painters of the age — 
Titian and Raphael included — far behind him. Cima's superiority in 
this respect must be admitted by all who see this his chef-d'oeuvre, in 
which the spare form of the Baptist is represented clothed in a garment 
of camel's hair, his visage pale and hollow, and his eyes ecstatically 
raised towards heaven ; he is mounted on a sort of pedestal, around 
which are ranged S. Mark, S. Jerome, S. Peter, with his inspired look, 
S. Paul, grasping with an air of authority the sword of the Word ; the 
whole forming a group which will bear comparison with the most perfect 
productions of Christian Art in Venice." — Rio. 

This beautiful picture is framed in an altar by Leopardi. 

1,rd Altar. Sansovino . Statue of the Madonna 

Tomb of Girolamo Gavazza, ambassador from the Republic to Spain, 

^h Altar. Daniel Vandyke. Martyrdom of S. Lorenzo. 

On right wall near the end. Palina Vecchio. A group of saints. 

" St. Vincent stands in the centre on a kind of platform : he is habited 
in the deacon's robe, here of a deep glowing red, richly embroidered; 
he holds the palm, and has no other attribute ; the face is divinely 
beautiful — mild, refined, and elevated to a degree uncommon in the 
Venetian school. Four saints stand around him ; St. Helen with her 
cross, a Dominican (I think St. Vincent Ferrer), a pope, and a martyr- 


saint whom I cannot name. This picture is almost, if not quite, equal 
to the famous S. Barbara of the same artist." — Jameson's Sacred Art, 

"• 553- 

In Sacristy. Gaspare Morazzone, The head of S. Christopher (be- 
cause his knee-cap is a relic over one of the altars). A curious set of 
pictures of the saints of Venice are preserved here. Over the door is 
a Madonna by Guru, de Sanctis, and in the centre of the pavement his 
tomb . 

Chapel right of Higk Altar. Gir. Santa Croce. SS. Augustine and 

Apse. Flat tomb of Gir. Grimani, 1512. Tintoret, Worship of 
the Golden Calf. 

*Id. The Last Judgment. 

"By Tintoret only has this unimaginable event been grappled with 
in its verity ; not typically nor symbolically, but as they may see it who 
shall not sleep, but be changed. Only one traditional circumstance he 
has received with Dante and Michael Angelo, the Boat of the Con- 
demned ; but the impetuosity of his mind bursts out even in the adop- 
tion of this image ; he has not stopped at the scowling ferry-man of the 
one, nor at the sweeping blow and demon-dragging of the other, but, 
seized Hylas-Iike by the limbs, and tearing up the earth in his agony, 
the victim is lashed into his destruction ; nor is it the sluggish Lethe, 
or the fiery lake that bears the cursed vessel, but the oceans of the 
earth, and the waters of the firmament gathered into one white, ghastly 
cataract ; the river of the wrath of God, roaring down into the gulph 
where the world has melted with its fervent heat, choked with the ruin 
of nations, and the limbi of its corpses tossed out of its whirling, like 
water-wheels. Bat-like, out of the holes and caverns and shadows of 
the earth, the bones gather, and the clay heaps heave, rattling and 
adhering into half kneaded anatomies, that crawl, and startle, and 
struggle up among the putrid weeds, with the clay clinging to their 
clotted hair, and their heavy eyes sealed by the earth darkness yet, like 
his of old who went his way unseeing to the Siloam Pool ; shaking oflf 
one by one the dreams of the prison-house, hardly hearing the clangor 
of the trumpets of the armies of God, blinded yet more, as they awake, 
by the white light of the new Heaven, until the great vortex of the four 
winds bear up their bodies to the judgment-seat : the firmament is all 
full of them, a very dust of human souls, that drifts, and floats, and falls 
in the interminable, inevitable light ; the light clouds are darkened with 
them as with thick snow, currents of atom life in the arteries of heaven, 
now soaring up slowly, and higher and higher still, till the eye and the 
thought can follow no farther, borne up, wingless, by their inward faith 


and by the angel powers invisible, now hurled in countless drifts of 
horror before the breath of their condemnation." — Ruskin, Modem 
Painters, ii. 172. 

Raima Gicrjane. The Annunciation— all the other pictures by Tin- 

Left Aisle, 2nd Chapel. Tintoret. The Miracle of S. Agnes. 

Before the Altar. Tomb of Vincenzo Contarini, Ambassador of the Re- 
public to England. The two Contarini busts are by Aless. Vittoria. 

*T,rd Chapel. D. Tintoret. Presentation of the Virgin. The stair- 
case introduced in this picture is thoroughly Venetian, and the effect of 
the figures in shadow admirable. 

Raima Giovane. The Crucifixion. 

a^h Chapel. Dom. Tintoretto. The Nativity. 

ijth Chapel. Giov. Bellini. Madonna and Child, painted with a rich 
background of gilt stamped leather. The head of the Madonna is the 
only beautiful part of this picture, which is in the first manner of the 

Lorenzo Lotto. Pieta. 

Opposite this church is a Palace with a curious reHef of 
a camel and a man leading it. 

Artists will not fail to admire the expanse of the shallow 
lagoon behind the Madonna del Orto. 

"Devant cette plaine de lumiere, toutes les contrarietes, tons les 
mecomptes s'oublient. On ne se lasse pas de la mer, de I'horizon in- 
fini, des petites bandes lointaines de terre qui emergent sous une verdure 
douteuse. Un vent leger ride les flaques luisantes, et les petites ondulations 
viennent mourir a chaque instant sur le sable uni. Le soleil couchant pose 
sur elles des teintes pourprees que le renflement de I'onde tantot assombrit, 
tantot fait chatoyer. Dans ce mouvement continu, tous les tons se trans- 
ferment et se fondent. Les fonds noiratres ou couleur de brique sont 
bleuis ou verdis par la mer qui les couvre ; selon les aspects du ciel, 
I'eau change elle-meme, et tout cela se mele parmi des ruissellements de 
lumiere, sous des semis d'or qui paillettent les petits flots, sous des tor- 
tillons d'argent qui frangent les cretes de I'eau tournoyante, sous de 
larges lueurs et des eclairs subits que la parol d'un ondoiement renvoie. 
Le domaine et les habitudes de I'oeil sont transformes et renouveles. Le 
sens de la vision rencontre un autre monde. Au lieu des teintes fortes, 
nettes, seches des terrains solides, c'est un miroitement, un amollissement, 
un eclat incessant de teintes fondues qui font un second ciel aussi lumi- 
neux, mais plus divers, plus changeant, plus riche et plus intense que 
VOL. II. 8 


I'autre, forme de tons superposes dont ralliance est une harmonie." — 

Either by the lagoon, or by the Grand Canal, we may 
reach the Canareggio, at the east end of which is the Church 
of S. Giobbe, built 1462 — 147 1, and very rich in ornament. 

*' The portal is surmounted by a round arch, and has a broad archi- 
trave, which rests upon two Corinthian pilasters covered with the most 
delicately-sculptured convolvulus plants, upon whose winding stems sit 
all but living birds. The architrave is adorned with symmetrically- 
arranged leaf- work ; the capitals of the pilasters are composed of acan- 
thus leaves and ox-skulls, from whose horns hang festoons which are 
twined about the flower-filled volutes ; and the cornice and archivolt are 
enriched with ardiitectm"al details borrowed from the antique. Statuettes 
of SS. Francis, Bernardino of Siena, and a bishop are placed on the arch 
and at the ends of the entablature, and the lunette is filled with a bas- 
relief representing SS. Francis and Giobbe kneeling in prayer on either 
side of a little mount, upon which rays of light descend from heaven. 
The more we regard these sculptures, the more we are convinced that 
they are the work of sevei-al hands; if the arabesques and architecture of 
the door, and perhaps the statuettes, are by Pietro, the bas-relief, which 
is dry and precise in its style and forms, can scarcely be his." — Perkin's 
Italian Sculptors. 

Entering the church we may observe the most beautiful 
angels by the Lombardi in the pendentives of the cupola ; 
then — 

4//^ Altar. Patis Bordone. S. Andrewon a pedestal, with SS. Ni- 
cholas and Peter. 

Ante-Sacristy. Gir. Scnwldo, 1540. The Nativity. 

Sacristy. Altar. Vivarini. The Annunciation, %vith saints. 

G. Bellini. Virgin and Child with SS. J. Baptist 

and Catherine. 
Portrait of Doge Moro. 
Chancel. Beautiful arch and friezes of sculpture erected by Doge 
Moro in 1462. In the centre his tomb of 1470. 
Left Aisle, ^h Chapel. Majolica roof. 

Close to this church is the entrance of the very pretty 
Orto Botanico. 



In a Gondola to — 

S. Trovaso, S. Sebastiano, the Carmine, S. Pantaleone, S. Andrea, 
S. Nicoli da Tolentino, S. Rocco, the Frari, S. Giacomo dell' Orio, S. 
Maria Mater Domini, S. Cassiano, Palazzo Cappello, S. Aponal, S. 

Those who select should see S. Sebastiano, the Carmine, S. Rocco, 
and the Frari. 

A WIDE canal on the left, beyond the Academy, leads 
to the Church of S. Trovaso (or SS. Gervasio e Pro- 
tasio), which, with its campanile and the old brown ware- 
houses and brilliant acacias surrounding it, forms a subject 
which has often been painted. It contains : 

Right Transept. Altar of the Lomiardi, 1501, with reliefs of Angels. 

*Falma Vecckio. Madonna and Child. 
Chapel, Right of High Altar. Doni. Tintoretto. The Crucifixion. 

Pahna Vecchio. Christ bound. 
Left of High Altar. Tintoretto. The temptation of S. Anthony. 

" A carefully finished picture, but marvellously temperate and 
quiet in treatment, especially considering the subject, which one 
would have imagined likely to inspire the painter with one of his most 
fantastic visions. As if on purpose to disappoint us, both the effect, and 
the conception of the figures, are perfectly quiet, and appear the result 
much more of careful study than of vigorous imagination. The effect is 
one of plain daylight ; there are a few clouds drifting in the distance, but 
with no wildness in them, nor is there any energy or heat in the flames 
which mantle about the waist of one of the figures. But for the noble 


M'orkmanship, we might almost fancy it the production of a modem 
academy ; yet as we begin to read the picture, the painter's mind be- 
comes felt. S. Anthony is surrounded by four figures, one of which 
only has the form of a demon, and he is in the background, engaged in no 
more terrific act of violence towards S. Anthony, than endeavouring to 
pull off his mantle ; he has, however, a scourge over his shoulder, but 
this is probably intended for S. Anthony's weapon of self-discipline, 
which the fiend, with a very Protestant turn of mind, is carrying off. 
A broken staff", with a bell hanging to it, at the saint's feet, also ex- 
presses his interrupted devotion. The three other figures beside him 
are bent on more cunning mischief ; the woman on the left is one of 
Tintoret's best portraits of a young and bright-eyed Venetian beauty. 
It is curious that he should have given so attractive a countenance to a 
type apparently of the temptation to violate the vow of poverty, for this 
woman places one hand in a vase full of coins, and shakes golden chains 
with the other. On the opposite side of the saint, another woman, 
admirably painted, but of a far less attractive countenance, is a type of 
the lusts of the flesh, yet there is nothing gross or immodest in her dress 
or gesture. She appears to have been baffled, and for the f)resent to 
have given up addressing the saint : she lays one hand upon her breast, 
and might be taken for a very respectable person, but that there are 
flames playing about her loins. A recumbent figure on the ground is of 
a less intelligible character, but may perhaps be meant for Indolence ; 
at all events, he has torn the saint's book to pieces." — Riiskin, Stones 
of Ve7ticc, iii. 

Left Transept. Tintoretto. Last Supper. 

Turning to the left from this church, is the Campo deir 
Angela Raffaello, with a beautiful well by Marco Arian, 1349. 
Opposite the Church of S. Rajfaello (of 16 18), is the Palazzo 
Cicogna, a beautiful work of the 14th century. 

"The whole design of this building is very irregular: a detached 
shaft at one angle supports a portion of the house which overhangs and 
forms a sort of open passage-way ; to the right of this opening is a four- 
light shafted window, and then a plain wall pierced with two windows, 
each of a single ogee trefoiled light. The upper story has two single 
windows over the others, whilst over the larger windows and the 
passage-way is a large window conspicuous from its size and the peculi- 
arity of its tracery. It is of six lights divided by very good shafts, and 
properly arched with pure and good trefoiled arches ; above these, and 


mclosed within the perpetual indented or billeted string-course, is a com- 
plicated system of intersecting circles pierced at regular inter\'als with 
quatrefoils. The whole elevation is finished with a sliallow cornice sup- 
ported upon corbels." — Street. 

In this district, near the Ponte Briati, is the Palazzo 
Zenolfio, a handsome edifice of the last century, by A?tionio 

Passing the Palazzo Foscarini, we reach the Church of S. 
Maria del Carmine, built 1208 — 1348, but modernised. It 
contains : 

* Right, iiid Altar. Cima da Conegliano. The Nativity. 

"The Virgin is kneeling in an attitude of the most graceful humility 
before the crib in which the Child is lying. On the right is Tobit, con- 
ducted by a beautiful angel ; on the left, Joseph and two devout shep- 
herds ; fiirther in the picture are S. Helen and S, Catherine in conversa- 
tion. The background consists of a steep rock overiiung with trees, 
with a rich evening landscape, with towns in the distance." — Kiigler. 

"The landscape is delicious. The subject is evidently borrowed from 
the Umbrian school ; and it is the more interesting to discover this 
sympathy, because the total absence of pagan or mythological subjects 
in the works of Cima affords the strongest confirmation of it" — Rio. 

/^h Altar. Tomb of Andrea Civriani, 1572. 

High Altar. Tintoretto. Presentation in the Temple. 

Left {returning), ^rd Altar. Lorenzo Lotto, 1520. S. Nicholas inglory. 

The picturesque side porch with a canopy is said to have 
been brought from Aquileja. At the corner, near the west 
front of the church, is the so-called house of Othello, with a 
statue, facing the canal, which is said to represent him. In 
the neighbouring Campo S. Margherita is a beautiful door 
with angels, — one in benediction, the other holding a shield. 

Hence we coast the Fondamenta delle Zattere. The 
neighbouring Church of S. Spirito contains a monument of 
the Paruta family, of the 17th century. 


The Church of S. Sebastiano is a good specimen of 1506 — 
1548, hy F. da Castiglione and A. Scarpignatio. It iis the 
burial-place of Paul Veronese, and contains some of his 
best works. 

Right, 1st Altar. Titian. S. Nicholas (executed in the artist's 
86th year.) 

2nd Altar. Paul Verotiese. Madonna. 

yd Altar. Tommaso Lotnbardo. Statue of the Madonna. 

4//5 Altar. Paul Veronese. The Crucifixion and the three Maries. 

yacopo Sansflvino, 1556. Tomb of Livius Podakataros of Cyprus. 

High Altar. Paul Veronese, 1558. Madonna and Saints. (Right) 
The martyrdom of S. Sebastian. (Left) Martyrdom of SS. Mark and 

The Organ has a picture of the Purification by Paid Veronese on its 
outer shutters, and of the Healing of the Paralytic witliin. Beneath is 
the Adoration of the Sliepherds. On the right is a bust of P. Veronese, 
by C. Bozzetti, and beneath it the grave of the painter, who died, 
April 19th, 1558. 

Left aisle, ifh Chapel. Alessandro Vittoria. Bust of M. Ant. Gri- 
mani, 1546. 

2nd Altar. Sckiavone. The Disciples of Emmaus. 

yd Altar. Paul Veronese. The Baptism in the Jordan. 

The Ceiling is entirely by Paul Veronese. 

The Sacristy has a ceiling of the Coronation of the Virgin, ^vith the 
four Evangelists, by P. Veronese, and is almost entirely surrounded by 
pictures of Bonifazio — Jacob's Dream, the Passage of the Red Sea, the 
Nativity, the Sacrifice of Isaac, the Baptism in Jordan, the Agony ir» 
the Garden, the Resurrection, S. Sebastiano, the Crucifixion, S. 

From the Campo S. Margherita, it is only a fe\Y steps, 

across a canal-bridge, to the Church of S. Pantaleone (the 

patron of physicians), built 1668 — 1675 hy Francesco Comino. 

It contains : 

Right, 2nd Chapel. Paul Veronese. The Healing of a boy by S. 

Left of High Altar. Giovanni and Antonio da Murano, l^^. Coro- 
nation of the Virgin — an important Gothic triptych. Of the same period 
is a richly decorated altai; 


" This church is particularly interesting to those who love to study 
Venetian character. It is the parish church of a dense and populous 
neighbourhood, and I used to go there more for the sake of looking at 
the people — the picturesque mothers with their infants, the little children 
reciting their catechism— tlian to study art and pictures. The walls are 
covered with the beneficent actions of the patron saint, and with scrip- 
tural incidents which have reference to the healing art. None of these, 
however, are particularly good." — Jameson' i Sacred Art, ii. 568. 

Ill the Catapiello Angaran near this, is a curious stone 
medallion in a wall, with the portrait of an eastern emperor. 
From S. Pantaleone, a long canal leads to the lonely Church 
cf S. A?idrea, which is worth visiting for the sake of its 
grass-grown Cafnpo, open to the lagoon and Alps, though 
the view is rather spoilt by the railway bridge. The church 
itself, built 1475, is unimportant Over the door is a 
curious Renaissance sculpture of S. Peter walking on the 
water ; worthy of observation are its distant landscape, and 
the oars of an existing gondola floating by S. Peter's boat. 
Within are : — 

Paul Veronese. S. Jerome. 
Paris Bordoiu. S. Augustine. 

Returning, we may visit the Church of S. Nicolo da To- 
ktitino, which contains pictures by Bonifazio and Palma 
Giovane, but nothing of much importance. Behind this are 
the Papadopou Gardens, rich in curious plants. They oc- 
cupy the site of a church of S. Croce, built in 774. 

We should next land at the steps near the Sacola di 
Rocco, which was one of five Scuole, which were not used 
for educational purposes, but were centres for the differ- 
ent charitable associations for fulfilling all the " Temporal 
Works of Mercy " which abounded in ancient Venice. 

S. Rocco has perhaps the richest and most interesting of 
these Scuole, and its brotherhood were the chief patrons of 


Tintoret, who worked here for i8 years. The buildings 
were begun in 151 7 by Bai-tolomeo Bon, and finished in 
1550 by Antonio Scarpagnino, The fa9ade, coated with 
marbles, is a very rich specimen of Renaissance decoration. 

" In the year 1485 the Venetians, who from their commerce with the 
Levant were continually exposed to the visitation of the plagiie, deter- 
mined to possess themselves of the relics of St. Roch. A kind of holy 
alliance was formed to commit this pious robbery. The conspirators 
sailed to Montpelier, under pretence of performing a pilgrimage, and 
carried off the body of the saint, with which they returned to Venice, 
and were received by the doge, the senate, and tlie clergy, and all the 
people, with inexpressible joy. The magnificent church of St. Roch. was 
built to receive the relics of the saint by a community already formed im- 
der his auspices for the purpose of tending the sick and poor, and par- 
ticularly those who were stricken by infectious disorders, in which many 
of the chief nobility were proud to enrol themselves. Such was the 
origin of the famous Scuoia di San Rocca at Venice, in the decoration of 
which Tintoretto and his scholars lavished their utmost skill." — Jame- 
son's Sacred Ai'ty ii. 473. 

The interior is a perfect gallery of the works of Jacopo 
Thitordto, whose real name was Robusii, and who received 
his nickname from the trade of his father — a dyer, Ttntore. 
He was bom in 151 2, and, showing an extraordinary aptitude 
for art, was placed in the studio of Titian, who, however, 
whether from his own jealousy, or from the inattention of 
his pupil, expelled him from his academy, saying that he 
" would never be anything but a dauber." Without losing 
heart, however, Tintoret opened a studio of his own, in- 
scribing on its wall, as the guiding principle of his work — 
" II disegno di Michel Angelo ; il colorito di Tiziano." His 
wonderful conceptions and the immense amount of story in 
his pictures — for he frequently drew without designs, com- 
posing as he went on with his picture — atone for his frequent 
coarseness of expression and violence of treatment. 


The Lower Hall oi the Scuola, by Girolamo CamJ>agna, 
which is closed by a statue of S. Roch, has eight large pic- 
tures by Tintord. 

1. The Annunciation. 

" Not in meek reception of the adoring messenger, but startled by the 
rush of his horizontal and rattling wings, the Virgin sits, not in the quiet 
loggia, not by the green pasture of the restored soul, but houseless, un- 
der the shelter of a palace vestibule, ruined and abandoned, with the 
noise of the axe and hammer in her ears, and the tumult of a city round 
about her desolation. The spectator turns away at first, revolted, from 
the central object of the picture forced painfully and coarsely forward, a 
mass of shattered brickwork, with the plaster mildewed away from it, 
and the mortar mouldering from its seams ; and if he looks again, either 
at this or at the carpenter's tools beneath it, will perhaps see in the one 
and the other, nothing more than such a study of scene as Tintoret could 
but too easily obtain among the ruins of his own Venice, chosen to give 
a coarse explanation of the calling and the condition of the husband of 
Mary. But there is more meant than this. When he looks at the com- 
position of the picture, he will find the whole symmetry of it depending 
on a narrow line of light, the edge of a carpenter's square, which con- 
nects these unused tools with an object at the top of the brickwork, a 
white stone, four square, the corner-stone of the old edifice, the base of 
the supporting column. This, I think, sufficiently explains the typical 
character of the whole. The ruined house is the Jewish dispensation ; 
that obscurely arising in the dawning of the sky is the Christian ; but 
the corner-stone of the old building remains, though the builders' tools 
lie idle beside it, and the stone which the builders refused is become the 
Headstone of the Comer." — Ruskin, Modern Painters, ii. 165. 

2. The Adoration of the Magi. 

" In Tintoret's adoration of the Magi, the Madonna is not an en- 
throned queen, but a fair girl, full of simplicity and almost childish 
sweetness. To her are opposed (as Magi) two of the noblest and most 
thoughtful of the Venetian senators in extreme old age, — the utmost 
manly dignity in its decline, being set beside the utmost feminine sim- 
plicity in its dawn. The steep foreheads and refined features of the 
nobles are, again, opposed to the head of a negro servant, and of an 
Indian, both, however, noble of their kind. On the other side of the 
picture, the delicacy of the Madonna is further enhanced by a largely- 
made farm-servant, leaning on a basket. All these figures are in repose : 
outside, the troop of the attendants of the Magi is seen coming up at the 


" I bring forward this picture, not as an example of the ideal in concep- 
tion of religious subject, but of the general ideal treatment of the human 
form ; in which the peculiarity is, that the beauty of each figure is dis- 
played to the utmost, while yet, taken separately, the Madonna is an 
unaltered portrait of a Venetian girl, the Magi an unaltered Venetian 
senator, and the figure with the basket, an unaltered market-woman of 
Mestre." — Ruskin, Modern Paiytters, iii. 85. 

3. The Flight into Egypt. 

4. The Massacre of the Innocents. 

" Knowing, or feeling, that the expression of the human face was, in 
such circumstances, not to be rendered, and that the effort could only 
end in an ugly falsehood, Tintoret denies himself all aid from the 
features, he feels that if he is to place himself or us in the midst of that 
maddened multitude, there can be no time allowed for watching expres- 
sion. Still less does he depend on details of murder or ghastliness of 
death ; there is no blood, no stabbing, or cutting, but there is an awful 
substitute for these in the chiaroscuro. The scene is the outer vestibule 
of a palace, the slippery marble floor is fearfully barred across by san- 
guine shadows, so that our eyes seem to become blood-shot and strained 
with strange horror and deadly vision ; a lake of life before them, like 
the burning sun of the doomed Moabite on the water that came by way 
of Edom : a huge flight of stairs, without parapet, descends on the left ; 
down this rush a crowd of women mixed with the murderers ; the child 
in the arms of one has been seized by the limbs, she hurls herself over 
the edge, and falls head downzvards, dragging the child out of the grasp by 
her weight ; — she will be dashed dead in a second ; — close to us is the 
great struggle ; a heap of the mothers entangled in one mortal writhe 
with each other and the swoi-ds, one of the murderers dashed down and 
crushed beneath them, the sword of another caught by the blade, and 
dragged at by a woman's naked hand ; the youngest and fairest of the 
Vvomen, her child just torn away from a death grasp, and clasped to her 
breast with the grip of a steel vice, falls backwards, helplessly over the 
heap, right on the sword points ; all knit together and hurled down in 
one hopeless, frenzied, furious abandonment of body and soul in the 
eff'ort to save. Far back, at the bottom of the stairs, there is something 
in the shadow like a heap of clothes. It is a woman, sitting quiet — 
quite quiet — still as any stone ; she looks down steadfastly on her dead 
child, laid along on the floor before her, and her hand is pressed softly 
upon her brow. " — Ruskin, Modern Painters, ii. 1 70. 

5. S. Mary Magdalen. 

6. S. Mary of Egypt. 


7. The Presentation in the Temple. 

8. The Assumption of the Virgin. 

A magnificent staircase (observe the admirable but simple 
ornament on the steps) has, on its landing : 

Titian. Annunciation. 
Tintord, The Salutation. 

The Upper Sala where the brotherhood used to assemble 
has an altar with statues of the Baptist and S. Sebastian by 
G. Campagna, and a picture of S. Koch in glory by Tintoret. 
The seven compartments of the ceiling are by Ttntoret. On 
the oak pannelling are 20 subjects from the life of S. Roch, 
carved by Giovanni Marchiori and his pupils, in the last 
century. The pictures, beginning from the right, are : — 

The Nativity. — The Holy Family are represented as in a loft above a 

The Baptism in Jordan. 

" The river flows fiercely under the shadow of a great rock. From 
its opposite shore, thickets of close, gloomy foliage rise against the roll- 
ing chasm of heaven through which breaks the brightness of the descend- 
ing Spirit. Across these, dividing them asunder, is stretched a hori- 
zontal floor of flaky cloud, on which stand the hosts of heaven. Christ 
kneels upon the water, and does not sink ; the figure of S. John is 
indistinct, but close behind his raised right arm there is a spectre in the 
black shade ; the Fiend, harpy shaped, hardly seen, glares down upon 
Christ with eyes of fire, waiting his time. Beneath this figure there 
comes out of the mist a dark hand, the aitn unseen, extended to a net in 
the river, the spars of which are in the shape of a cross. Behind this 
the roots and under stems of the trees are cut away by the cloud, and 
beneath it, and through them, is seen a vision of wild, melancholy, 
boundless light ; the sweep of the desert, and the figure of Christ is seen 
therein alone, ^^^th his arms lifted up as if in supplication or ecstasy, 
borne of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the Devil. 

"There are many circumstances which combine to give to this noble 
work a more than usually imaginative character. The symbolical use of 
the net, which is the cross net still used constantly in the canals of 
Venice, and common throughout Italy, is of the same character as that 


of the carpenter's tools in the Annunciation ; but the introduction of the 
spectral figure is of bolder reach, and yet more, that vision of the after 
temptation which is expressly indicated as a subject of thought rather 
than of sight, because it is in a part of the scene, which mfact must have 
been occupied by the trunks of the trees whose tops are seen above ; and 
another circumstance completes the mystic character of the whole, that 
the flaky clouds which support the angelic hosts take on the right, where 
the light first falls upon them, the shape of the head of a fish, the well- 
known type both of the baptismal sacrament, and of Christ." — Ruskin, 
Modern Painters, ii. i68. 

The Resurrection. 

The Agony in the Garden. 

The Last Supper. 

On the left are : — 

The Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes. 

The Resurrection of Lazarus. 

The Ascension. 

The Pool of Bethesda. 

The Temptation. 

The Portrait of the Artist at the age of 66. 

In the adjoining Sala dell' Albergo, so called because here 
the guests of the brotherhood were received, is the most 
celebrated work of Tintoret. 

The Crucifixion. 

" Tintoret here, as in all other cases, penetrating into the root and 
deep places of his subject, despising all outward and bodily appearances 
of pain, and seeking for some means of expressing, not the rack of nerve 
or sinew, but the fainting of the deserted Son of God before his Eloi 
cry ; and yet feeling himself utterly unequal to the expression of this by 
the countenance, has, on the one hand, filled his picture with such 
various and impetuous muscular exertion that the body of the Crucified 
is, by comparison, in perfect repose, and, on the other, has cast the 
countenance altogether into shade. But the Agony is told by this, and 
by this only ; that, though there yet remains a chasm of light on the 
mountain horizon, where the earthquake darkness closes upon the day, 
the broad and sunlike glory about the head of the Redeemer has 
become wan, and oj the colour of ashes. 

" But the great painter felt he had something more to do yet. Not 


only that Agony of the Crucified, but the tumult of the people, that rage 
which invoked his blood upon them and their children. Not only the 
brutality of the soldier, the apathy of the Centurion, nor any other merely 
instrumental cause of the Divine suffering, but the fury of his own 
people, the noise against him of those for whom he died, were to be set 
before the eye of the understanding, if the power of the picture was to be 
complete. This rage, be it remembered, was one of disappointed 
pride ; and disappointment dated essentially from the time when, but five 
days before, the King of Zion came, and was received with hosannahs, 
riding upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass. To this time, then, it 
was necessaiy to divert the thought, for therein are found both the cause 
and the character, the excitement of, and the witness against, this mad- 
ness of the people. In the shadow behind the cross, a man, riding on an 
ass's colt, looks back to the multitude, while he points with a rod to the 
Christ crucified. The ass is feeding on the retnnanis of withered palm- 
leaves." — Ruskin, Modern Painters, ii. 1 68. 

Other subjects in this room are : — 

Christ before Pilate. 

The Cross-bearing. 

The Crowning with Thorns. 

(Ow the ceiling). The Apotheosis of S. Roch. 

The Church of S. Rocco, rebuilt 1725, has a fine fifteenth- 
century altar from designs of Bartolenieo Bon., 1495. ^^ 
contains also : — 

Right, 1st Altar. Tintoret. The Pool of Bethesda. 

Chapel right of High Altar. Titian. The Betrayal. 

Choir. Tintoret. Four great pictures of the Charity of S. Roch. 

Entrance to Sacristy. The fine tomb of Pellegrino Boselli Grilli, 15 1 7. 

Pordenone. Fresco of S. Sebastian. 
Left Wall. Pordenone. S. Martin and the Beggar. 

Immediately behind the Scuola di S. Rocco, rises the 

great Gothic brick Church of S. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, 

designed c. 1250, by Nicola Fisano, for the Frati Minori di 

S. Francesco. The tower was begun in 1361 by "jfacopo 

Collega, and finished in 1396 by his son Fietro Faolo. The 

interior is a Latin cross. The nave is divided from its 

aisles by circular columns. The general effect is very 


Striking : the lines of the church are broken half way down 
by a screen with pulpits at either end. 

" The internal effect of the church is much finer than its west front 
would lead one to expect. The plan is simple ; a nave and aisles of 
six bays, transepts with three eastern chapels to each, and a choir of-one 
bay with an apse of four bays projecting beyond the others. The tower 
is in the angle between the north transept and the nave, and a large 
sacristy with an eastern apse is built against the south transept. 'T^he 
nave and aisles measure about 230 feet by 104, and the transept 160 
feet by 48, — magnificent dimensions undoubtedly. The columns are 
simple, cylindrical, and very lofty, their capitals carved with foliage, 
which looks late and poor in its execution, though grouped in the old 
way in regular tufts or balls of foliage. The arrangement of the wall 
above the main arcade is very similar to that of the Veronese, and in- 
deed, to that of most Italian Gothic churches ; a plain wall being carried 
up to the groining, relieved only by a small clerestory window at the 
highest point. One is apt to compare this arrangement with the artistic 
arrangement of clerestory and triforium in our own churches ; but 
herein we do not act quite fairly to Nicola Pisano, who is said to have 
designed the Frari, and his brethren. They had to work in a country 
where light must be admitted very sparingly, and where therefore it is 
impossible for architects to revel in the rich traceries which fill the bays 
of the churches in the North ; they lived among a nation of painters, 
and deemed, perhaps, that these plain surfaces of wall would one day 
glow with colour and with Scripture story. The real beauty of these 
interiors is owing, more than anything else, I believe, to the simplicity 
and beauty of the quadripartite groining which covers them in, and 
which, even where other features would seem to tell of debasement and 
absence of pure feeling, invariably recalls us to a proper recollection of 
the infinite value of simplicity in this important feature — a point lost 
sight of in England after the thirteenth century, to the incalculable 
detriment of the beauty of some of our greatest churches." — Street. 

" It always causes a sensation to walk from the blazing sun and labour- 
ing life without into these solemn enclosures. Here are the tombs of the 
Doges resting from their rule. They seem pondering still as they lie 
car^-ed in stately marble death, contemplating the past with their calm 
brows and their hooked noses. The great church is piled arch upon 
arch, tomb upon tomb ; some of these monuments hang in the nave 
high over the heads of the people as they kneel ; above the city and its 
cries, and its circling life, and the steps of the easy-going Venetians."— 
Miss Thackeray, 


Making the circuit of the Interior from the west door : — 

Right {on the holy-water dasou). G. Campagna, 1593- Statuette of 

After the 1st Altar. Luigi and Pietro Zandomenighi, 1838 — 1852. 
The monument of Titian erected by the Emperor of Austria. The 
painter is seated, surrounded by allegorical statues and reliefs from his 
best works. To the right of this is his grave, with a remnant of the 
inscription : — 

" Qui giace il gran Tiziano de' Vecelli 
Emulator de' Zeusi e degli Apelli." 

ind Altar. Salviati. The Presentation of t'le Virgin. 

The Monument erected by the Senate to Almerico d'Este, General of 
the Republic, who died at Paris, 1660. 

3n/ Altar. Aless. Vittoria. Statue of S. Jerome. 

Beyond the ^h Altar. Tombs of members of the families of Zen, 
Bottari, and Brignole. 

Over the door. The rude wooden tomb of a Delia Torre. 

Right Transept. Tomb of Jacopo Marcello, 1484. 

Bartolomco Vivarini, 1482. Altar-piece. Christ on the cross above, 
and below the Virgin with SB. Peter and Paul, Andrew and Nicholas. 

Beautiful Gothic tomb of Era. Pacifico, 1437, under whom the church 
of the Frari was completed. 

Over the door of the Sacristy. Tomb of Benedetto Pesaro, of the i6th 

Sacristy (opposite the entrance). Reliquary of the 17th century, with 
marble reliefs by Cabianea. (In the inner diinsion) a little altar of 
the 15th century with a relief of the Entombment of Christ, with angels, 
and statuettes of S. Antonio and the Baptist. 

*Gioz'anni Bellini, 1488. An altar-piece of the Madonna and saints, 
in three divisions. 

" The figure of the Virgin, and those of the saints, by whom she is 
surrounded, have all the imposing gravity of a religious composition, 
while the angels equal the most charming miniatures for freshness of 
colouring and naivete of expression : it is a work which may boldly take 
its place beside the finest mystical productions of the Umbrian school. 
It seems as if a foretaste of celestial beatitude had beamed on the soul 
of the aged painter while occupied with this work ; he has thrown aside 
that veil of melancholy in which he loved to wrap the countenance of 
the Virgin ; it is no longer the Mother of the Seven Sorrows which he 
has painted, but rather the source of his joy — causa nostra Icetitice — to 
whom he has addressed this short prayer : 


' Janua certa poli, due mentem, dirige vitam, 
Quae peragem commissa tuae sint omnia curse.' " — Rio. 

" Au fond d'une chapelle, au-dessus de I'autel, dans une petite 
architecture d'or, la Vierge, en grand manteau bleu, siege sur un trone. 
EUe est bonne et simple comme une paisible et simple paysanne. A 
ses pieds, deux petits anges en courte veste semblent des enfants de 
chiEur, et leurs cuisses potelees, enfantines, ont la plus belle couleur de 
la chair saine. Sur les deux cotes, dans les compartiments, sent deux 
couples de saints, personnages immobiles, en habits de moine et d'eveque, 
debout pour toujours dans I'attitude hieratique, figures reelles qui font 
penser aux pecheurs bronzes de I'Adriatique. Toutes ces figures ont 
vecu ; le fidele qui s'agenouillait devant elles y apercevait les traits qu'il 
rencontrait autour de lui dans sa barque et dans ses ruelles, le ton rouge 
et brun des visages hales par le vent de la mer, la large carnation claire 
des fraiches fiUes elevees dans I'air huraide, la chape damasquinee du 
prelat qui commandait les processions, les petites jambes nues des 
enfants qui le soir pechaient les crabes. On ne pouvait s'empecher de 
croire en eux ; une verite si locale et si complete conduisait a I'illusion." 
— Taine. 

Titian. ? Madonna and saints. 

Returning to the Church. The tomb, with an equestrian statue, of 
Paolo Savelli, General of the Republic, 1405. 

\st Chapel, right of Choir. Two tombs of the Bernardo family, 1500. 
Zrtd Chapel. Tomb of Duccio degli Alberti, Ambassador of the Re- 
public at Florence, 1336. Tomb of an unknown warrior, 1337. 

" An early fourteenth, or perhaps late thirteenth century tomb, an 
exquisite example of the perfect Gothic form. It is a knight's ; but 
there is no inscription upon it, and his name is unknown. It consists 
of a sarcophagus, raised against the chapel wall, bearing the re- 
cumbent figure, protected by a simple canopy in the form of a 
pointed arch, pinnacled by the knight's crest ; beneath which the 
shadowy space is painted dark blue ; and strewn with stars. The 
statue itself is rudely carved ; but its lines, as seen from the intended 
distance, are both tender and masterly. The knight is laid in his mail, 
only the hands and face being bare. The hauberk and helmet are of 
chain-mail, the armour for the limbs, of jointed steel ; a tunic, fitting 
close to the breast, and marking the swell of it by the narrow embroi- 
dered lines, is worn over the mail ; his dagger is at his right side ; his 
long cross-belted sword, not seen by the spectator from below, at his 
feet. His feet rest on a hound (the hound being his crest), which looks 
up towards its master. The face is turned away from the spectator, 
towards the depth of the arch ; for there, just above the warrior's breast, 


is carved a small image of S. Joseph bearing the infant Christ, who 
looks down upon the resting figure ; and to this image its countenance 
is turned. The appearance of the entire tomb is as if the warrior had 
seen the vision of Christ in his dying moments, and had fallen back 
peacefully upon his pillow, with his eyes still turned to it, and his hands 
clasped in prayer." — Kuskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 

Apse. The High- Altar, of 15 16, has an Assumption by Salviati. 

Right. The Tomb of the unhappy Doge Francesco Foscari (see 
Foscari Palace), 1457, by Pietro and Ant. Rizzo. 

Left. Tomb of Doge Nicolo Tron, 1476, by Antonio Rizzo. 

1st Chapel left of Choir. Bernardino da Pordenone. Madonna 
enthroned with saints. 

2nd Chapel. Tomb of Melchior Trevisan, 1500, by Ant. Dentone. 

On the Altar. S. John Baptist, in wood, by Donatello, 1428. 

^rd Chapel. S. Ambrose in glory with saints ; an altar-piece, begun 
by Bart. Vivarini, finished by Marco Basaiti. 

Over the entrance of the next chapel an angel in marble by Jcuopo da 
Padova. The beautiful portal is a work of the Massegne. 

Left Transept. Bart. Vivarini. Altar-piece of S. Mark and other 

Monument of Zen Orsini, 15th century. 

Chapel of S. Pietro. A beautiful Gothic altar with statuettes. Tomb 
of Bishop Miani. 

Font, on which is a seated figure of the Baptist by Jacopo Sansovino, 


Choir (in the nave west of the transepts, as in Westminster Abbey 
and in the Spanish cathedrals), 124 stalls of tarsia work by Marco da 
Vicenza, 1458 — 1468. 

Nave. Left Aisle. Tomb of Bishop Jacopo Pesaro, 1547. 
* Titian. Altar-piece called La Pala dei Pesari. Madonna with saints 
and members of the Pesaro family. 

"A work of quite unfathomable beauty." — Burckhardt. 

" A work of the finest truth and life." — Kiigler. 

The enormous tomb of Doge Giovanni Pesaro, by Baldassare Lon- 
ghena and Melchior Barthel, 1669. 

TheTomb of Canova, erected 1 827— a pyramid, with allegorical figures 
by his scholars. 

"Consummate in science, intolerable in affectation, ridiculous in con- 
ception, null and void to the uttermost in invention and feeling." — 

" Jamais le talent ne re9ut un plus vaste homage : Angleterre a foumi 
VOL. II, 9 


le quart de la depense qui s'est elevee a 8000 sequins (102,000 frs.) ; la 
France, I'Allemagne, ont contribue pour un autre quart ; I'Amerique 
(celle du sud, et non I'Amerique industrielle et marchande du nord), 
a souscrit pour 40 sequins ; I'ltalie et principalement les villes veniti- 
ennes ont fait le reste ; malgre 1' exaggeration ordinaire des inscriptions 
de monuments, I'inscription de celui-ci ex consolatione Europce universa, 
est un peu au-dessous de la verite ; il est reellement erige aux frais de 
I'univers." — Valery. 

On the Holy-Water Bason, Statuette of S. Antonio by Gir. Cam- 
pagna, 1593. 

Tomb of Pietro Bernardo, 1568, by Aless. Leopardi. 

The remains of the noble Condottiere, Count of Carmagnola, who was 
beguiled back to the Venice he had served, and tortured and executed 
"between the pillars" in 1432, by the jealousy of the Senate, were 
first buried in S. Francesco della Vigua, but afterwards removed to a 
wooden coffin at the Frari. 

" The little Campiello San Rocco is entered by a sotto-portico 
behind the church of the Frari. Looking back, the upper traceries of 
the magnificent apse are seen towering above the irregular roofs and 
chimneys of the little square ; and our lost Prout was enabled to bring 
the whole subject into an exquisitely picturesque composition, by the 
fortunate occurrence of four quaint trefoiled windows in one of the 
houses on the right. Those trefoils are amongst the most ancient efforts 
of Gothic art in Venice, and are most valuable, as showing the way in 
which the humblest houses, in the noble times, followed out the system 
of the larger palaces, as far as they could, in their rude materials. It 
is not often that dwellings of the lower orders are preserved to us from 
the thirteenth century." — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, ii. 7. 

At the Ponte S. Tomd, between the Frari and the Grand 

Canal, is a doorway quite worthy of a visit. 

" It has the usual square opening of reddish marble, and above this 
a pointed arch of moulded brick ; the tympanum is filled in with a 
square carved centre panel, and the ground beyond this with quatrefoils 
of brick or tile very prettily disposed." — Street. 

Close by is the Casa Goldoni, which has an admirable 
Gothic staircase. 

Returning to our gondola we may now visit the Church 
of S. Giacomo del Orio, founded 555, but modernized 1125, 
and again 1425. It contains : — 


Right. Fr. Bassano. Preaching of the Baptist. 

Left {in the chapel). Lorenzo Lotto 1546. Madonna enthroned. 

In the Campiello della Strope, close to this church, is a 
beautiful example of the fifth order of Venetian windows. 
It is remarkable for its excessive purity of curve, and is of 
very early date, its mouldings being simpler than usual. 

The neighbouring Church of S. Maria Mater Domini, 
built 1500 — 1505 by Pietro Lombardo, with a fa9ade by J. 
Sansovino, contains : — 

Right, 1st Altar. Lorenzo Bregni and Attt. Minello di Bardi, 1501 — 
1500. Three statues, — SS. Andrew, Peter, and Paul. 

ind Altar. Vincenzo Catena. The vision of our Lord to S. Cristina 
— a very lovely picture. 

Right Transept. Tintoret. The Finding of the Cross. 

Chapel left of High Altar. A beautiful 15th-century altar. 

Left Transept. Bonifazio. The Last Supper — very fine in colour. 

Last Altar. Fr. Bissolo. The Transfiguration. 

In the adjoining Campo is an example of a house in which 
a cross is introduced between every window. The Church 
of S. Cassano contains :— 

Right, 1st Altar. Talma Vecchio. The Baptist and four other saints. 
2,rd Altar. Leandro Bassano. The Visitation. 
Chapel right of High Altar. L. Bassano. Birth of the Virgin, and 

Apse. Tintoret. The Descent into Hades. 
Id. The Resurrection. 

In the same Campo is a beautiful example of an early 
Gothic window, " where the reversed curve at the head of 
the pointed arch is just perceptible and no more." 

At the Ponte del Corner near S. Cassano is "a noble 
house, in which the spandrils of the windows are filled by 
the emblems of the Four Evangelists, sculptured in deep 
relief, and touching the edges of the arches with their ex- 
panded wings."* 

• Ruskin, Stones of Venice. 


Near this, on the Fondamenta Pesaro, is an especially 
stately 14th-century palace. 

The Church of S. Aponal ( Apollinare) has a fine entrance 
and an old 14th-century tower. Thence a little street leads 
to the Potite Storto, close to which rises the Palazzo Capello, 
of the beginning of the i6th century, where the famous 
Bianca Capello was born in 1548, and whence, in 1563, she 
fled to Florence with Pietro Buonaventura. 

Close by is the wide Campo S. Polo (or S. Paolo), The 
Church of S. Polo is modernised, but has a tower of 1375. 
It contains some large pictures by Salviati. At the sides of 
the high altar are : 

Aless. Vittoria. SS. Paul and Antonio Abate. 

On the right of the Ponte S. Polo is the Palazzo Comer 
Mocenigo, a beautiful work of 1548, by Michele Sanmichele. 
Close by also, near Ponte Bernardo, is the Palazzo Bernardo, 
on a narrow canal, a glorious Gothic building of 1350 — 1400; 
its fa9ade was once painted by G. Salviati, and it is quite 
superb in picturesqueness and colour. In the neighbour- 
ing Calle dei Saoneri a bust marks the house where Goldoni 
was born. 

At the end of the Calle del Tabacco is the Scuola di S. 
Giovanni Evangelista. Its court has an entrance-gate of 
1 48 1, and it has a fine staircase. The church contains the 
monument of Gian Andrea Badoer by Danese Cataneo, and 
a curious reliquary. 

"Lights flash from the upper windows of the tall palaces, balconies 
start overhead marked upon the sky. Now it is a palace to let, with 
wooden shutters swinging in shadow; now we pass the yawning vaults 
of great warehouses piled with saffron and crimson dyes, where barges 
are moored and workmen straining at the rolling barrels. Now it is the 



brown wall of some garden terrace ; a garland has crept over the brick, 
and droops almost to the water ; one little spray encircles a rusty ring 
hanging there with its shadow. Now we touch palace walls, and with 
a hollow jar start off once more. Now comes a snatch of song through an 
old archway ; here are boats and voices, the gondolier's earrings twinkle 
in the sun; here are vine wreaths, and steps where children, those un- 
tiring spectators of life, are clustering ; more barges with heavy fruit 
and golden treasure go by. A little brown-faced boy is lying with his 
brown legs in the sun on the very edge of a barge, dreaming over into 
the green water ; he lazily raises his head to look, and falls back again ; 
now a black boat passes like a ghost, its slender points start upwards in 
a line with the curve of yonder spire ; now it is out of all this swing of 
shadow and confusion that we cross a broad sweet breadth of sunlight, 
and come into the Grand Canal." — Miss Thackei-ay. 




WE must now direct our Gondola up the wide canal 
of La Giudecca, which, like a broad river, separates 
the largest of the islands on the south-west from the rest of 
the city. 

" Veritablement on nage dans la lumi^re. Le ciel la verse, I'eau la 
colore, les reflets la centuplent ; il n'y a pas jusqu'aux maisons blanches et 
roses qui ne la renvoient, et la poesie des formes vient achever la poesie 
du jour. En vain le canal de la Giudecca, presque vide, semble attendre 
des flottes pour peupler son noble port ; on ne songe qu'aux couleurs et 
taux lignes. Trois lignes et trois couleurs font tout le spectacle : le 
large crista! mouvant, glauque et sombre, qui toume avec une dure 
fcouleur luisante ; au-dessus, detachee en vif relief, la file des batisses 
qui suit sa courbure ; plus haut enfin le ciel clair, infini, presque pale. " 

The most important building on La Giudecca is the great 
Church of II Redentore, built by Palladia, 1577. 

' ' Une fois le genre admis, I'eglise du Redempteur fait assez belle figure 
au bord du canal, ou elle se mire avec son grand escalier monumental de 
dix-sept marches de marbre, son fronton triangulaire, ses colonnes co- 
rinthiennes, sa porte et ses statues de bronze, ses deux pyramidlons et sa 
coupole blanche, qui fait un si bel effet dans les couchers de soleil, quand 
on se promene au large en gondole entre les jardins publics et Saint 
Georges." — Theophile Gautier. 

"The nave is a great hall, 50 ft wide by 105 in length, with narrow 

S. GIORGIO. 135 

side chapels, between which ranges a Corinthian Order, of great beauty 
in itself, and standing on the floor without pedestals. It is merely an 
ornament however, and has no architectural connection with the plain 
flat elliptical vault of the church, which is most disagreeably cut into by 
the windows that give light to the nave. A worse defect of the design 
is that, instead of the church expanding at the intersections, the sup- 
ports of the dome actually contract it ; and though the dome is of the 
same width as the nave, and has a semi-circular tribune on each side, 
the arrangement is such that it looks smaller and more contracted than 
the nave that leads to it. If we add to these defects of design that, both 
here and at San Giorgio, no marble or colour is used — nothing but plain 
cold stone and whitewash — it will be understood how very unsatisfactory 
these interiors are, and how disappointing, after all the praise that has 
been lavished on them." — Fergusson. 

The Crucifix over the high altar is by Gir. Catnpagna. The pictures 
in the church are unimportant, but in the sacristy are three of the most 
exquisite pictures in Venice — by Giovanni Bellini. Madonna with SS. 
John Baptist and Catherine. Madonna with SS. Jerome and Francis. 
Madonna with the sleeping Child and two angels. 

West of the Church are the Fondamenta di S. Biagio. 

A Saint-Blaise, a la Zuecca 
Vous ctiez, vous etiez bien aise 

A Saint-Blaise. 
A Saint-Blaise, a la Zuecca, 
Nous etions bien \k. 

Mais de vous en souvenir 

Prendrez-vous la peine ? 
Mais de vous en souvenir 

Et d'y revenir. 

A Saint-Blaise, \ la Zuecca 

Dans les pres fleuris cueillir la verveine ; 

A Saint-Blaise, a la Zuecca 

Vivre et mourir li. — Alfred de Musset. 

The Church of S. Giorgio, so conspicuous in most of the 
distant views of Venice, stands on a separate island at the 
eastern point of the Giudecca, It was the work of Palladia, 
1565 — 1660. Here, in 1800, met the college of Cardinals 
which elected Pius VII. to the papal throne. 


Right, xst Altar. Jacopo Bassano. The Nativity. 
znd Altar. Michelozzo Michelozzi. Wooden Crucifix. 
■^rd and i^h Altar. Tintoret. SS. Cosmo and Damian. 

In a Corridor near the High Altar is the Tomb of the great Doge 
Domenico Michele, 1687, by Baldassare Longhena. This was the Doge 
who assisted in the crusade of S. Bernard and Godfrey de Bouillon — 
who was the conqueror of Jaffa, Jerusalem, Tyre, and Ascalon — and 
who brought back the granite columns of the piazza. He has for an 
epitaph the words : 

" Terror Graecorum jacet hie." 

Left, 1st Altar. Tintoret. The Resurrection. 

2nd Altar. Tintoret. 

Last Altar. Leandro Bassano. Martyrdom of S. Lucia. 

Now we must embark in our gondola for a rather longer 

voyage than those we have hitherto taken, when, freed from 

musty churches, and wearisome pictures, we may enjoy the 

full glory of this wonderful water-land. 

"As I floated down the lagunes in the full sunshine, and observed 
how the figures of the gondoliers in their motley costume, moving lightly, 
as they rowed, above the sides of the gondola, stood out against the 
bright green water and the blue sky, I caught the best and freshest 
possible type of the Venetian school. The sunshine brought out the 
local colours with dazzling brilliancy, and even the shadows were so 
luminous, that they, in their turn, might sen^e as lights. The same 
may be said of the reflection from the sea-green water. All was painted 

'chiaro nel chiaro,' so that foaming waves and lightning flashes were 
necessary to give it grandeur," (um die Tiipfchen auf sie zu setzen). — 


In the direction of the Lido is the Island of S. Lazaro. 
Here is the Armenian Convent which has obtained a ficti- 
tious celebrity through Byron, who studied here for six 

On Dec. 5, 18 16, Byron wrote to Moore : 

'• By way of divertisement, I am studying daily, at an Armenian 
monastery, the Armenian language. I found that my mind wanted 
something craggy to break upon; and this — as the most difficult thing 


T could discover here for an amusement — I have chosen, to torture me 
into attention. It is a rich language, however, and would amply repay 
any one the trouble of learning it. I try, and shall go on ; but I answer 
for nothing, least of all for my intentions or my success. There are some 
very curious MSS. in the monastery, as well as books; translations also 
from Greek originals, now lost, and from Persian and Syriac, &c. ; 
besides works of their own people. Four years ago the French instituted 
an Armenian professorship. Twenty pupils presented themselves on 
Monday morning, full of noble ardour, ingenuous youth, and impregnable 
industry. They persevered, with a courage worthy of the nation and of 
universal conquest, till Thursday ; when /if teen of the twenty succumbed 
to the six-and-twentieth letter of the alphabet. It is, to be sure, a 
Waterloo of an alphabet— that must be said for them." 

The Convent was founded in the last century, and pos- 
sesses an excellent library and a printing press. Its continued 
existence is due to its being under the protection of Turkey. 

"The society of the Convent of S. Lazarus appears to unite all the 
advantages of the monastic institution, without any of its vices. 

*' The neatness, the comfort, the gentleness, the unaffected devotion, 
the accomplishments, and the virtues of the brethren of the order, are 
well fitted to strike a man of the world with the conviction that ' there is 
another and a better, even in this life.' 

" These men are the priesthood of an oppressed and noble nation, 
which has partaken of the proscription and bondage of the Jews and of 
the Greeks, without the sullenness of the former or the servility of the 
latter. This people has attained riches without usury, and all the 
honours that can be awarded to slavery without intrigue. But they have 
long occupied, nevertheless, a part of ' the House of Bondage,' who has 
lately multiplied her many mansions. It would be difficult, perhaps, to 
find the annals of a nation less stained with crimes than those of the 
Armenians, whose virtues have been those of peace, and their vices 
those of compulsion. But whatever may have been their destiny, — and 
it has been bitter, — whatever it may be in future, their country must ever 
be one of the most interesting on the globe ; and perhaps their language 
only requires to be more studied to become more attractive. If the 
Scriptures are rightly understood, it was in Armenia that Paradise was 
placed — Armenia, which has paid as dearly as the descendants of Adam 
for that fleeting participation of its soil in the happiness of him who was 
created from its dust. It was in Armenia that the flood first abated, and 
the dove alighted. But with the disappearance of Paradise itself may 
be dated almost the unhappiness of the country; for though long a 


powerful kingdom, it was scarcely ever an independent one, and the 
satraps of Persia and the pachas of Turkey have alike desolated the 
region where God created man in his own image." — Byron, Preface to 
the Armenian Grammar found amongst his papers. 

No traveller should leave Venice without visiting the 
lovely Island of S. Elena, which is only a short distance 
from the Public Gardens. It was occupied by a large con- 
vent now desecrated, but is still full of poetic beauty. There 
is a beautiful Gothic cloister where the roses and jessamine 
pour their masses of blossom over the parapets, and a large 
garden with exquisite views, especially at low water, towards 
S. Pietro and Murano. Artists should certainly give up a 
day to S. Elena, so lovely in its desolation, though it ever 
seems to say to the lapping waters — 

" Break, break, break, 

On the cold grey stones, O sea ! 
For the tender grave of a day that is dead 
Will never come back to me." 

The Lido is a name sometimes applied to the whole strip 
of shore (formed by three islands), which, seven miles in 
length and half a mile in breadth, extends along the mouth 
of the lagoon and forms the outer bulwark of Venice against 
the sea ; but, in its common acceptation, the name refers to 
that portion of the barrier which is nearest to Venice, and 
whither its people resort to ride on the sands or to bathe in 
the sea. Steamers leave the Schiavoni constantly for the 
Lido, returning every hour, and it is a very pleasant resort on 
late summer evenings, and worth while even for the beauty 
of the return to Venice, when all its lights are reflected in 
the still water. The weird sands, however, where Byron rode 
and which travellers of a few years ago will remember, have 
now disappeared, and a pergola of vines leads from the 

THE LIDO. 139 

lagoon to the sea (about 7 min. walk). Turning to the left 
along the lagoon towards S. Nicolo, we cross the desecrated 
Jewish cemetery. It was to the Porto di Lido that the Doge 
went forth annually for the ceremony of the espousals of 
Venice with the Adriatic, and cast the ring into the sea 
from the Bucentaur. 

" Once did she hold the gorgeous East in fee, 
And was the safe-guard of the West ; the worth 
Of Venice did not fall "below her birth, 
Venice, the eldest child of liberty. 
She was a maiden city, bright and free ; 
No guile seduced, no force could violate ; 
And when she took unto herself a mate, 
She must espouse the everlasting sea. 
And what if she had seen those glories fade, 
Those titles vanish, and that strength decay, — 
Yet shall some tribute of regret be paid 
When her long life hath reached its final day : 
Men are we, and must grieve when even the shade 
Of that which once was great has passed away. " 

W. Wordsworth. 

The Castello di S. Andrea was built by Michele San- 
michele in 1554. The Church of S. Nicolo, founded 1044, 
was rebuilt in 1826. It contains, near the door, the tomb of 
Doge Domenico Contarinl 



THE delightful excursion to Chioggia will occupy a day. 
The steamer leaves at 9I a.m., and arrives at Venice 
again at 6| p.m., allowing five hours at Chioggia. This ex- 
pedition is the best means of seeing the general features of 
the lagoon and the natural bulwarks of Venice. The most 
feeble sailors will only find it rough for a few minutes, in 
crossing the bars of Malamocco and Chioggia. 

Crossing the lagoon we pass on the right the Island of S. 
Servolo, which contains the great Lunatic Asylum, built 
1725, by Giov. Scalfurotto. 

"Honour aright the philosophic thought, 
That they who, by the trouble of the brain 
Or heart, for usual life are over-wrought, 
Hither should come to discipline their pain. 
A single Convent on a shoaly plain 
Of waters never changing their dull face 
But by the sparkles of the thick-falling rain 
Or lines of puny waves, — such is the place. 
Strong medicine enters by the ear and eye ; 
That low unaltering dash against the wall 
May lull the angriest dream to vacancy ; 
And Melancholy, finding nothing strange 
For her poor self to jar upon at all. 

Frees her sad-centred thoughts, and gives them pleisant 
range. " — MoTtckton Milnes. 

Our route is now like a highway on the sea, an avenue of 


posts marking the deep water on either side. On the right, 
is the Island of Poeggia. The outer bulwark of the lagoon 
is formed by three islands. That which ends to the north 
in the castle of S. Andrea, and to the south in the fort ot 
Alberoni, is called Littorale di Malamocco. The original 
island of Malamocco, on which the fugitives from Padua took 
refuge from Atila in 452, was submerged in 1107. The next 
island, Littorale di Felestina, is guarded by the Castello di S. 
Pietro, and the Forte de Caroman. The southernmost island, 
Littorale di Sotto Marina, forms the bulwark of Chioggia, 
Both the last-named islands are defended by the strong sea 
walls, called / Murazzi, erected 1774 — 1728, being 4603 
yards long on the coast of Pelestina and 1522 yards on that 
of Sotto Marina. As we coast along the shores we have an 
opportunity of seeing how their many villages have all the 
same peculiar characteristics ; — the tall campanile ; the white- 
washed houses with Venetian Gothic windows ; the miniature 
piazza with the lions supported on tall staffs ; the bronzed 
Giorgione figures lounging over the little piers green with 
sea-weed ; the strip of shore with reed fences protecting the 
gardens from the salt winds, and the feathery tamarisks 
hanging over. 

The female population are almost entirely occupied in 
lace-making, especially at Pelestina, and it is characteristic of 
the Venetian character that till a few years ago all the lace- 
stitches had religious names, " Aves," " Paters," &c. 

The islands, and the views across the sparkling lagoon- 
broken here and there into strips of the brightest emerald- 
green — to the beautiful Euganean hills, will occupy us till we 
reach Chioggia (Hotel Luna), where a considerable town 
occupies the whole of one of the larger islands. Its chief 




features are one immensely broad street, and one wide canal 
which perfectly blazes with colour — orange, yellow, crimson, 
and red — from the sails of its fishing-boats, which have the 
most extraordinary vanes at the top of their masts, wrought 
into the quaintest possible designs. When all these boats 
set forth and skim over the lagoon, it is like the flight of a 
swarm of butterflies. The people of Chioggia, too, retain all 
the finest characteristics of the old Venetian type, and 
painters still find their best models here. 

Street of Chioggia. 

Cut off from the rest of the world by water, the life at 
Chioggia is still the life of centuries ago, and Ariosto is even 
now (1875) ^^^^ publicly in the evenings in the principal 
street by a regular reader to a large and delighted audience. 

" In questo paese si divide tutta la populazione in due classe : ricchi, 
e poveri. Quelli che portano una pamicca ed un mantello, sono i 
ricchi ; quelli che non hanno che un berretto ed un cappotto, sono i 
poveri ; ben spesso questi ultimi hanno quattro volte piii danaro degli 
altri. " — Goldoni. 


Few visitors will care to go building-hunting at Chioggia. 
There is a Granary of 1322, resting on 64 pillars. The 
Cathedral was built 1633 — 1674, by Bald. Longhena, and 
has some good reliefs by Bonasso at the altar of S. Agnes 
and on the pulpit. The Oratory of S. Martino, of 1393, has 
an altar of 1394. The Church of S. Andrea has an altar by 
Sansovino. Chioggia is joined to the island of Brondolo (a 
continuation of the Lido) by a bridge of 43 arches. 

Beautiful are the effects of sunset on the still lagoon, and 
still more perhaps the effects of moonlight, enjoyed by those 
who return in the evening from Chioggia. 

"On ne nous avait certainement pas assez vante la beaute du ciel et 
les delices des nuits de Venise. La lagune est si calme dans les beaux 
soirs que les etoiles n'y tremblent pas. Quand on est au milieu, elle est 
si blanc, si unie, que I'oeil ne saisit plus la ligne de I'horizon, et que 
I'eau et le ciel ne font plus qu'un voile d'azur, ou la reverie se perd et 
s'endort. " — George Sand. 

"Now am I also one of the birds of the Adriatic Sea, as every 
Venetian feels himself to be, while reclining in his gondola. All that 
surrounds me is dignified — a grand venerable work of combined human 
energies, a noble monument, not of a ruler, but of a people. And if 
their lagunes are gradually filling up, if unwholesome vapours are float- 
ing over the marsh, if their trade is declining, and their power has 
passed away, still the great place and its essential character, will not for 
a moment be less venerable." — Goeifie. 

The approach to Venice, seen in coming from Trieste on 
this side, affords one of the most beautiful and striking views 
of the water-city. 

" Underneath day's azure eyes, 
Ocean's nursling, Venice lies, — 
A peopled labyrinth of walls, 
Amphitrite's destined halls. 
Which her hoary sire now paves 
With his blue and gleaming waves. 
Lo ! the sun upsprings behind. 
Broad, red, radiant, half-reclined 


On the level quivering line 

Of the waters crystalline ; 

And before that chasm of light 

As within a furnace bright, 

Column, tower, and dome, and spire, 

Shine like obelisks of fire. 

Pointing with inconstant motion 

From the altar of dark ocean 

To the sapphire-tinted skies; 

As the flames of sacrifice 

From the marbled shrines did rise 

As to pierce the dome of gold 

Where Apollo spake of old. " — Shelley. 



A WHOLE day must be given to this delightful excur- 
sion, and a calm sea should be chosen. It is some- 
times very rough in the neighbourhood of Murano. 

Emerging from the narrow canals of Venice at the Fon- 
damente Nuove, we find ourselves in the open lagoon. The 
nearest island, to which boat-funerals are gliding stealthily 
with black flags, is that of S. Michele, occupied by the 

The handsome church beside the burial ground dates 
from the 15th century. 

"The pure cumuli of cloud lie crowded and leaning against one 
another, rank beyond rank, far over the shining water, each cut away 
at its foundation by a level line, trenchant and clear, till they sink to the 
horizon like a flight of marble steps, except where the mountains meet 
them, and are lost in them, barred across by the grey terraces of those 
cloud foundations, and reduced into one crestless bank of blue, spotted 
here and there with strange flakes of wan, aerial, greenish light, strewed 
upon them like snow. And underneath is the long dark line of the 
mainland, fringed with low trees ; and then the wide waving 
surface of the burnished lagoon trembling slowly, and shaking out into 
forked bands of lengthening light the images of the towers of cloud 
above. To the north, there is first the great cemetery wall, then the long 
stray buildings of Murano, and the island villages beyond, glittering in 
intense crystalline vermillion, like so much jewelry scattered on a mirror, 
their towers poised apparently in the air a little above the horizon, and 
their reflections, as sharp and vivid and substantial as themselves, thrown 
on the vacancy between them and the sea. And thus the villages seem 
VOL. II. 10 


standing on the air ; and, to the east, there is a cluster of ships that seem 
sailing on the land ; for the sandy line of the Lido stretches itself be- 
tween us and them, and we can see the tall white sails moving beyond 
it, but not the sea, only there is a sense of the great sea being indeed 
there, and a solemn strength of gleaming light in the sky above. 

"The most discordant feature in the whole scene is the cloud which 
hovers above the glass furnaces of Murano ; but this we may not regret, 
as it is one of the last signs left of human exertion among the ruinous 
villages which surround us. The silent gliding of the gondola brings it 
nearer to us every moment ; we pass the cemetery, and a deep sea- 
channel which separates it from Murano, and finally enter a narrow 
water-street, with a paved footpath on each side, raised three or four 
feet above the canal, and forming a kind of quay between the water and 
the doors of the houses. These latter are, for the most part, low, but 
built with massy doors and windows of marble or Istrian stone, square 
set, and barred with iron ; buildings evidently once of no mean order, 
though now only inhabited by the poor. Here and there an ogee 
window of the fourteenth century, or a doorway deeply enriched with 
cable mouldings, shows itself in the midst of more ordinary features ; 
and several houses, consisting of one story only carried on square pillars, 
forming a short arcade along the quay, have windows sustained on 
shafts of red Verona marble, of singular grace and delicacy. All now 
in vain ; little care is there for their delicacy or grace among the rough 
fishermen sauntering on the quay with their jackets hanging loose from 
their shoulders, jacket and cap and hair all of the same dark -greenish 
sea-grey. But there is some life in the scene, more than is usual in 
Venice : the women are sitting at their doors knitting busily, and various 
workmen of the glass-houses sifting glass dust upon the pavement, and 
strange cries coming from one side of the canal to the other, and ringing 
far along the crowded water, from vendors of figs and grapes, and 
gourds and shell-fish ; cries partly descriptive of the eatables in question, 
but interspersed with others of a character unintelligible in proportion 
to their violence, and fortunately so, if we may judge by a sentence 
which is stencilled in black, within a garland, on the white-washed 
walls of nearly every other house in the street, but which, how often 
soever written, no one seems to regard : ' Bestemme non piii. Lodate 

'* We push our way between large barges laden with fresh water from 
Fusina, in round white tubs seven feet across, and complicated boats 
full of all manner of nets that look as if they could never be disentangled, 
hanging from their masts and over their sides ; and presently pass under 
a brid<Te with the lion of S. Mark on its archivolt, and another on a 

MURANO. li,-] 

pillar at the end of the parapet, a small red lion with much of the puppy 
in his face, looking vacantly up into the air (in passing we may note 
that, instead of feathers, his wings are covered with hair, and in several 
other points the manner of his sculpture is not uninteresting). Presently 
the canal turns a little to the left, and thereupon becomes more quiet, 
the main bustle of the water-street being usually confined to the first 
straight reach of it, some quarter of a mile long, the Cheapside of 
Murano. We pass a considerable church on the left, S. Pietro, and a 
little square opposite to it with a few acacia trees, and then find our 
boat suddenly seized by a strong green eddy, and whirled into the tide- 
way of one of the main channels of the lagoon, which divides the town 
of Murano into two parts by a deep stream some fifty yards over, crossed 
only by one wooden bridge. We let ourselves drift some way down the 
current, looking at the low line of cottages on the other side of it, 
hardly knowing if there be more cheerfulness or melancholy in the way 
the sunshine glows on their ruinous but white- washed walls and sparkles 
on the rushing of the green water by the grass-grown quay. It needs a 
strong stroke of the oar to bring us into the mouth of another quiet 
canal on the other side of the tideway, and we are still somewhat giddy 
when we run the head of the gondola into the sand on the left-hand side 
of this more sluggish stream, and land under the east end of the Church 
of San Donato, the * Matrice ' or * Mother ' church of Murano. 

" It stands, it and the heavy campanile detached from it a few yards, 
in a small triangular field of somewhat fresher grass than is usual near 
Venice, traversed by a paved walk with green mosaic of short grass 
between the rude squares of its stones, bounded on one side by ruinous 
garden walls, on another by a line of low cottages, on the third, the 
base of the triangle, by the shallow canal from which we have just 
landed. Near the point of the triangular space is a simple well, bearing 
date 1502 ; in its widest part, between the canal and campanile, is a 
four-square hollow pillar, each side formed by a separate slab of stone, 
to which the iron hasps are still attached that once secured the Venetian 

"The cathedral itself occupies the northern angle of the field, en- 
cumbered with modern buildings, small outhouse-like chapels, and 
wastes of white wall with blank square windows, and itself utterly 
defaced in the whole body of it, nothing but the apse having been spared ; 
the original place is only discoverable by careful examination, and even 
then but partially. The whole impression and effect of the building are 
irretrievably lost, but the fragments of it are still most precious." — 
Ruskin, Stones of Venice. 

According to legend, the foundation of the Church of 


Murano is due to Otho the Great, to whom the Virgin ap- 
peared in a vision, showing him this very triangular meadow 
overgrown with scarlet lilies, and desiring him to build a 
qhurch there in her honour. In 11 25 S. Donato was joined 
with the Virgin as patron of the church, which was hence- 
forth called by his name, and to which his body, brought 
from Cephalonia, was presented by the Doge Domenico 
Michele. It is believed that on the acquisition of this 
treasure the whole church was rebuilt. Gaily Knight supposes 
that the best part of the existing remains is of the twelfth 
century. The semi-circular apse is the most remarkable 
feature. ^ It has two stories of circular arches, intersected by 
a double band of triangular marbles of the most wondrous 
delicacy of sculpture. Many of these marbles are coloured, 
and Ruskin teaches us that in no case was their arrange- 
ment without the most careful intention. "The subtlety 
and perfection of artistical feeling in all this are so redund- 
ant, that in the building itself the eye can rest upon this 
coloured chain with the same kind of delight that it has in a 
piece of the embroidery of Paul Veronese." The balustrade 
round the upper gallery is also a remarkable feature. The 
lower stage is mainly arcaded in red brick. 

The interior of the church has been grievously modernized 
and is dismal and bare in the extreme. But it retains the 
old basilica form, the beautiful inlaid pavement of 1140, 
some of the delicately wrought ancient capitals, and, in the 
apse, a sad-looking Greek mosaic of the Madonna, in a blue 
robe. Beneath it, is, in Latin, the inscription : 

" Whom Eve destroyed, the pious Virgin Mary redeemed ; 
All praise her, who rejoice in the Grace of Christ." 

" At Murano the Mosaic in the tribune of the Duomo, executed about 

BURANO. 149 

the middle of the I2th century, is one of the most remarkable of the 
Byzantine revival — a single figure only, the Virgin, the Greek type — 
standing on a cushion of cloth of gold, alone in the field, and completely 
enveloped in her long blue robe ; her hands are held forth appealingly 
towards the spectator, two large tear-drops hang on her cheek, settled 
sorrow dwells on every feature ; the very spirit of the ' Stabat Mater ' 
breathes through this affecting portraiture— the silent searching look 
for sympathy is irresistible. The face not beautiful but impressive 
and dignified, there is a feeling of elegance in the attitude, finished with 
care, evidently by one of the best artists of the time." — Lord Lindsay's 
Christian Art. 

The Church of the Angeli dates from 1187, but was re- 
built in 1520. On the gate of its courtyard is a graceful 
Annunciation by some of the pupils of Donatello. The 
Church of S. Pietro, of the i6th century, contains a Giovanni 
Bellini, of the Madonna and saints, with the donor, Doge A. 
Barberigo, 1488. 

Travellers should not leave Murano without visiting 
SalviaWs Glass Manufactory, and seeing his wonderful imi- 
tations both of the ancient mosaics and of the old Venetian 

The Path in the Sea to Torcello. 

A path in the sea, marked at intervals with posts, leads 
picturesquely across the shallow lagoon to the Island of 
Burano which has a large lace-making population, and beyond 
this to the Island of Mazzorbo, which is a vast kitchen-garden 
for the inhabitants of Venice. Here there is an interesting 


Gothic doorway, with a figure of our Lord and kneeling 
figures, under an ogee canopy, dated a.d. 1368. Beautifiil 

Canal of Burano, Venict 

are the effects, in passing through the canal which divides 
these islands, of the low-lying reaches of wind-stricken shore, 
with a tall campanile and lonely cypress. Again a wide 
space of open lagoon, and, between banks of samphire and 
low lilac bushes, we enter the canal of Torcello. 

" Seven miles to the north of Venice, the banks of sand, which near 
the city rise little above low-water mark, attain by degrees a higher 
level, and hoist themselves at last into fields of salt morass, raised here 
and there into shapeless mounds, and interrupted by narrow creeks of 
sea. One of the feeblest of these inlets, after winding for some time 
among buried fragments of masonry, and knots of sunburnt weeds 
whitened with webs of fucus, stays itself in an utterly stagnant pool be- 
side a plot of greener grass covered with ground-ivy and violets. On this 
mound is built a rude brick campanile, of the commonest Lombardic 
type, which if we ascend towards evening (and there are none to hinder 
us, the door of its ruinous staircase swinging idly on its hinges), we may 
command from it one of the most notable scenes in this wide world of 
ours. Far as the eye can reach, a waste of wild sea moor, of a lurid 
ashen-grey ; not like our northern moors with their jet-black pools and 
purple heath, but lifeless, the colour of sackcloth, with the corrupted 
sea-water soaking through the roots of its acrid weeds, and gleaming 
hither and thither through its snaky channels. No gathering of fan- 
tastic mists, nor coursing of clouds across it ; but melancholy clear- 
ness of space in the warm sunset, oppressive, reaching to the horizon 



o{ its level gloom. To the very horizon, 011 the north-east ; but to the 
north and west, there is a blue line of higher land along the border of 
it, and above this, but farther back, a misty band of mountains, touched 
with snow. To the east, the paleness and roar of the Adriatic, louder 
at momentary intervals as the surf breaks on the bar of sand ; to the 
south, the widening branches of the calm lagoon, alternately purple and 
pale green, as they reflect the evening clouds or twilight sky ; and almost 
beneath our feet, on the same field which sustains the tower we gaze 
from, a group of four buildings, two of them little larger than cottages 
(though built of stone, and one adorned by a quaint belfry), the third an 
octagonal chapel, of which we can see but little more than the flat red 
roof with its rayed tiling, the fourth, a considerable church with nave 
and aisles, but of which, in like manner, we can see little but the long 
central ridge and lateral slopes of roof, which the sunlight separates in 
one glowing mass from the green field beneath and grey moor beyond. 
There are no living creatures near the buildings, nor any vestige of vil- 
lage or city round about them. They lie like a little company of ships 
becalmed on a far-away sea. 

"Then look farther to the south. Beyond the widening branches of the 
lagoon, and rising out of the bright lake into which they gather, there 
are a multitude of towers, dark, and scattered among square-set shapes 
of clustered palaces, a long irregular line fretting the southern sky 

" Mother and daughter, you behold them both in their widowhood, — 
Torcello and Venice. 

" Thirteen hundred years ago, the grey moorland looked as it does 
this day, and the purple mountains stood as radiantly in the deep dis- 
tances of evening ; but on the line of the horizon, there were strange 
fires mixed with the light of sunset, and the lament of many human 
voices mixed with the fretting of the waves on their ridges of sand. The 
flames rose from the ruins of Altinum ; the lament from the multitude 
of its people, seeking, like Israel of old, a refuge from the sword in tlie 
paths of the sea. 

" The cattle are feeding and resting upon the site of the city that they 
left ; the mower's scythe swept this day at dawn over the chief street of 
the city that they built, and the swathes of soft grass are now sending 
up their scent into the night air, the only incense that fills the temple of 
their ancient worship. Let us go down into that little space of meadow 

" The inlet which runs nearest to the base of the campanile is not 
that by which Torcello is commonly approached. Another, somewhat 
broader, and overhung by alder copse, winds out of the main channel of 
the lagoon up to the very edge of the little meadow which was once the 


Piazza of the city, and there, stayed by a few grey stones which present 
some semblance of a quay, forms its boundary at one extremity. Hardly 
larger than an English farm-yard, and roughly enclosed on each side by 
broken palings and hedges of honeysuckle and briar, the narrow field 
retires from the water's edge, traversed by a scarcely traceable footpath, 
for some forty or fifty paces, and then expanding into the form of a small 
square, with buildmgs on three sides of it, the fourth being that which 
opens to the water. Two of these, that on our left and that in front of 
us as we approach from the canal, are so small that they might well be 
taken for the out-houses of the farm, though the first is a conventual 
building, and the other aspires to the title of the ' Palazzo Pubblico,' both 
dating as far back as the beginning of the fourteenth century ; the third, 
the octagonal church of Santa Fosca, is far more ancient than either, yet 
hardly on a larger scale. Though the pillars of the portico which sur- 
rounds it are of pure Greek marble, and their capitals are enriched with 
delicate sculpture, they, and the arches they sustain, together only raise 
the roof to the height of a cattle-shed ; and the first strong impression 
which the spectator receives from the whole scene is, that whatever sin 
it may have been which has on this spot been visited with so utter a 
desolation, it could not at least have been ambition. Nor will this 
impression be diminished as we approach, or enter, the larger church 
to which the whole group of building is subordinate. It has evidently 
been built by men in flight and distress ; who sought in the hurried 
erection of their island church such a shelter for their earnest and sor- 
rowful worship, as, on the one hand, would not attract the eyes of their 
enemies by its splendour, and yet, on the other, might not awaken too 
bitter feelings by its contrast with the churches which they had seen de- 
stroyed. There is visible everywhere a simple and tender effort to 
recover some of the form of the temples which they had loved, and to do 
honour to God by that which they were erecting, while distress and 
humiliation prevented the desire, and prudence precluded the admission, 
either of luxury of ornament or magnificence of plan. The exterior is 
absolutely devoid of decoration, with the exception only of the western 
entrance and the lateral door, of which the former has carved side-posts 
and architrave, and the latter crosses of rich sculpture ; while the massy 
stone shutters of the windows, turning on huge rings of stone, which 
answer the double purpose of stanchions and brackets, cause the whole 
building rather to resemble a refuge from Alpine storm than the cathe- 
dral of a populous city ; and, internally, the two solemn mosaics of the 
eastern and western extremities, — one representing the Last Judgment, 
the other the Madonna, her tears falling as her hands are raised to bless, 
— and the noble range of pillars which enclose the space between, ter- 


minated by the high throne for the pastor, and the semi-circular raised 
seats for the superior clergy, are expressive at once of the deep sorrow 
and the sacred courage of men who had no home left them upon earth, but 
who looked for one to come, of men, ' persecuted but not forsaken, cast 
down but not destroyed.' " — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, ii. 2. 

' ' Two hundred years after the invasion of Attila had driven many of 
the inhabitants of Aquileja and Altina from their homes, the province 
was desolated by the Lombards. The Altinese, alarmed at their approach, 
anxiovisly deliberated whether they should remain to face this ' Australis 
plaga,' or seek safety in flight, when they beheld vast flocks of birds, 
with their fledglings in their beaks, take flight from the city walls and 
towers, and direct their course seaward. Regarding this as a sign from 
heaven, some departed to Ravenna, some to Pentapolis, and others to 
Istria, leaving behind them a band of devout persons, who in order to 
obtain a more direct manifestation of the will of heaven determined to 
fast and pray for three days, according to the advice of their bishop, 
Paulus. At the end of that time they heard a voice like thunder, 
saying, * Ascend into the city tower and look at the stars.' They beheld 
a vision of boats, and ships, and islands, and taking this as an indication 
that their course should be directed seaward, they removed their most 
precious possessions to the island of Torcello. . . . Paulus, Bishop of 
Altina, migrated with his flock, their relics, and treasure, to Torcello and 
the neighbouring islands, a.d. 641." — Perkin's Italian Sculptors. 

Amongst the external features of Torcello is the marble 
seat — low-lying amongst the rye-grass — called Attila's 

The Cathedral, which was rebuilt, evidently exactly in 
the form of an early church, in the beginning of the nth 
century, has many curious mosaics of the same date, and 
probably by the same artist as that at Murano. It has 
three parallel naves of ten bays, ending in apses. The 
columns dividing the nave from the aisles, are of veined 
marble, with exquisitely wrought capitals, half Corinthian, 
half Byzantine. The choir is fenced off by a marble screen, 
" the prototype of that at S. Mark's," and is adorned with 
sculptures of lions and peacocks, probably brought from 



" North -west of the rood-screen stands the marble ambon — a pulpit 
of two divisions, one (circular) facing south, the other (square) facing 
west. This and the staircase leading to it are full of delicate and good 
carved work. The arrangement has an absurd likeness to many a 
modem English scheme of pulpit and reading pew, and there is certainly 
force in the obser\'ation, that such an arrangement would never have 


been thought of, unless the Gospel was to be understood by the people. 
Now they do not understand it, it is no longer said from an ambon, and 
ambons seem to be much less useful to the Romans than rood-screens 
are to us ! " — Street. 

The cathedral has been greatly injured, and its exterior 
completely modernized, during injudicious and hasty repairs 
under the Austrians, when the new roof was put on. The 
most perfect portion is its Baptiste^ or the Church of S. 
Fosca, connected with it by a cloister. It is a square 
church, with small projections on either side, and a deeper 
one on the east, where the high altar is raised above the 
relics of the virgin martyr Fosca, who suffered under Decius. 

" There are three eastern apses, and the western side is screened by 


an open cloister, which is octagonal in plan. The square centre is 
domed on very simple pendentives, and the capitals are similar in 
character to those in the cathedral. The best detail is to be seen out- 
side the east end, where there is some good arcading and an enriched 
band of chevron ornament, formed by recessing the brickwork, and a 
mixture of red and buff brickwork, which is very effective." — Street. 

" At Torcello everything is on the tiniest scale ; you can touch with 
your hand the capitals of the columns that support the roof, and though 
the basilica be a respectably-sized parish church, its title of Duomo pre- 
pares one to expect a building of far greater magnitude. The contrast 
is striking too in other respects. The spot once so populous is now 
almost utterly abandoned. The two churches, the baptistery and steeple, 
an isolated marble column, an ancient well, sculptured with the Greek 
cross, the Archivio and Tribunal (such no longer)— these, and one 
or two dilapidated buildings, all closely adjacent, are the sole remains 
of the ancient town, and form now the centre of a wilderness ; the 
piazza which they encircled, is completely overgrown with grass and 
encircled by hedgerows — a narrow pathway is the only street ; the little 
birds sing amid the profound silence — and on finishing your survey, you 
will probably find yourself leaning against the marble pillars which once 
sustained the flag-staff of the republic, long before those of her tributary 
principalities, Cyprus and Candia, waved in the breeze. I know nothing 
in its way like Torcello ; it is a scene siii generis for simplicity and soli- 
tude, — and yet not melancholy, for they are not the ruins of fallen great- 
ness ; the emotions excited are akin rather to those one experiences in 
visiting the source of some mighty river, or gazing at the portrait of a 
hero in his childhood." — Lindsay's Christian Art. 

The chancel of the cathedral is most remarkable, the 
seats rising in tiers with the semi-circular form of a theatre. 

" There is one circumstance which we ought to remember as giving 
peculiar significance to the position which the episcopal throne occupies 
in the island church, namely, that in the minds of all early Christians 
the Church itself was most frequently symbolized under the image of a 
ship, of which the bishop was the pilot. Consider the force which this 
symbol would assume in the imaginations of men to whom the spiritual 
Church had become an ark of refuge in the midst of a destruction hardly 
less terrible than that from which the eight souls were saved of old, a 
destruction m which the wrath of man had become as broad as the 
earth and as merciless as the sea, and who saw the actual and literal 
edifice of the Church raised up, itself like an ark in the midst of the 
waters. No marvel if with the surf of the Adriatic rolling between them 


and the shores of their birth, from which they were separated for 
ever, they should have looked upon each other as the disciples did when 
the storm came down on Tiberias Lake, and have yielded ready and 
loving obedience to those who ruled them in His name, who had there 
rebuked the winds and commanded stillness to the sea. And if the 
stranger would yet learn in what spirit it was that the dominion of Venice 
was begun, and in what strength she went forth conquering and to con- 
quer, let him not seek to estimate the wealth of her arsenals or numbers 
of her armies ; nor look upon the pageantry of her palaces, nor enter 
into the secrets of her councils ; but let him ascend the highest tier of 
the stern ledges that sweep round the altar of Torcello, and then, look- 
ing as the pilot did of old along the marble ribs of the goodly temple- 
ship, let him re-people its ruined deck with the shadows of its dead 
mariners, and strive to feel in himself the strength of heart that was 
kindled within them, when first, after the pillars of it had settled in the 
sand, and the roof of it had been closed against the angry sky that was 
still reddened by the fires of their homesteads, — first, within the shelter 
of its knitted walls, amidst the murmur of the waste of waves and the 
beating of the wings of the sea-birds round the rock that was strange to 
them, — rose that ancient hymn, in the power of their gathered voices : 
— ' The sea is His, and He made it : and His hands prepared the dry 
land. ' " — Ruskin, Stones of Venice. 

The excursion to Torcello forms a fitting close to a stay 
at Venice, which no one who has stayed long enough to 
enjoy its melancholy beauty can leave without regret. 

" Prime model of a Christian commonwealth 
Thou wise simplicity, which present men 
Calumniate, not conceiving, — ^joy is mine, 
That I have read and learnt thee as I ought, 
Not in the rude compiler's painted shell. 
But in thine own memorials of live stone. 
And in the pictures of thy kneeling princes, 
And in the lofty words on lofty tombs, 
And in the breath of ancient chroniclers. 
And in the music of the outer sea." — Monckton Milnes. 


These places will probably be visited by many travellers who go by 
rail from Venice to Vienna. Except by those who are sufficiently 
interested in history to make the (well-worth) pilgrimage to Aquileja, 
they will not be made the subject of a separate excursion. 

THE railway to Trieste branches off from the Milan 
line at Mestre, and reaches : — 

26 kiL Treviso {Inns. Qiiattro Corone, very good, though 
of humble exterior. Posta.) This town, in its narrow 
winding arcaded streets has a reminiscence of Venice. In 
the centre is : — 

The Cathedral of S. Fietro, chiefly brick, and modernised 
in the 15th century by Tullio Lombardo, and with a classic 
portico, on the steps of which the ancient red lions remain. 
It has five cupolas. 

Hight, 2nd Chapel. Paris Bordone. The Nativity. 

Chapel right of High Altar. Titian. The Annunciation. The 
fresco of the Adoration of the Magi, and the Salutation above, are by 

The High Altar is by Tullio Lombardo, as well as the fine tomb 
near it of Bishop Zannetti. 

*Left, yd Chapel. Fr. Bissolo (1504), a native of Treviso, a pupil of 
G. Bellini. S. Barbara with SS. Catherine and John Baptist and 
the donor. A beautiful picture. 

2nd Chapel. Paris Bordone. Madonna and four Saints. 

A little to the left (from the west front of the cathedral) 


is the fine brick Dominican Church of S. Niccolb di Bart, 
one of the loftiest and largest Gothic parish churches in 
Italy. It was built by two Dominican architects, 13 10- 
1352. The immense nave ends in a tribune, and is sepa- 
rated from its aisles by enormous pillars, upon which there 
are frescoes. On the right wall is a gigantic S. Christopher. 

High Altar. Marco Pensaben and his pupil Maraveja, 1520. 
Madonna throned, with saints and angels. 

Lefi of Choir. The tomb of Conte d'Onigo, by Tullio Lombardo, 

Chapel right of High Altar. Giovanni Bellini (or Sebastian del 
Piombo ? ) Christ and the Twelve Apostles : the donor and his family 

Sacristy. Paolo Fiamingo. The Magdalen. 

Amongst the innumerable pictures in the other buildings 
we need only notice a Dead Christ in the Monte di Fietd, 
a fine and undoubted work of Giorgione. 

After crossing the immense generally dry bed of the 
Piave, we reach — 

55 kil. Conegiiano {Inn, Fosta.) In the Church of 
S. Lorenzo is an altar-piece by the native painter Giovanni 
Battista Cima, generally called " Cima da Conegiiano," 
who was born here in 1460. This is the starting-point by 
diligence for Belluno (see ch. xx). 

83 kil. Pordenone — (Portus Naonis). {Inn, Posta.) The 
Cathedral has a magnificent companile and contains : — 

Right, 1st Altar. S. Christopher with the Holy Family, by the 
native painter Giovanni Antonio Licinio, commonly called "II 
Pordenone," born here, 1484 : his great works are at Piacenza. 

109 kil. Cadroipo. A little to the right is the village of 
Campo-Formio, where the treaty was made, Oct. 18, 1797, by 
which lUyria, Dalmatia and Venice were ceded to Austria. 



132 kil. Udine. {Inn. Italia, excellent and reasonable) 
— the old capital of Friuli, united to Venice in 1420. It is 
a most pleasant and prosperous place, and it can only have 
been a hostile pen which \vrote the old proverb, — 

" Udine, giardini senza fiori, castel senza cannoni, fontane senza 
acqua, nobilta senza creanza." 

In the midst of the town is the Cathedral, built in 1 5 1 7 
by Giovanni Fontana, on an artificial hill which tradition 
declares to have been thrown up by Attila, in order that 
from thence he might the better behold the burning of 
Aquileja. At its foot is the Piazza di S. Giovanni, which 
has a Palazzo with a loggia now disused, standing on 
a broad stone platform, decorated with a fountain, pillars, 
and statues ; the statue at the end, representing Maria 
Louisa, was erected after the treaty of Campo-Formio. 

The beautiful Qio\}civc Palazzo Pubblico, of 1457, rests upon 
an open colonjiade, which has a gothic balustrade of marble 
and serpentine, and under which is a Madonna of 1516, 
by Pordenone. 

A little to the right is the Cathedral^ which has an octa- 
gonal tower, and a gothic front with some curious reliefs. 
It contains : — 

Left, \st Altar. Gimanni Martina da Udine, 1501. S. Mark 
throned, with two bishops below. 

Left, 2nd Altar. Martina da Udine, 1 502. S. Joseph with the In- 
fant Jesus and S. John. A most lovely picture. S. John, a beauti- 
ful youth, leans against the parapet of a portico and gazes up at the 
child in the arms of the old man. 

Right Aisle. Tomb of Bishop Zaccharia Briceto, " Angelo di carita," 
erected by his people, 1851. 

The hotel at Udine is a good one (with German cleanli- 
ness), and all travellers should stay here two nights, in 


order to make the very important excursion to Aquileja, 
for which this is far the best starting-point. As a matter of 
fact Aquileja is still just within the Austrian frontier ; but 
its history and associations so connect it with Italy, that a 
thorough Italian tour would still be as incomplete without 
visiting it, as it would have been without a visit to Venice, 
when that was no longer Italian. 

(It is about i8 miles — 3 hours' drive — from Udine to Aquileja. The 
landlord will make an arrangement for i8frs., by which a little carriage 
may be taken to Palma (midway) and there exchanged for a fresh carriage 
and horse, the driver of the first carriage awaiting the return and under- 
taking all the payments. 

The help of a Sacristan is necessary at Aquileja to open doors, &c. 
The schoolmaster will send for him. He should be desired to bring his 
telescope, if the Campanile be ascended. 

If the traveller have any small Austrian money, he may take it to 
Aquileja with advantage, but Italian money will pass.) 

The road to Aquileja crosses a level, richly-cultivated 
plain. Midway we reach the strongly-fortified town of 
Palma Nuova, which has clear streams running down all 
the streets, and a large piazza with quaint statues at each 
street corner. 

There are quantities of shrines along the road. The driver 
touches his hat to them all, but when he passes a church 
he takes it off altogether, for this is almost Austria, and 
religion has not, as they say, " gone out " here, as it has in 
Italy generally, since it became " Unita." At Strassoldo, 
two little huts painted black and yellow, and a DoganierCy 
announce that we have entered Austria (no paper or pass- 
port necessary). Then, across the endless lines of white 
mulberries, a huge campanile rises in pale pink shadow 
against the aerial distance. It is Aquileja. 

Except that the country is very fertile, the approach 


would remind us of that to Ostia. Aquileja lies in the same 
way near a sea which has receded, one great building 
stranded in the desolation, and the fields all around are 
littered in the same way with fragments of brick and marble, 
while pillars and capitals may frequently be seen lying neg- 
lected amongst the rank grass. A Roman colony was 
settled here in b.c. i8i, when the accidental omen of an 
eagle gave it the name of Aquileja, and it speedily rose to 
the greatest wealth and prosperity. It became the great 
centre for the traffic of Italy with the north and east of 
Europe, was enriched by the discovery of gold-mines in the 
neighbourhood, and was chosen by Caesar as the head- 
quarters of his legions in Cisalpine Gaul. As late as the 
fourth century it was reckoned by Ausonius as the ninth 
city of the Roman Empire, and amongst those of Italy 
only inferior to Capua and Milan. It safely survived many 
dangers. In a.d. 238 it was besieged by Maximin, who 
was murdered by his own soldiers while investing it; in 
A.D. 340 it beheld the younger Constantine defeated and 
slain, almost beneath its walls ; and in 388 it saw the defeat 
of the usurper Maximus by the Emperor Theodosius the 
Great, and his death. But in A.D. 452 it was besieged, 
taken, and totally destroyed by Attila, king of the Huns. 

On the site of the famous town of Augustus, which had 
more than 100,000 inhabitants, there are now only a few 
low cottages, and the one gigantic church which has risen 
upon the fragments of the early Christian cathedral — the 
crypt, baptistery and campanile — which alone were spared 
when every other building was so totally destroyed by Attila 
in 452, in revenge for the resistance he encountered here, 
that scarcely a stone remained perfect. The inhabitants 

VOL. H. n 

1 62 


had already fled with their treasures to Grado and to Torcello, 
and thus the destruction of Aquileja became the foundation 
of Venice. 


The church — long the cathedral, now only z.parrbcchia — 
has little ornament outside. It belongs mostly to the early 
part of the eleventh century, when the pillars which had 
been thrown down were again raised upon their foundations 
and newly enclosed. At the west end is a low portico, sup- 
ported by heavy pillars, leading to the small solid church 
which was spared in the destruction of the ancient city. It 
contains a fresco of SS. John Baptist and Nicholas. Here 
a number of early inscriptions and other fragments have 
been collected. Through this we enter the baptistery used 
for immersion in the time of Constantine, surrounded by six 
pillars, but now open to the air. This church and bap- 
tistery are believed to date from the time of S. Ermagora, 
the first apostle of Friuli and bishop of Aquileja, who is said 
to have been consecrated by S. Peter himself, and to have 
been succeeded by the holy deacon S. Fortunato. In the 
little forecourt are a number of ancient tombs, capitals of 
columns, &c. The ruined pillars on the south of the church 



are said to have belonged to the portico which led to the 
palace of the patriarch. 

The Interior of the church is most stately and impressive. 
The immense nave is separated from the very wide aisles 
by magnificent ranges of columns, two on each side, with 
glorious Corinthian capitals, supporting pointed arches. 
The roof is of wood, like that of the Eremitani at Padua, 
cusped, boarded, and panelled in small square panels. At 
the end of the nave a great flight of steps ascends to the 

Right and left of entrance. Two splendid capitals, used as Holy 
Water basons. 

Right. The Chapel of SS. Ambrose and Margaret, of 1298, con- 
taining magnificent marble tombs of the Delia Torre family, (the arms 
a tower) one of whom was Patriarch and another Treasurer of this 

At the angle of the wall. A figure of the sainted Bishop Siro, who fore, 
told the destruction by Attila many years before. 

Sacristy. The mitre, sandals, and four-sided berretto of Bishop 
Popponi, under whom the present cathedral was built. In the library 
above is an ancient gilt figure of S. Ermagora. 

Throne of ihe Patriar-h, Aquileja. 

A chapel, with a most glorious marble screen with symbolical 

The tomb, with agate panels, raised on four pillars, which contained 


the relics of S. Quirinus, given, with those of S. Marco Vescovo, by 
John XIX. in 1031. These relics were removed and divided between 
the cathedrals of Udine and Gorizia, when the bisliopric was taken 
away firom Aquileja, 

The Choir has a cinque-cento screen. Behind the altar is a picture 
of saints, attributed to G. Bellini, and, beneath it, the throne of the 
Patriarch Popponi, of white marble and serpentine, approached by 

The tomb of S. Marco Vescovo, adorned with statuettes. 

Left Aisle. A very odd circular building with a cone-like roofl Its 
object is unknown. Some say it was a baptistery, and some for contain- 
ing holy oil, &c. 

The Crypt vn anterior to the destruction by Attila. It contains the 
relics of S. Ermagora. In spite of the immense iron bars with which 
they were protected, its treasures were robbed in 1821. 

The great Campanile stands in the cemetery quite de- 
tached from the church. It is well worth ascending for the 
sake of its wonderful view of the Alps, of Trieste and 
Miramar, and of the lagunes of Aquileja, which are some- 
thing like those of Venice. Not far from the mainland is 
the Island of Grado, crowded with fishermen's houses — dis- 
tinctly visible through the telescope. The church of Grado 
— " Venetae orae Istriaeque Ecclesiarum caput et mater " — 
somewhat resembles that of Aquileja, though much 
smaller. There was always great jealousy between the two 
churches, which came to a climax in 1156, when the 
patriarch of Aquileja at the head of his canons took Grado 
unawares, and, having plundered the church, was carrying 
off his booty to his vessels, when he was arrested by the 
arrival of a fleet from Venice. The patriarch obtained his 
liberty, but was forced to pay a ransom which was to bear 
witness to the contempt in which the spiritual dignity of 
Aquileja was held at Venice. Every year thenceforth on 
Giovedi Grasso {Zioba grasso, in the Venetian dialect) the 

CRADO. 165 

patriarch of Aquileja was forced to send to Venice a bull 
and twelve boar pigs, a deputation representing himself and 
his chapter. They were paraded through the streets, and 
afterwards slaughtered with mock solemnities in the pre- 
sence of the Doge, who distributed their flesh to the 

Grado is well worthy of a visit, but very seldom seen, 
for it takes three hours to reach in a boat by the canal, and 
the traveller who would go there must return to sleep at 
Palma and start early next day, or sleep at the little inn at 
Aquileja ; but if he has travelled south in the Volscian and 
Hemican mountains, he will have slept in many worse 
places. All that the guide-books have copied from one 
another as to the malaria at Aquileja is either ignorance or 
invention : it is a very healthy place, with a flourishing little 

Every day more antiquities are discovered at Aquileja, 
and a Museum of the minor objects found has been formed 
at the house of the Podesta. Some of the Scavi recently 
opened, and the different ranges of building found one 
beneath another, have given rise to the belief that the town 
must have been destroyed and risen again three separate 

(Another interesting excursion may be made from Udine 
— about 12 miles — to Cividale (Forum Julii), where a 
quantity of Roman remains have been discovered and are 
arranged in a Museum. The curious tomb of Duke Gisulf 
ofFriuli has lately been found here. In the Church of 
S. Maria de" Battuti is a Madonna with saints by Pellegrino 
di San Daniello, 1529.) 


By the quick train it is 2| hrs. from Venice to Ferrara. — 14 fir. ; 

10 fr. 25 c. 
Inns : Stella d'Oro, best, facing the castle ; Europa, in the Corso ; 

Tre Corone. 

FERRARA is one of the most Italian of Italian towns, 
and one of the most melancholy. Its interest is 
entirely of the past. It seems to have gone to sleep in the 
end of the sixteenth century, when it was annexed to the 
States of the Church, and never to have awakened. All its 
prosperity was mediaeval, when the House of Este ruled 
here, and when its court was the most brilliant in Europe, 
especially in the time of the Duchess Renee, who gave sanc- 
tuary here to so many distinguished refugees, including the 
Protestant divines Calvin and Marot, Aonio Paleario, 
and the famous Olympia Morata. 

The Dukes of Ferrara of the House of Este were descended from 
Giulio, the second son of Welf, Duke of Bavaria. In the 14th century 
Obizzo d'Este III. increased the power of his house by adding Modena 
and Reggio to his dominions. In 1452, Borso d'Este, celebrated for the 
magnificence of his life, received the title of Duke of Modena and 
Reggio from the Emperor Frederick III., and that of Duke of Ferrara 
from Pope Paul II. He died in 1471, and was succeeded by his 
brother, the great Duke Hercules I. (1471 — 1505), under whom the 
size of the capital was doubled. Alfonso I. (1505 — 34), the son of 
Hercules, was the third husband of Lucrezia Borgia, still only in her 


twenty-fifth year, who amended her life while at Ferrara, and died here 
in 15 19, greatly beloved and respected.* The brother of Alfonso 
was Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, the friend of Ariosto, of whom Brantome 
says : " No prince or prelate ever showed himself more noble, splendid, 
or liberal." Hercules II., the son of Alphonso (1534—1558), and his 
wife Kenee were the patrons of the Protestant divines. Their son 
Alfonso II., who died childless, was the patron of Tasso and Guarini, 
and in his days the literary eminence of the court of Ferrara reached its 
climax. Of his three sisters, Anna (1531 — 1617) married the Due de 
Guise, and afterwards the Uuc de Nemours, Lucrezia (1534— 1598) 
married the Duke of Urbino ; and Leonora (1537—81), who died 
unmarried, was the idol of Tasso. 

Alfonso II. was succeeded by Cesare d'Este, the natural son of 
Alfonso I. , but only as Duke of Modena and Reggio, for Ferrara and 
Comacchio were claimed by Pope Clement VIII. as vacant fiefs, and 
united to the States of the Church. The papal rule, however, was 
excessively unpopular here, and was only maintained by a strong 
Austrian garrison ; this was withdrawn in 1859, and in March, i860, 
they were united to the kingdom of Sardinia. 

*' Melancholy as the city looks now, every lover of Italian poetry 
must view with affection the retreat of an Ariosto, a Tasso, a Guarini. 
Such is the ascent ni wealth over genius, that one or two princes could 
create an Athens m the midst of this Boeotia. The little courts of 
Ferrara and Urbino seemed to emulate those of Alexandria and 
Pergamos, contending for pre-eminence only in literature and elegance." 
— Forsyth, 

" Ferrara ! in thy wide and grass-grown streets. 
Whose symmetry was not for solitude, 
There seems as 'twere a curse upon the seats 
Of fonner sovereigns, and the antique brood 
Of Este, which for many an age made good 
Its strength within thy walls, and was of yore 
Patron or tyrant, as the changing mood 
Of petty power impell'd, of those who wore 

The wreath which Dante's brow alone had worn befbre." 

Byron, Childe Harold. 

* " Her husband and his subjects all loved her for her gracious manners and her true 
piety, to which, having long before abandoned all worldly vanities, she wholly gave 
herself up. She used to spend the morning in prayer, and in the evening would 
invite the ladies of Ferrara to embroidery parties, in which accomplishment she was a 
great proficient. Her liberality to the poor and to literary men was especially 
noticeable." — Frizzi, Mem. ^er la Storia di Ferrara, iv. 281. 


Ferrara, La Gran Donna del Po, as Tassoni calls it, is 
situated low in the plain, about 3^ miles S. of the river. 
The town is neglected and damp and decaying, and 
grass grows long in the side streets, and the palaces 
look deserted. Hurried travellers will care little for it, but 
those who are really interested in the study of history 
and art, will find inexhaustible interest in its desolate courts 
and bye-streets, where the terra-cotta ornament is often 
gloriously rich and delicate, and in which the artist will dis- 
cover many charming subjects of twisted columns, ancient 
wells, and sculptured cornices, with fresh vines hanging over 
them. The castle, all the churches except the front of the 
cathedral, and all the palaces and houses except the Palazzo 
dei Diamanti, are built of brick, and are often wonderfully 
beautiful examples of the power of decoration which lies in 
that material. The country round Ferrara is flat and 
marshy, and the climate damp and unhealthy. 

The sights most worth seeing by the passing traveller, 
are the exterior of the Castle and Cathedral, the Relics of 
Ariosto at the University, and the Pinacoteca. The following 
walk embraces all else of importance in the place : — 

The Castle, which is the centre of everything in Ferrara, 
is the finest complete middle-age fortress in Italy. It 
is built entirely of brick, and surrounded by a deep moat, 
crossed on each side by bridges which support wings of the 
building. The four towers and the side walls have a wide 
projecting basement, separated by a corded band from the 
rest of the edifice. The broad projecting parapets above 
rest upon huge machicolations, trefoiled at the top. English 
travellers will wonder where they have been so familiar 
with this castle before — at the bottom of all willow- 


patterned washing-basins ! It stands, moated and flanked 
with towers, in the heart of a subjugated town, Hke a tyrant 
entrenched amongst slaves, and recalls to a stranger that 
gloomy period described by Dante : — 

" Che le terre d'ltalia tutte piene 

Son di tiranni : ed un Marcel diventa 
Ogni viUan che parteggiando viene."* 

The buildings enclose a great courtyard with two ancient 
walls. Little that is ancient remains in the interior except 
two ceilings by Dosso Dossi. The rooms are the same in 
which Renee of France, daughter of Louis XIL, married 
to the Duke Hercules II., suftered for the evangelical faith, 
which she had been led to embrace by the teaching of 
Calvin. For a long time she was consoled for her hus- 
band's neglect and for the disrespect of the Court by the 
companionship of her governess, Madame de Soubise, and 
her daughter, Anne de Parthenai, and by the friendship of 
Olympia Morata. It was her separation from her friends, 
and their banishment in obedience to a mandate from the 
Pope, which drew from Clement Marot, then residing in 
the castle, the lines addressed to the Queen of Navarre : — 

" Ha ! Marguerite ! ecoute la souffrance 
Du noble coeur de Renee de France 
Puis comme soeur plus fort que d'esperance 

Console la ! 
Tu sais comment hors de son pays alia, 
Et que parens et amis laissa la ; 
Mais tu ne sais quel traitement elle a 

En terre etrange. 
Elle ne voit ceux a qui se veut plaindre 
Son oeil rayant si loin ne peut atteindre 
Et puis les monts, pour ce bien lui eteindre 

Sont entre deux," 

• Purg. viL 124 


Renee was afterwards for a time deprived even of her 
children, but continued, in the words of Brantome, " of a 
lofty and noble heart," and, according to Maimbourg, " of 
inexhaustible sweetness and goodness." On the death of 
her husband in 1559, she was permitted to return to Franno, 
where she died in 1575. 

It was in one of the dungeons of this castle Faventino 
Fanino of Facuza was imprisoned for two years, during 
which time he was frequently visited by Olympia Morata 
and the Princess Lavinia della Rovere, and afterwards 
in 1550 (under Julius III.) was one of the first who suffered 
death for the evangelical faith. 

Itwas in one of the castle dungeons also, that, May 2 1, 1 425, 
Niccolb III., Marchese d'Este, caused his wife Parisina, 
and her lover, who was his own natural son Hugo, to be 
beheaded— a story narrated by Gibbon, which Byron has 
made the subject of one of his poems. 

A. few steps to the left brings us to the Piazza del Duotno, 
surrounded by old buildings. Opposite, is the gothic 
Palazzo della Ragione, which dates from 1326 ; on the 
right is the Municipio, with a great courtyard containing a 
beautiful open staircase with arches, and in front some 
columns which once sustained bronze statues, taken away 
by the French, and never restored. On the left is the 
beautiful grey front of the Duomo, which will a little remind 
Englishmen of Peterborough. 

The Cathedral, externally, is chiefly of the beginning of 
the twelfth century. Its west front has three gables adorned 
with ranges of arches, which increase in depth and richness 
of moulding and shadow to the top, where there are very 
fine open-arched galleries. The projecting central porch is 


gabled on the front and sides, is supported by banded 
columns resting on huge lions of red marble, and is adorned 
with rude reliefs. In the niche above the entrance is a 
statue of the Madonna by Niccolh da Pisa ; the sculptured 
lunette over the great door represents S. George, who is, 
jointly with S. Maurelius, patron saint of the city. Red 
marble lions, without columns, stand in front of the side 
doors. Over that on the right is a medallion bust in high 
reUef, popularly called " Donna Ferrara." Near it is a 
quaint statue of Alberto d'Este in the pilgrim's dress in 
which he went to Rome for the benefit of the indulgences 
of the jubilee year of 1391, attended by four hundred per- 
sons, all in penitential habits like his own. On the south 
of the church is a fragment of a gothic loggia, which has 
been continued with heavy columns enclosing an arcade for 
shops all along the wall, and as (Deo gratias !) it has never 
been " restored," the effect is most picttiresque, with the 
beautiful Lombard campanile soaring behind. 

The Interior has been modernised in the last century, 
and consists of a long nave with several small bays, a 
chancel, and tribune. 

At the end of the right aisle is a bronze S. George with other 
figures by Bindelli and Marescotti. The choir contains a modem 
monument to Pope Urban III., who died of grief for the failure of 
the second crusade. The tribune is adorned with the Last Judgment 
of Bastianino. The choir-books, presented by Bishop Bartolommeo 
della Rovere, have exquisite illuminations by Cosimo Tura. Returning 
by the left aisle we find — 

1st Chapel, F. Francia. The Coronation of the Virgin, with saints 
below. — S. Catherine with her wheel in the foreground. 

3rd Chapel, Garofalo. Virgin and Child throned, with saints. 

Behind the tribune of the Cathedral, under its beautiful 
terra-cotta cornices, are some old pillars, lions, and a well. 


Turning to the left from the west door of the Cathedral, 
the Corso Porta Reno leads us, under an arch, to the 
terribly damp Church of S. Paolo, where the painters 
Giobattista Dossi and Bastaruolo are buried. Here also 
at the end of the nave (right) is a fine bust by Alessandro 
Vicentini to Antonio Montecatino. The Assumption of 
Elijah and the scenes from the Life of S. Paul in the choir 
are by Scarsdlino and Bonone. 

Returning almost to the castle, and turning (left) under 
the arches adjoining it, we reach the great Church of S. 
Domenico. Its pictures are removed, and the neighbouring 
convent is almost entirely stripped of the library bequeathed 
to it by the astronomist Celio Calcagnini, the friend and 
correspondent of Olympia Morata, who was celebrated by 
Ariosto : — 

"II dotto Celio Calcagnin lontana 
Fara la gloria, e '1 bel nome di quella 
Nel regno di Monese, in quel di Juba, 
In India e Spagna udir con chiara tuba." 

Or. Fur. xlii. 90. 

His bust was placed over the library door, and his tomb 
with the touching inscription : — " Ex diutumo studio in 
primis hoc didicit : mortalia omnia contempere et igno- 
rantiam suam non ignorare." 

Hence if we descend (left) the lime-avenues of the Corso 
dei Giardini, which leads from the castle to the walls, and 
turn to the right, we shall come to (marked by its tall, 
terribly-leaning campanile) the Church of S. Benedetto, 
where Ariosto was buried, but whence his tomb and ashes 
were removed by the French to the University. The best 
pictures in the church have been taken away, but on the 
vestibule of the refectory is the Paradise of Dosso Dossi, in 


which Ariosto is represented at his own request, " not being 
certain of entering the real one." 

The first street on the left is the Via del Ariostei. Here 
(left) is the old brick house of Ariosto, on which he inscribed 
between the stories : — 

" Parva sed apta mihi, sed nulli obnoxia, sed non 
Sordida, parta meo sed tamen aere domus." 

A tablet above was added by his son Virginio: — 'Sic 
domus hsec Ariosto propitios habeat deos, olim ut Pindarica." 
The chamber of the poet on the upper floor, "J>erche alia 
venerazione della gente durasse" has been carefully restored. 
The furniture, however, is only copied from his, and the 
only thing here which belonged to him is "his other 
inkstand" — the celebrated one being at the University. 

Hence (right) a desolate, grass-grown street (Via 
Arianuova) leads to the Campo Santo which has been 
formed in the cloisters of the suppressed Certosa. Several 
tombs from ruined churches have been removed here, and 
there is a fine bust of Cicognara by Canova, but there is 
not much to see. Some of the epitaphs are interesting — 

" I found such a pretty epitaph in the Certosa cemetery at Ferrara — 
or rather two ; one was 

* Martini Luigi 
Implora pace j ' 

the other, 

' Lucrezia Picini 
Implora etema quiete.' 

That was all ; but it appears to me that these two and three words 
comprise and compress all that can be said on the subject,— and then, 
in Italian, they are absolute music. They contain doubt, hope, and 
humility ; nothing can be more pathetic than the ' implora ' and the 
modesty of the request ; they have had enough of life ; they want 


rest ; they implore it, and ' etema quiete. ' It is like a great inscrip- 
tion in some good old heathen ' City of the Dead.' " 

Byron, Letter to Mr. Hoppner, June 6, 1819. 

The neighbouring Church has lost its fine pictures. On 
the green laAvn in front is a large solitary tomb to " Alfred 
Lowell Putnam." 

The Via Borsa leads (left) to the Piazza Ariostea, a grassy 
square adorned with a statue of " II nostro Poeta," as the 
people of Ferrara call him. At the comer of the square are 
the Palazzo Beznlacqua and the Palazzo Zatti. Descending 
the Corso Porta Mare, on the left is the exceedingly 
beautiful Palazzo d^ Diamanti, so called from the manner 
in which the stones are cut. It was originally built by 
Sigismondo d'Este in 1492, but altered by Cardinal Luigi 
d'Este in 1567. The friezes at the angles and near the 
entrance are of wonderful richness. This palace is now 
called the Ateneo Civico, and contains, in its upper story, 
the Pinacoteca, open (free) from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. It contains 
a very interesting collection, almost exclusively illustrative 
of the peculiar school of Ferrara, of which Garofalo was 
the most eminent example. 

There are few specimens in the town of Ferrarese painters 
before the time of Cosimo Tura, who was a pupil of Galeasso 
Galassi in the fifteenth century. Of the same period was 
Lorenzo Costa. His pupils embraced Ercole Grande, 
Mazzolino, and Domenico Lanetti, who was the master 
(though he afterwards studied from Raffaelle and Michael 
Angelo) of Benvenuto Tisio, called Garofalo from the pink 
which he introduced into his pictures. Contemporary with 
this great master were Dosso and Giobattista Dossi, and 
Ortolano. Following Garofalo were Girolamo da Carpi, 


Scarsellino, Giuseppe Mazzuoli or Bastaruolo, and Bastiano 
Filippi, generally called Bastianino. Giulio Cromer, Carlo 
Bononi a pupil of Bastaruolo, and Alfonso Rivarola or 
Chenda, were the last artists of any eminence in Ferrara. 

The pictures in the gallery (very few seats) are not 
now (1874) arranged according to their numbers, but it will 
not be difficult to refer to them. They are all shining under 
a wholesale "restoration." The best specimens are : — 

2. Bastaruolo. The Crucifixion, with the Virgin and S. John. From 

II Gesu. 
4. Carlo Bononi. The Marriage of Cana ; a huge picture. From 
the Certosa. 
Id. S. Antony of Padua raising a dead man. From S. 


10. Bastianino. The Virgin, with S. Matthew and S. Lucia. From 

the convent of S. Lucia. 

11. Id. The Annunciation. From S. Agostino. 

12. Id. The Nativity. From S. Antonio. 
19. Boccaccino de Cremona. The Death of the Virgin. 

23. Lorenzo Costa. The Madonna throned, with S. Petronius and 

S. Jerome. 

24. Id. Picture in five compartments : The Virgin ; S. 

Jerome ; The Magdalen ; The Annunciation ; 
S. Antony and S. Paul the Hermit. 

25. Michele Cortellini. The Madonna throned, with saints. From 

S. Andrea. 

27. Id. The Virgin throned, with S. Agata, S. 

Apollonie and S. Lucia. From S Maria 
in Vado. 

28. Girolamo Carpi. A Miracle of S. Antonio. 

Id. S. Catherine : a fresco. From the Hospital 

of S. Anna. 
22. Calzolaretto (Gabriele Cappellini) S.S. Francis of Assisi, Antony of 
Padua, James the Great, Peter the Apostle, and 
Louis. From S. Francesco. 
*3i. n Cremonese Giuseppe Caletti, (1600 — 1660^. S. Mark the 
Evangelist. From S. Benedetto. 

'* This artist is distinguished by fleshes of a sun-burnt hue, by certain 


bold lights, strengthened by contrast with somewhat loaded shadows. 
But his S. Mark is a grand and correct figure, full of expression, and 
very picturesquely surrounded by abundance of volumes, in whose 
drawing he is so true and natural, as to have been called the painter of 
books. Having completed this work, II Cremonese disappeared out 
of the city, and was no more heard of" — Lanzi. 

33. Vittore Carpaccio. The death of the Madonna, with the Apostles 

around and the Almighty above. 
37. Dosso Dossi. An altar-piece in six compartments, the Virgin 
and Saints ; a very magnificent work. From 
S. Andrea. 
*38. Id. S. John the Evangelist in Patmos. From S. 

Maria in Vado. 

"The. head is a master-piece of expression, and acknowledged by 
Cochin himself to be highly Raffaellesque." — Lanzi. 

*39. Dosso Dossi. The Annunciation. From S. Spirito. 
40. Id. Portrait of Monsignor Gillino Malatesta. From S. 


42. Ercole Grandi. Nativity. 

43. Id. The Dead Christ, with the Virgin, the Mag- 

dalen, and S. John. From the Church of 

43 B. Id. S. Sebastian, with S. Joseph and S. Giobbe, 

and with portraits of the donors. From S. 

44. Stefano Falzagalloni. The Madonna and Child throned, with S. 

Roch and S. Antonio Abbate. From S, 
Maria in Vado. 

45. Id. Christ and the twelve Apostles. Half 


49. Galeasso Galassi. The Crucified One sustained by God the 


50. Garofalo {Benvenuto Tisio). The Old and New Testaments. An 

immense fresco. From the Re- 
fectory of S. Andrea. 

51. Id. The Holy Family, with S Bartho- 

lomew and the Coming of the 
Magi. From S. Bartolommeo 



52. Garofalo {Benvenuto Tisio). The Death of S. Peter Martyr. From 

S. Domenico. 
•53. Id. The Holy Family, called " II Riposo. " 

From S. Francesco. 
*S4. Id. The Madonna, called " Del Pilastro," 

with SS. Jerome and John Baptist. 

From S. Francesco. 

55. Id. The Adoration of the Magi. From 

S. Giorgio Suburbano. 

56. Id, Jesus praying in the Garden of Geth- 

semane. From S. Silvestro. 

57. Id. The Flight into Egypt. From S. 

•58. Id, The Massacre of the Innocents. From 

S. Francesco. A wonderful pic- 
ture. The agonised entreaty of 
the mother in the foreground is 
most touching, and the inwardly 
relenting soldier, who says, " I 
must obey orders." 

" The figures of the soldiers and others in this picture are so full of 
life, that it is a perfect marvel. The various expressions of the many 
faces, also, are admirably rendered ; grief and fear in the countenances 
of the mothers and nurses, pain and death in those of the infants, and 
cruelty in the faces of the murderers."' — Vasari. 

58. Garofalo {Benvenuto Tisio). The Return of the Holy Family 

from Egypt. From S. Francesco. 

64. Guercino. The Martyrdom of S. Maurelio, painted for the Abbot 

of S. Giorgio. S. Maurelio was the first bishop 

and patron of the town, and appears upon the 

ancient coinage. 

*79. Ortolano {G. B. Benvoiuti). The Nativity. From S. Francesco. 

81. Palma Vecchio. The Tribute Money. From S. Maria in Vado. 

82. Donuniro Panetti. The Salutation. From S. Maria in Vado. 
The Annunciation. From S. Maria in Vado. 
S. Andrew. From S. Andrea. 
The Annunciation. From S. Andrea. 
S. Augustine. From S. Andrea. 
S. Paul. A fresco. From S. Niccol6. 

The Ascension. From S. Francesco. 





85, 86. 






92. Niccolo Roselli. 



95. Sigismondo Scarselli. The Burial of Christ. From S. Barto- 

lommeo Suburbano. 

96. Ippolito Scarsdlino. The Marriage of Cana. 

97. Id. SS. Lorenzo and Francesco, with the 


98. Id. The Conception, with the Mysteries of the 

Rosary around it. From S. Andrea. 

99. Id, The Annunciation. From S. Andrea. 
104. Dom. Tintoretto. The Madonna del Rosario, with SS. George 

and Maurelio, and others in adoration. 
From the Chiesa Nuova. 
K)5. Cosimo Tura. S. Jerome. . On wood. 
106. Id. S. Jerome. From S. Girolamo. 

*I07. Timoteo delta Vite. The Assumption of S. Mary of Egypt A 
lovely white rabbit and a dove are in 
the foreground. From S. Andrea. 

Hence, descending the Via dei Pioppini, in which there 
is a second House of Ariosto (where he lived when young, 
and in which he acted the fable of Thisbe with his brothers 
and sisters), we pass on the left the Church of II Gesu, 
which contains, in the choir, the monument of Barbara of 
Austria, wife of Alfonso II. 

Turning left down the Strada della Giovecca, on the left 
is the Hospital of S. An7ia, containing the wretched cellar 
shown as the earlier Prison of Tasso, in which he was 
confined from March, 1579, to December, 1580. 

Tasso, who had long resided at Ferrara in the utmost 
favour with the Duke Alfonso and his illustrious sisters, to 
whom he addressed many of his poems, eventually offended 
the duke by a freedom of speech, which was mistaken for, 
or represented as insanity. In a letter written at this time, 
the poet calls " the bowels of Jesus Christ to witness that 
he was less mad than the duke was mistaken." Fearing 
detention, however, he escaped through the Abruzzi to his 


sister Cornelia at Sorrento. He was warned by the duke 
that if he returned he would be placed under surveillance, 
nevertheless, he did return twice, the second time during the 
festivities on Alfonso's marriage with the sister of the Uuke 
of Mantua. It was a violent outbreak of passion, if not 
insanity, on this occasion, and not his love for the beautiful 
Leonora, which led to his imprisonment in S. Anna, which 
was at once hospital, madhouse, and prison. Hence, at 
first, he wrote to the Duke of Mantua — 

"Chiaro Vincenzo, io pur languisco a morte 
In career tetro e sotto aspro govemo." 

But his imprisonment was afterwards modified, and he 
wrote to the Marchese Buoncompagni that the duke did 
not keep him in prison, but in a hospital, where monks and 
priests could visit him and show him all possible kindness. 
Nevertheless, he vainly solicited the duke and the princesses 
for his release. The Emperor Rudolph and the Prince of 
Mantua (the brother of the new duchess) also interceded 
for him in vain. The duke's reply was that his only object 
was to '* benefit and cure " him, and that when convalescent 
he should be set at liberty. 

While he was imprisoned, his once-beloved Princess Leo- 
nora died, Feb. 11, 1 581. There is a letter of Tasso extant of 
this time, imploring a celebrated preacher at Ferrara to kiss 
in his name the hand of the dying Leonora, and say that 
he was praying for her recovery. A few months before her 
death he was removed to a more comfortable apartment, 
where he could, according to his own expression, " philoso- 
phise and walk about." But he was still persecuted in a 
hundred petty ways, and was forced to beg, during the 
vintage, in verse, for a small supply of wine. 


After the publication of the Gerusalemme, public opinion 
mitigated the captivity of the poet, and many eminent 
persons were permitted to visit him ; and, in 1563, the soli- 
citations of the Duchess of Mantua so far induced the duke 
to relax his confinement, that he was sometimes permitted 
to go out under surveillance. On July 5, 1586, Tasso was 
finally released, after a captivity of seven years and two 
months, and was permitted to go away with the Prince of 
Mantua, his liberator. At Mantua he had a comfortable 
apartment, and was soothed by every kindness, but was 
driven away by the effect of the damp climate upon his 
health. He died at Rome, April 25, 1595. 

Speaking of the Dukes of Ferrara, Byron says : — 

" And Tasso is their glory and their shame. 
Hark to his strain ! and then survey his cell ! 
And see how dearly earn'd Torquato's fame, 
And where Alfonso bade his poet dwell ; 
The miserable despot could not quell 
The insulted mind he sought to quench, and blend 
With the surrounding maniacs, in the hell 
Where he had plung'd it. Glory without end 
Scatter'd the clouds away ; and on that name attend 

" The tears and praises of all time ; while thine 
Would rot in its oblivion — in the state 
Of worthless dust, which from thy boasted line 
Is shaken into nothing ; but the link 
Thou formest in his fortunes bids us think 
Of thy poor malice, naming thee with scorn — 
Alfonso ! how thy ducal pageants shrink 
From thee ! if in another station born, 
Scarce fit to be the slave of him thou mad'st to mourn. 

" Peace to Torquato's injured shade ! 'twas his 
In life and death to be the mark where Wrong 
Aim'd with her poison'd arrows ; but to miss. 
Oh, victor unsurpass'd in modern song ! 


Each year brings forth its millions ; but how long 
The tide of generations shall roll on, 
And not the whole combin'd and countless throng 
Compose a mind like thine ? though all in one 
Condens'd their scatter'd rays, they would not form a sun. " 

Childe Harold. 

The " Prison " had originally a second window ; it is 
entirely scratched over with the names of devotees, chiefly 
English, who have also carried away the bedstead and the 
original door in fragments. There are inscriptions on the 
walls by Byron, Casimir Delavigne, and by Lamartine the 
verses : — 

" La le Tasse, brule d'une flamme fatale, 
Expiaat dans les fers sa gloire et son amour, 
Quand il va recueillir la palme triomphale. 
Descend au noir sejour." 

Close to the Prison is the beautiful Palazzo Roverdla, 
with a six-sided bay window. This is one of the best speci- 
mens in Italy of a palace with terra cotta ornamentation. 
The friezes are excessively rich, and are divided by pillars, 
which widen at the basement. Opposite, is the Church of 
S. Gadano, which contains : — 

Left Transept. Guercino. The Presentation in the Temple. 
2nd Chapel, Left. Chenda. S. Gaetano. 

The third street, on the right beyond this, leads to the 
large Church of S. Francesco, the roof of which is curiously 
divided into a series of small cupolas, which, from a par- 
ticular point in the centre of the nave, produce the most 
extraordinary and oft-repeated echo imaginable. The pic- 
tures now here are for the most part copies. The first 
chapel on the left, which has a relief of the Agony in the 
Garden, has frescoes of the Donor and of the Betrayal by 


Garofalo. In the right transept is the tomb, adorned with 
bas-reliefs of his conquests and battle-feats, of the Mar- 
chese di Villa, who defended Candia against the Turks. 

Hence the Via Terra Nuova leads to the University 
(Studio Pubblico). In the courtyard are some fine sarco- 
phagi, Pagan and Christian. The Library contains some 
splendid illuminated church-books. Here are preserved 
the relics of Tasso. At the end of a long room is his tomb, 
brought hither by the French in 1801. Lord Byron says 
that the bust formerly wore a wreath, and 

" The lightning rent from Ariosto's bust 

- The iron crown of laurel's mimic'd leaves ; 
Nor was the ominous element unjust, 
For the true laurel-wreath which Glory weaves 
Is of the tree no bolt of thunder cleaves, 
And the false semblance but disgraced his brow ; 
Yet still, if fondly Superstition grieves, 
Know, that the lightning sanctifies below 

Whate'er it strikes ; — yon head is doubly sacred now. " 

but the librarians say there never was a wreath, and that the 
lightning was a poet's imagination. In the next room are 
Ariosto's chair, his inkstand with the figure of Silence, 
made for him by Duke Alfonso, the first edition of his 
poems, with his own marginal notes, and many letters of 
his and of Tasso. Here is also the MS. of the Pastor Fido 
of Guarini, an illustrious native of Ferrara, whose house 
the municipality are wishing to decorate with an inscription, 
but still vainly endeavouring to identify. 

Returning to S. Francesco and the Via Savonarola, the 
Via Praisolo on right, and the Via Campofranco on left, 
lead to the small Church of Corpus Donwii, which contains 
some tombs of the House of Este. Hence the Via 


Pergoleto and the Via Borgo di Sotto lead to the great 
Church of S. Maria in Vado, famous for a miracle of the 
bleeding Host, like that of Bolsena, which is said to have 
occurred on Easter Sunday, 1171, to establish the faith of a 
doubting prior. The pictures in this church, and even 
the bones of the painters who were buried here, have been 

On the right of the church is the fine old gothic Palazzo 
Schiffanoia, built by Duke Borso, and decorated with 
frescoes by Cositno Tura, representing the Months, with 
the different amusements they afforded to the Court. Some 
of the figures are very curious and beautiful. The frescoes 
were only discovered in 1840, since which the palace has 
been purchased by the municipality and turned into a 
Museum of Natural History. 

To the right is the ruined Church of S. Andrea, now 
turned into a granary, and behind it, on a bastion of the 
wall, the public walk of the Montagnone. Hence, turning 
left, we may regain the Strada della Giovecca. 

In the Church of S. Giorgio, outside the walls, is the tomb, 
by Ambrogio da Miiano, of Lorenzo Roverella, physician 
to Pope Julius II., and afterwards Bishop of Ferrara. 

"Its style is pure Quattrocento, and its general arrangement that 
adopted by the Tuscan masters. The recumbent effigy lies upon a 
sarcophagus within an arched recess adorned with cherub heads. Out- 
side the arch are two ' putti ' ; upon the top is a group of S. George 
and the Dragon ; and within the lunette a roundel containing a group 
of the Madonna and Child, with adoring angels. On either side of the 
recess are five excellent statuettes of saints. The technical handling is 
excellent throughout, and with the exception of the masterpieces of the 
Florentine sculpture at Florence and Lucca, we do not know of any 
monument so beautiful in design or so free from mannerism as this." — 
Perkins' Italian Sculp tois. 


An excursion should be made from Ferrara to the 
interesting town of Cento (which may be visited on the way 
to Bologna, being five miles from the station of S. Giorgio), 
the native place of one of the greatest painters of the 
seventeenth century, Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, generally 
known as Guercino, 1590 — 1666. The town is situated 
near the Reno, which abounds in fish, and it is said to take 
its name from the hundred huts (cento capannucce) which 
formed an ancient settlement of fishermen. Guercino was 
quite devoted to his native place, where he founded his 
" Scuola," and which he refused to abandon for the titles of 
Court Painter offered him by the kings of France and 
England. The Casa di Guercino still exists, where he 
received ad uno squisito banchetio two cardinals who had 
come to the Fair of Cento, and where his pupils waited 
upon them and performed una bella commedia in the evening. 
Here also he was visited by Queen Christina of Sweden. 
Its walls are adorned with several of his frescoes, and in its 
little chapel is a beautiful picture by him of the Madonna 
receiving two pilgrims. 

"L'eglise du Rosaire est appelee a Cento la Galerie, titre profane 
qu'elle justifie assez par son apparence et la maniere dont les tableaux 
y sent ranges. Le Guerchin n'y eclata pas moins que chez lui. Cette 
eglise est remplie de ses peintures : il a donne, dit on, la dessin de la 
fa9ade, du clocher, et travaille a la statue de bois de la Vierge ; il s'y 
montre ainsi peintre, sculpteur et architecte ; mais surtout il y est 
Chretien. Una chapelle fondee par lui porte son nom : il avait fait un 
legs pour qu'on y celebrat un service, et laisse a I'image de la Vierge 
du Rosaire une chaine d'or d'un grand prix, offrande pieuse qui fut 
volee vers le milieu du dernier si^cle par un custode de l'eglise." 
— Valery. 

At Pieve, near Cento, is a fine Assumption of Guide. 


IT is four hours by quick train (20 frs., 75 c : 14 frs., 
55 c.) from Turin to Piacenza. 

Trains are generally changed at Alessandria (^Albergo 
dell' Universo), built in 11 64 by the Lombard League 
against Frederick Barbarossa, and called after its chief, 
Pope Alexander III. It was colonised with the inhabitants 
of the surrounding villages, and so well fortified, that though 
Barbarossa contemptuously called it "Alessandria della 
Paglia," in allusion to the straw which the builders mixed 
with their materials, it successfully withstood a siege from 
his army in 11 74. Alessandria has a Cathedral, but is not 
worth halting at. 

From Alessandria to Piacenza the railway passes across 
flat plains, only enlivened by the distant views of the 
mountains, and the picturesque and varied campaniles of 
the villages. Soon after leaving Piacenza we cross the 
battle-field of Marengo, where Napoleon gained his great 
victory over the Austrians, on June 13, 1800. 

Among the stations are : — 

Tortona, where the Duomo contains a curious sarcophagus, 
with Greek and Latin inscriptions, to P. CElius Sabinus, the 
sculptured emblems being partly Pagan and partly Christian. 

Voghera, where, in the Church of S. Lorenzo, are tvo 


ancient reliquaries, and the uncorrupt body of the blessed 
Taddeo of Vesme, from which it is said that blood flowed 
on its discovery, in 1646, 200 years after his death. Here 
also is the tomb of Archbishop Pietro di Georgi, who 
presented to the church a thorn of the True Cross preserved 
in one of the reliquaries. 

Casteggio, marking the ancient Clastidium, where Marcus 
Marcellus defeated and slew Virdomarus, the King of the 
Gsesatae. The place was given up to Hannibal by its 
governor, who was bribed with 200 pieces of gold. A 
spring near the town still bears the name of " La Fontana 
d'Annibale." Close to this town Napoleon gained the 
victory called Montebello (from a neighbouring village), 
June 9, 1800. Here also the Austrians were defeated by 
the French and Italian forces in May, 1859. 

Broni, where a silver shrine in the principal church con- 
tains the relics of San Contardo, son of Azzo, Marquis oi 
Este, its founder. 

Near San Niccoto we cross the Trebbia, remarkable for the 
victory of Hannibal in B.C. 218 ; for that of the Piedmontese 
over the allied armies of France and Spain in 1746; and 
for that of the Russians under Suwarrow over the French 
under Macdonald, June 20, 1799. The Trebbia, a little 
above Piacenza, falls into the Po, which is here often most 
violent in its aggressive floods. 

*' Sic piano Padus ore tumens super aggere tutas 
Excursit ripas, et lotos concutit agros. 
Succubuit si qua tellus, cumulumque furentem 
Undarum non passa, ruit ; turn flumine toto 
Transit, et ignotos aperit sibi gurgite campos. 
lUos terra fugit dominos ; his rura colonis 
Accedunt, donante Pado." — Lucan, vi, 272. 


Piacenza was called by the Romans Placentia from its 
situation, yet visitors may wonder what is the beauty of 
being situated in a sandy, wind- stricken, dust-laden plain, 
which in winter is liable to floods from the Trebbia, and 
which, in summer, is a dry bed of gravel, affording no 
moisture to the miserable burnt turf of the adjoining country. 

Yet the artist will find Piacenza delightful, and Avill be 
filled with admiration of the lovely effects of colour formed 
by its great houses, palaces, and churches standing out 
against the clear sky and ever-delicate distances ; and the 
architect will be enchanted with the grandly-colossal forms 
of its buildings, enriched here and there by the most deli- 
cate tracery of terra-cotta, and shaded by vast projecting 
roofs supported on such huge stone corbels as a northern 
architect has never dreamt of On the whole, this is one of 
the most picturesque and full of colour of all the Lombard 

Piacenza was founded as a Roman colony B.C. 219, at the same time 
with Cremona, on the right bank of the Po, at the point where it was 
crossed by the Via yEmiha, running from Milan to Parma. It was 
burnt by the Gauls in B.C. 200, but soon began to flourish again. In 546 
it fell into the hands of the Goths, but continued to be an important city. 
It was one of the first Italian towns which organised itself into a Re- 
public, took part with Milan in the war against Frederick Barbarossa, 
and was one of the principal members of the Lombardic league. In 
1250 Uberto Pallavicino was its lord. He was succeeded by Charles of 
Anjou, who was followed in 1290 by Alberto Scoto. In 1313 it fell into 
the hands of the Visconti, who were rivals with the papacy in its 
sovereignty. In 1447 it was stormed by Francesco Sforza ; in 1499 it 
fell into the hands of the French, returned to the Pope after the battle 
Ravenna (1582), then again to Francis I. Having been recovered by 
Leo X., it remained papal, till Paul III, raised it into a duchy under his 
grandson, Pierluigi Farnese. Antonio was the last lord of the House 
of Farnese. After a short interregnum under Philip V. of Spain, the 
emperor Charles V,, and Charles Emanuel of Sardinia, the Duchy, to- 


gether with Parma and Guastalla, came to Philip of Bourbon at the 
treaty of Aquisgrana (1748). Napoleon I. included it in the " 49buone 
citti deir Impero," and gave it new arms. After the fall of the Emperor, 
his wife, Maria Louisa, was regent of Piacenza, and after her death in 
1847, the Duchy returned to the Bourbons. In 1848 Piacenza was the 
first town which, freeing itself from Austria, joined Piedmont, but the 
Austrians re-occupied it, and Charles III. again became its Duke, but 
was stabbed in 1854. Piacenza was annexed to the kingdom of Victor 
Emanuel in 1859. 

Piacenza may be seen between two trains, and this will 
be facilitated by excellent carriages at two francs an hour : 
but much more time may advantageously be given. 

Inns. La Croce Bianca, good and reasonable ; Italia ; S. Marco. 
Vetturino, for carriages to Bobbio, Velleja, &c., Fratelli Tenelli, 
"Piazza dei Cavalli, Via del Sopramuro. 

Entering the town from the station we should turn to the 
right by the fine brick Church of S. Savino of the fifteenth 
century. It has a tenth century crypt and a tesselated 
pavement. We should then take a street on the left to 

The Duomo, which is chiefly of the fourteenth century. 
Its campanile, 300 feet high, was built in 1333. Halfway 
up it is an iron cage, erected in 1495 by Ludovico il Moro, 
for the exposure of criminals guilty of sacrilege. In the 
west front are three grand projecting porches, adorned with 
quaint bas-reliefs, and with pillars resting upon lions, or the 
backs of men who are riding upon monsters. The solemn 
effect of the interior of this ancient Gothic church is greatly 
marred by the frescoes with which it is decorated, though 
they are beautiful in themselves. The choir has rich stall- 
work of 1 47 1 by Gian-Giacomo of Genoa. Between the 
nave and transepts is an octagonal cupola adorned with 
frescoes of prophets and sibyls, &c., by Guercino and 


Morazzone. Lower down are figures of Charity, Truth, 
Chastity, and Humility, by Franchini. 

Over the high altar is the Ascension of the Virgin, with 
sibyls at the sides, by C. Procaccini ; on the vault above the 
apse is the Assumption of the Virgin by Ann. Caracci ; on 
the vault of the choir are the Consecration of the Virgin, 
by C. Procaccini, and the Fathers of the Church in Hades, 
by Lod. Caracci ; on one side of the choir are the Nativity 
of the Virgin and the Salutation, by Lod. Caracci, on the 
other are the Visitation and the Day of Pentecost, by 
C. Procaccini. Over the west door is a beautiful piece of 
tabernacle-work of 1479, when B. Gropallo executed the 
painting and Antonio Burlonghi the sculpture. The laby- 
rinth of pillars in the large crypt is very picturesque. 

From the west porch the " Contrada Dritta "—the jewel- 
lers' street, where the pretty angular gold pins made at 
Piacenza are sold — leads to the principal square, but if we 
turn to the left and then to the right, we pass the 

Church of S. Antonino, once the cathedral, founded in 
324, on a spot where S. Barnabas is said to have preached. 
It has been frequently restored, but some portions of 1350 
are very striking, especially the octagonal bell-tower, and the 
grand porch, called " II Paradiso," consisting of a vast single 
arch beneath a rose window, and enriched with delicate terra- 
cotta cornices and pinnacles. Outside the west porch are 
two ancient stone sarcophagi. 

Near S. Antonino is the Church of S. Vinccnzo, con- 
taining pictures of David and Isaiah, painted by Camillo 
Bocaccino in 1530 ; also near this a small chapel with a most 
beautifully decorated round-headed door. 

From S. Antonino a street to the right takes us to the 


great square, the centre of life in Piacenza, which is called 
the Piazza dei Cavalii, from its statues. This square is one 
of the most picturesque in Lombardy. The whole of the 
south side is occupied by the splendid Palazzo Communale, 
most lovely and harmonious in colour ; on the east a smaller 
piazza opens upon the fine Church of S. Fra7icesco,v^\{\Q!ii has 
a lofty brick front ornamented with terra-cotta (1278), and 
which contains a cupola and an altar-piece (4th chapel on 
right) by Malosso. In front of the great palace stand two 
grand equestrian statues by Francesco Mocchi, a pupil of 
Giovanni da Bologna. That on the right (erected 1624) is 
Alessandro Farnese, Governor of the Netherlands, and 
" the Prince of Parma," of the reign of our Elizabeth. That 
on the left (erected 1620) is his son Ranuccio, celebrated 
for his oppression and cruelties. Those who have visited 
the glorious palace of Caprarola will have become familiar 
with the story of these nephews of Paul III., which is told 
there in the endless frescoes of the Zuccheri. 

There are few buildings which deserve more careful study 
than the Palazzo Communale. 

" This building was erected by the merchants of Piacenza, and was 
begun in 1281. The lower part of it is of red and white limestone, and 
in the pointed style ; the upper half is in the round style, and of brick, 
with terra-cotta mouldings and ornaments. This building is one of the 
many instances which prove that the Saracenic style, finding its way 
through Venice, had in the middle ages a partial influence upon the 
architecture of Italy. The windows and the forked battlements of this 
building are in a Saracenic manner, and the Saracenic passion for 
variety appears in the dissimilarity of its parts, for the windows of the 
front are varied, and the two ends of the building are purposely made 
unlike each other. It is a noble building, in spite of its anomalies and 
mixture of different styles and materials." — Gaily Knight. 

A street to the left of the Palazzo Communale leads past 


the Church of S. Sepolcro, a very grand work of Bramante 
(1531), now used as a barrack, to the Church of S. Maria 
del/a Campagna, near the gate towards Alessandria. This 
(also due to Bramante) is a perfect gallery of the grand 
works of Giovanfii Antojiio Licinio Regillo, commonly called 
// Pordenone. A competition was proposed for the honour 
of painting the chapels and cupola, and different artists were 
desired to produce something as a sample of their powers. 
Two of these remain at the entrance of the church — a 
S. George by Gatti, on the right, and S. Augustine by 
Pordenone on the left. Upon looking at this picture, with 
its awkward principal figure and sprawling angels, one won- 
ders that its painter should have been successful, yet in the 
next chapel (of the Magi) we are quite carried away by his 
wondrous power. First, we have an immense picture of the 
Birth of the Virgin, with the Flight into Egypt in the 
lunette above ; then the Adoration of the Magi, with the 
Nativity above. At the next altar are S. Francis receiving 
the Stigmata, with smaller subjects from his life, and 
S. Sebastian and S. Roch by C. Procaccitii. Then comes 
the Chapel of Catherine, entirely by Pordenone, with two 
grand pictures representing the saint disputing with the 
Doctors, and her allegorical marriage with the Infant 
Saviour. In the former (a fresco) the artist has introduced 
his own portrait in the figure of the Doctor who is lying 
upon the ground with an open book, in the latter in the 
figure of S. Paul. These pictures were executed in 1546 
for the Countess Scotta Fontana, who built the chapel. 
The frescoes in the cupola are most difficult to see, but 
they are also by Pordenone. Scriptural and mythological 
subjects are here incongruously mingled. Above the arches 


of the nave and choir is a frieze of pictures by Guercino, 
Gavassetti, Tiarini, and Crespi. In the choir, behind the 
altar, are a S. Catherine of Pordenone, and an Annunciation 
of Bocaccino. The proportions of the church (a Greek 
cross) have been injured by additions to this choir. 

Returning to the town, and turning left, we reach the de- 
serted monastery and the Church of S. Sisto. Over its altar 
hung the famous Madonna di S. Sisto, which was sold by 
the monks to the Elector of Saxony in 1754. A copy, by 
Aranzini, hangs in its place (looking wonderfully small) and 
is said to occupy the original frame. In the 3rd and 4th 
chapels on the right are two pictures of the Virgin and 
Child, with saints, by C. Procaccini. On the right of the choir 
are the Slaughter of the Innocents, by C. Procaccini ; the 
Martyrdom of S. Benedetto and S. Flaviano by Paolo and 
Orazio Farinato degli Uberti, and the Martyrdom of S. 
Barbara, by Palma Giovane. On the left of the choir 
is the Martyrdom of S. Martina, by Bassano. Under the 
high altar is an urn with the body of S. Sistus, the Pope, 
and in the crypt beneath are many altars rich in saintly 
bodies, the same, however, which are claimed by many 
other churches in Italy. The stalls of the choir have 
beautiful intarsiaiura-yKOr^i. In the north transept is the 
black and white marble monument of Margaret of Austria, 
wife of Ottavio Farnese (1586) by Giacinto Fiorejitino. 

Between S. Sisto and the station we pass the stately old 
Palazzo Farnese, now used as a barrack. It was built 
from designs of Vignola, (the architect of Caprarola) by 
Margaret of Austria, in 1558. From one of its windows 
the body of Pier Luigi Farnese was shown to the people by 
his murderers, and then thrown into the ditch beneath. 

5. LAZZARO. 193 

Many other buildings may be visited by those who linger 
in Piacenza. Among them, the Church of S. Agostino, by 
Vignola, now half-ruined, and S. Giovanni in Canale^ a 
church of the Templars, which contains a tomb by Algardi 
to Orazio Scotti. 

Only a mile from Piacenza, in the direction of Parma, 
is the great leper-hospital of .S. Lazzaro, now turned into an 
ecclesiastical seminary. In the room called " the Cardinal's 
Chamber " (from Cardinal Alberoni, who left his property 
to the college) are : — 

Taddeo Zucchero. Our Saviour appearing to S. Francesca Romana. 

Borgognone. Knights on horseback. 

P. Perugino. Virgin and Child. 

M. Polidoro di Caravaggio. Portrait of himself. 

The church contains the tomb of Alberoni, and a picture 
of the Crucifixion by C. Frocaccini. 

In the neighbourhood of Piacenza, S. Roch is especially 
reverenced, for — 

" He travelled from city to city ; and wherever he heard that there 
was pestilence and misery prevailing, there was he found, and a blessing 
waited on his presence. At length he came to the city of Piacenza, 
where an epidemic of a frightful and unknown kind had broken out 
amongst the people ; he presented himself, as usual, to assist in the 
hospital ; but here it pleased God to put him even to that trial for which 
he had so often prayed— to subject him to the same suffering and afflic- 
tion which he had so often alleviated— and made him in his turn de- 
pendant on the charity of others for aid and for sympathy. 

" One night, being in the hospital, he sank down on the ground, 
overpowered by fatigue and want of sleep ; on awaking he found him- 
self plague-stricken ; a fever burned in every limb, and a horrible ulcer 
had broken out in his left thigh. The pain was so insupportable that it 
obliged him to shriek aloud : fearing to disturb the inmates of the 
hospital, he crawled into the street ; but here the officers of the city 
would not allow him to remain, lest he should spread infection around. 
VOL. II. 13 


He yielded meekly ; and supported only by his pilgrim's staff, dragged 
himself to a wood or wilderness outside the gates of Piacenza, and there 
laid himself down, as he thought, to die. 

' ' But God did not forsake him ; far from all human help, all human 
sympathy, he was watched over and cared for. He had a little dog, 
which in all his pilgrimage had faithfully attended him ; this dog every 
day went to the city, and came back at evening with a loaf of bread in 
his mouth, though where he obtained it none could tell. Moreover, 
as the legend relates, an angel from heaven came and dressed his wound, 
and comforted him, and ministered to him in his solitude until he was 
healed. — Jameson's Sacred Art, II., 427. 

Piacenza is the best point from which to make the excur- 
sion- to the famous Abbey of Bobbio (32 ItaUan miles from 
Piacenza) founded by S. Columba in 612 and contain- 
ing his toinb, whence all the palimpsests known in the 
world have at some time or other emerged. It is a most 
fatiguing expedition. A carriage for three people costs 
15 frs. to I Periti; when the road is finished it will probably 
cost 20 frs. to Bobbio. 

The road crosses a rich plain to the fine old castle of 
Niviano, now a silk factory. A little beyond this it enters 
the valley of the Trebbia and passes under the still-inhabited 
castle of Moiite Chiaro. By 1877 the road from Piacenza 
to Genoa will probably be finished and will pass through 
Bobbio. In 1875 there was no road beyond / Periti, 22 
miles from Piacenza, where it was necessary to engage (5 fr.) 
the white mule of the contadino Napoleone, and to follow, as 
one best could, sometimes the stony bed of the Trebbia, 
sometimes the steep rocky path in the hills overhanging it, 
for 7 miles, till, about 2 miles from Bobbio, one could join 
the road from Pavia. The large town of Bobbio stands in 
the upper valley of the Trebbia, encircled by luxuriantly 


wooded hills, and has a long bridge of many arches of 
different forms and sizes. Deserted and neglected as 
Bobbio is now it must always have a special interest as the 
place where " S. Columba lighted the flame of science and 
learning, which for a long time made it the torch of Northern 
Italy," * and whose school and library were perhaps the 
most celebrated of the middle ages. 

S. Columba, the great rival of S. Benedict, was born in 
Leinster in 543, the year of S. Benedict's death. The 
temptations to which his great personal beauty exposed him 
and the admonitions of a female hermit, who bade him take 
warning by Adam, Samson, David, and Solomon, made him 
enter the monastery of Bangor at a very early age. Hence 
the thirst for a more severe rule of life drove him across the 
sea, and he was welcomed by Gontran, king of Burgundy, 
who assigned him a hermitage at Annegray near the Vosges. 
Here he lived, in perpetual mortification, on charity, on the 
shoots of wild myrtle and other herbs. Like 8. Francis, he 
was beloved by all beasts ; the birds descended to caress 
him ; squirrels took refuge in the sleeves of his habit ; a bear 
resigned its cave to him. At length, numbers of disciples 
collecting around him, he founded the monasteries of 
Annegray, Luxeuil, and Fontaines. Here he introduced the 
extreme severities of what was called " the Irish rule," the 
smallest offences being visited with severe fasts and relent- 
less corporal punishments. Yet he was not content with 
outward observances. " To mortify the flesh of the soul that 
bears no fruit," he preached at Luxeuil, " is to till the ground 
and to disregard the harvest. What is the use of making 
war abroad if there is civil war within. A religion of out- 

• Montalembert 


ward acts is vain, true piety consists in humility of the 
heart and not in genuflexions." Yet the monkish nobles 
continued to flock around him, imploring him to cut off their 
long hair, at once the sign of nobility and liberty, and with 
all his severity of rule, he combined the personal tenderness 
of a father, while the interest which he took in each of his 
monks individually is shown by his letters, which begin — 
" To his most sweet sons, to his very dear pupils, to his 
brothers in the frugal life ; Columba the sinner." 

Shocked at the immoralities of the young king Thierry II. 
and the cruelties of his grandmother Brunehaut, he threat- 
ened them with excommunication, and was expelled from 
the kingdom. His exile was like a triumphal progress ; 
what were regarded as miracles attended him at every step, 
and as, when he was embarked at the mouth of the Loire, 
the ship stranded on a sandbank, it was received as an omen, 
and he was permitted to go where he would. After visiting 
the court of Neustria, he joined S. Gall, also an Irish 
missionary, and in his company evangelised the Pagan 
tribes on the banks of the Rhine, and broke in pieces the 
idols on the shores of the lakes of Zurich and Constance. 
Having prophesied with exact fidelity the misfortunes which 
would arise from the war between the brothers Theodobert 
of Austrasia and Thierry of Burgundy, he left S. Gall to com- 
plete his work in Switzerland, and passed into Italy. Here 
he was welcomed by Agilulf, king of the Lombards, and 
the great Theodolinda his wife, who allowed him to establish 
himself where he pleased. He at once began to attack the 
Arianism which was prevalent in the north of Italy, and, 
choosing Bobbio on the Trebbia as a residence, made it 
" the citadel of orthodoxy against the Arians." It was in 


A.D. 612 that Columba came to Bobbio. A ruined church 
dedicated to S. Peter already existed there. This he re- 
stored, personally labouring at the work in spite of his great 
age. He refused all invitations from the Frankish kings to 
recross the Alps, but continued by letters to direct the affairs 
of all the institutions he had founded, especially those of 
Luxeuil, and wrote a number of poems which still exist. As 
a specimen we may give the farewell of his last letters from 
Bobbio to his friend Fedolius — 

" Haec tibi dictabam, morbis oppressus amaris, 
Corpore quos fragili patior tristique senectce. 
Nam dum praecipiti labuntur tempora cursu. 
Nunc ad olympiadis ter sense venimus annos. 
Omnia prsetereunt, fugit irreparabile tempus. 
Vive, vale Isetus, tristisque memento senectse." 

Having established his foundation, Columba retired into 
a cave on the other side of the Trebbia, where he had dedi- 
cated a chapel to the Virgin. Here he passed his last days 
in fasting and prayer, only returning to the monastery on 
Sundays and feastdays, and here he died Nov. 21, 615, in 
his chapel, which long remained an object of pilgrimage. 
S. Columba left Bobbio one of the most active intellectual 
centres in the peninsula. " The light which he shed by his 
learning and his doctrine in all the places where he appeared 
has been compared by a contemporary writer to the course 
of the sun from east to west, and he continued, after his 
death, to shine through the disciples whom he had educated 
to learning and piety." * 

The immediate successor of Columba at Bobbio was 
his friend Attala, whom he had left Abbot of Luxeuil, but 
whose affection had led to his following him across the Alps. 

• HisL Litter, de la France, iii. 


He enforced to the full the rule which Coluraba had 
established, that — " The monk must live under the rule 
of one and in the company of many, in order to learn 
humility from the one and patience from the other. He 
must not do that which is pleasing to himself. He must eat 
that which is given him, must possess nothing but that 
which is doled out to him, must obey those who are dis- 
tasteful to him. He must go to bed so weary that he falls 
asleep on the way, yet he must arise before his sleep is 
satisfied. He must fear his superior as God, and he must 
love him as a father. He must never pass a judgment 
upon the decision of his elders. His duty is to obey orders, 
according to the words of Moses — " Hear, O Israel, and be 
silent 1 " 

The number of Frankish, Italian, and Lombard monks 
who had now collected at Bobbio, included many who found 
themselves unable to submit to its rule, and, under Attala, 
a rebellion took place. But he allowed the malcontents to 
leave, following the wTitten advice of Columba — " it is of no 
use to be of one body, if one is not of one heart " — and his 
society continued to flourish. Through the favour of 
Theodolinda, all the privileges of the monastery were con- 
firmed to reward his zeal against Arianism, and having en- 
larged the abbey, he died in the odour of sanctity in 627, at 
the foot of the crucifix which he had placed at the entrance 
of his cell, that he might always salute it on entering or 
going out. 

The third abbot was S. Bertulphus, under whom the 
privileges of the abbey were confirmed by the Arian Ario- 
wald. This chieftain had been won over, because, when 
the monk Blidulf, being at Pavia, refused to salute him 


(being an Arian), one of his soldiers attacked him and left 
him for dead, but the monk recovered and his assailant fell 
mortally ill, which, in the spirit of those times, established 
the invincibility of Columba, 

Bertulphus, dying in 640, was succeeded by the Greek 
Bobbolena, and he by the Irish Glongell, and from this 
time for several centuries, many of the most celebrated 
European teachers and bishops belonged at some time or 
other to Bobbio.* 

" La prodigieuse activite intellectuale dont les moines de Bobbio 
firent preuve durant cette periode, n'indique-t-elle pas que, sans compter 
d'autres mobiles, ils furent alors soumis a la double impulsion egalement 
puissante, egalement fertile en lesultats avantageux pour la science et 
les lettres ? Le genie de Saint Benoit et celui de Saint Columban 
s'unirent done en ce monastere pour y repandre leur lumineuse influence, 
comme deux astres jumeaux qui se rapprochent et, confondant leurs 
rayons, eclairent d'autant mieux un meme point de ciel." — Dantier. 

In 964, Gerbert of Auvergne, tutor of Otho II. (and 
afterwards Archbishop of Ravenna, and Pope as Sylvester 
II.) was made Abbot of Bobbio, and it was to his studies 
here that the accusation of magic afterwards brought against 
him was applied. After the nth century the abbey began 
to dechne. The magnificent Ubrary collected by Columba 
and his successors attracted the attention of the Florentine 
book hunters of the time of Lorenzo de' Medici ; Tommaso 
Inghirami, librarian of Julius II. carried off many of its 
most precious treasures to the Vatican, and the greater part 
of those remaining were sold by the Abbot Paolo Silvarezza 
in the time of Paul V. Mabillon, visiting Bobbio in the 
17th century, found it '* only the shadow of its foimer self." 

* Amongst the most remarkable of the monks was Jonas of Susa, who travelled to 
Ireland and Luxeuil for his materials and then wrote the life of S. Columba. 


It is at the upper end of the little town that the great 
Church of S. Colmnbano stands, joining the now desecrated 
monastery with its immense buildings. The west front of 
the church is of brick with terra cotta ornaments, and has 
an arched atrium. It is a Latin cross, the nave being ex- 


ceedingly lofty, with low narrow aisles, but it is so spoilt by 
paint and whitewash as to show little of its original character. 
Over the chancel arch is a curious picture of Columba 
founding the monastery, throned amongst its other benefac- 
tors. The choir has fine old stall-work. But the crypt is 
the shrine of all that is most precious in Bobbio. On the 
walls, supported on brackets, are the sarcophagi of the 
canonized abbots, and amongst those on the left, that of the 
Scotch S. Cummian, who coming hither into retreat, died 
here in 722. His tomb was erected by King Luitprand 
who, in the epitaph, recommends himself to the prayers of 
the holy bishop, " who for 20 years gave the companions of 
his austerities an example of monastic virtue." 

On either side of the high altar are S. Attala and S. 
Bertulphus. The altar, which supports the gilt shrine of 
Columba, is decorated with several curious reliefs, viz., 



1. His vision, bidding him to found the monastery. 2. His 
receiving the permission of the Pope. 3. His converting 
the natives, out of whom many devils are flying. Behind, 
is the venerable figure of Columba, partly coloured, with his 
mitre, pastoral staff, &c., and his feet resting on an open 
book, inscribed on the one page — " Nequaquam ex his 
comedetis nisi quos dimisistis venerint," and, on the other — 
"Tanta piscium copia est rete impletum ut vix pro multi- 
tudine trahi potuisset." — Close to S. Columba is buried the 
abbot Wala, who came hither from Corbey, and greatly en- 
riched the monastery and its library. He was sent to con- 
clude an alliance between Lothaire and Louis le Debonnaire 
and the Empress Judith, and died at the court of Pavia on 
his return. 

In the cloisters is a bust in honour of Agilulph, by whom 
the lands were given to Columba. 

Next to its saints, its manuscripts have rendered Bobbio 

"... Puisque c'est a Bobbio qu'ont ete decouvertes les oeuvres 
manuscrites de Cassianus Bassus, d'Adamantius Martyrius, de Probus, 
de Sergius le grammairien, et de Cornelius Fronton, le precepteur de 
Marc Aurele. Plus tard le correspondence de ce meme Fronton avec 
I'empereur, son eleve, sera extraite par I'erudition moderne des palimp- 
sestes de Bobbio qui fourniront encore, outre la Republique de Ciceron, 
les plaidoyers de cet orateur pour Scaurus, TuUius, et Flaccus. Devan- 
5ant ces decouvertes de notre epoque, I'auteur de VJter italicum eut la 
consolation, malgre I'etat de denument od il trouva la bibliotlieque de 
I'antique monastere de Saint Columban, d'y recueillir encore quelques 
glanes echappees a ceux qui y avaient moisonne avant lui. II en rapporta 
notamment le tres-ancien et tres-curieux manuscrit sur la liturgie galli- 
cane, qu'il publia sous le litre de Sacramentarium GalUcanum, et qui, 
d'apres toute vraisemblance, autrefois en usage dans les eglises de la 
Burgondie oil etait situe Luxeuil, passa de ce monastere a celui de 
Bobbio. " — Dantier. 

" Apres douze siecles ecoules et du fond des cendres amoncelees du 


passe, un dernier rayon de cette gloire intellectuelle a resplendi de nos 
jours sur la derniere fondation de Saint Columban. Le palimpseste de 
la Vaticane, d'ou le genie de la patience, personifie dans le cardinal 
Mai, a tire le De Republicd de Ciceron, provenait de cette bibliotheque, 
et cet illustre parchemin porte encore I'inscription : Liber sancti 
Columbani de Bobbio." — Montalembert. 

In the piazza of the town is the Duomo, into which you 
descend by steps. It has a huge Lombard nave, separated 
by very heavy piers from very low. aisles. The choir is 
reached from the nave by a flight of steps which gives space 
for the lofty crypt. It is in the late return (for it can 
scarcely be otherwise) from Bobbio, that the traveller will 
probably have his first experience of night travelling in the 

*'The Apennine in the light of day 
Is a mighty mountain dim and grey 
Which between the earth and sky doth lay : 
But when night comes, a chaos dread 
On the dim starlight then is spread. 
And the Apennine walks abroad with the storm." — Shelley. 

From Piacenza an excursion of 20 miles may be made to 
the remains of the Roman city Vellda, long btu-ied by a 
landslip, and chiefly disinterred in 1760. The ruins are in- 
significant, and the principal objects found have been re- 
moved to the Museum at Parma. The road to Velleia 
passes the castle and villa (by Vignola) of the Scotti family, 
at San Giorgio. 

A branch line of railway leads from Piacenza to Milan 
through country so rich as to verify the proverb, " La Lom- 
bardia b il giardino del mondo." The principal station is 

LODI. 203 

Lodi (Inns : Sole, Europa), which, however, is scarcely worth 
a special visit. The Roman settlement, founded by Cn. 
Pompeius Strabo, father of Pompey the Great, was called 
Laus Pompeia in his honour ; it was afterwards simply 
called Zawj, whence Z^<//. The modern city, 5 miles distant 
from the old site, was founded by Frederick Barbarossa in 
1158. The Duomo has a fine Lombard porch with lions. 
A curious relief of the Last Supper was brought from the old 
Lodi. Near the high altar are some frescoes by Gugliclmo 
and Alberto di Lodi, till lately covered with whitewash. 

The fine Church of the Incoronata, built by Branianie, 
1476, contains pictures and frescoes by the native artist, 
Calisto Piazza, 15 17-1556. Twice a year a famous fair is 
held at Lodi for the sale of Parmesan cheese, which is 
all made near this. 

The capture of the Bridge of Lodi (over the Adda) was 
one of the great exploits of Napoleon and Berthier, May 10, 
1796, when it was defended by 7000 Austrians under 


IT is I J hours by rail from Picenza to Parma, 6 frs. 40 c. ; 
5 frs. 15 c. The railway crosses a level plain. Among 
the stations are — 

Fiorenziiola. Where the collegiate church of S. Fiorenzo 
contains beautiful carved stallwork, and, in the sacristy, 
some fine middle-age works of art From hence there is a 
nearer road than that from Piacenza, (by Castel Arqjiato, 
which has a stately Gothic town hall, and near which is 
Monte Zago, rich in fossil remains) to the Roman Velleia. 
Now on the left is Busseto, the capital of the little state 
(Stato Pallavicino) which was ruled by the princely family 
of the Pallavicini. It contains a fine old castle (La Rocca) 
where a meeting took place between Paul III. and 
Charles V. 

Borgo S. Donino (Inn : Croce Bianco) has a Gothic 
townhall, and a thirteenth-century cathedral, one of the 
richest and most beautiful of Lombard buildings. On the 
exterior are curious bas-reliefs. The porches are magnificent, 
and have different names. That called Taurus is decorated 
with bulls, that called Aries with rams, &c. 

" San Donino, in whose honour this church was erected, was a soldier 
in the amiy of the Emperor Maximian, and served under his orders in 



Germany. Donino, with many others, became a christian ; and when 
Maximian issued an edict, ordering all persons to renounce the christian 
faith on pain of death, Donino fled, but was overtaken near the river 
Strione by the emissaries of the tyrant and immediately put to death. 
Near that spot there was at that time a village called Julia. 

At Borgo S. Donino. 

In 362 the Bishop of Parma, admonished by a dream, sallied forth 
and discovered the body of Donino — known to be that of the martyr by 
an inscription found upon the spot, and by the sweet odour which issued 
from the grave. A chapel was immediately erected to receive the holy 
remains, and we learn from a letter from S. Ambrose to Faustinus that 
the village of Julia had changed its name into that of San Donino as 
early as 387. 

From that time the shrine of San Donino became one of the most 
frequented in Italy, and received oblations which led to the construction 
of a temple on a larger scale. The existing church is a large building, 
and has undergone various alterations. The oldest part of it is in the 


Lombard style ; but the very curious and rich facade belongs to times 
subsequent to those of the Lombard — to times when the imitation of the 
Roman bas-relief succeeded to the monstrous imagery of the 7th and 
8th centuries. No record remains of the period at which this fa9ade was 
erected ; but there are various circumstances which give us reason to 
believe that it cannot be older than the 12th century. The barbarous 
character of the sculpture, the neglect of all proportions, the heads as 
large as the bodies, might seem to indicate a remoter antiquity ; but 
there is a bas-relief over one of the gates of Milan, known to have been 
executed at the close of the 12th century, which is no less rude, and 
which proves that the arts of Italy, down to that period, continued to 
be in a state of the lowest depression. The projecting portals, the 
pediment over the doors, the pillars resting on animals, are all features 
of the latter part of the nth and of the 12th century.' — Gaily Knight. 

We now pass Paroia, where Ariosto describes the castle 
built by the Podestk of Parma to keep the Borghigiani 
in check. 

" Giacca non lungi da Parigi un loco, 
Che volgea un miglio, o poco meno intorno, 
Lo cingea tutto un argine non poco 
Sublime, a guisa d'un teatio adorno. 
Un castel gia vi fu, ma a ferro, e a fuoco 
Le mura e i tetti, ed a rovina andomo. 
Un simil puo vederne in su la slrada, 
Qual volta a Borgo il Parmigiano vada." 

Orlando Furioso, xxvii. 47. 

At La Rocca di Fontenellato, on the left of the road, three 
miles beyond this, is the villa of the San Vitale family, 
where there is a room painted in fresco by Parmigianino. 
One of the lunettes contains a portrait of a Countess of 
San Vitale. 

Near Castel Guelfo station is the castle formerly called 
Torre d'Orlando, from its lord Orlando Pallavicini, a 
Ghibelline chieftain, but which changed its name when it 
was taken by Ottone Terzi, of Parma (1407), a leader of 
the Guelfs. 


We now cross the stony bed of the Taro, which is entirely 
dry except in rainy season, but where a fine bridge erected 
by Maria Louisa in 1816, occupies the site of a bridge built 
in 1 1 70 through the begging efforts of Nonantola, a poor 
hermit Here the towers of Parma come in sight, and, 
skirting the garden of the summer palace, we enter the 

Parma, (Inns : Croce Bianca, tolerable and clean, but 
a thoroughly ItaHan inn — the best rooms contain curious 
old pictures and majolica ; La Posta). 

Founded by the Boian Gauls, on the river of the same name, Parma 
was made a Roman colony with Modena in 183 B. c. It was embel- 
lished by Augustus, and then received the name of Colonia Julia. We 
leam from Martial that it was celebrated for its wool. 

" Velleribus primis Apulia, Parma secundis 

Nobihs." xiv., Ep. 53. 

" Magnaque Niliacae servit tibi gleba Syenae, 

Tondet et innumeros Gallica Parma greges. " 

v. Ep. 13. 

The town was destroyed by Attila in 452. Theodoric fortified it 
again and built an aqueduct. Under the Byzantine rule it was so 
flourishing as to be called Chr)'Sopolis (the Golden Town). It was de- 
stroyed by the Lombards ; and restored again in 773 under Charlemagne. 
In 834 Cunigunda, widow of Bernard, King of Italy, built at Parma 
the convent where she died. In the llth century it gave to the Church 
the Anti-Pope, Cadalous, 1063, and Giberio de' Giberti, 1075. By 
the exertions of the first of these, the cathedral and bishopric were 
founded. In 1247 the Guelphic town successfully withstood a siege 
from Frederick II. In 1303 the Republic fell under the power of Giberto 
da Correggio ; then of Rolando Rossi ; then of Gianquirici Sanvitali ; 
of Pope John XXII. 1326 ; of Louis of Bavaria, 1328 ; and of John 
of Bohemia, 1331. From 1335 to 1341 Parma was in the possession of 
the Scalas, who sold it to Lucchino Visconti. Bernabo Visconti, fearing 
the hatred of the citizens, built the Castello de S. Maria Nuova, where 


the garden now is, and the fortifications on the Ponte Verde. In 1365 
a plague, which lasted nine months, carried off 40,CXX) inhabitants ! 
After the death of Ludovico il Moro, in 1 5 12, with short intervals of 
subjection to the Visconti and Sfozza, Parma came into possession of 
Pope Julius II., and of his successor Leo X., in whose reign it was 
subject to Francis I. of France from 1515 to 1521. Under Leo X. 
the celebrated historian Francesco Guicciardini was Govematore of 

In the papal period of the Cinquecento, the beautiful church of La 
Madonna della Steccata was built, the interior of S.Giovanni was rebuilt, 
and one of the most remarkable painters of the best Italian period, 
Antonio Allegri of Correggio, executed his masterpieces. In 1503 
Francesco Mazzola was born at Parma, and became celebrated as a 
painter under the name of Parmigianino. He was chiefly remarkable 
for his portraits. 

Clement VII. was succeeded by Alessandro Famese as Paul III. 
(1534), who in 1509 had been Bishop of Parma. In his care for his 
family, he procured for Pier Luigi Famese, in 154S, the investiture of 
Parma and Piacenza, which had been formed into duchies. Eight Dukes 
of the Famese family succeeded one another. Pier Luigi died the death 
of a tyrant at Piacenza, September 11, 1547. His grandson Alessandro 
(the '' Eroe di Casa Farnese "), won for himself as Governor of Flan- 
ders the title of " II Grande :" he died from a bullet- wound in 1502. 
An equestrian statue was raised to his honour in the principal piazza. 
His son Ranuccio I. was superstitious but magnificent : he built (1597) 
the Pilotta palace, and (1613) the Teatro Farnese. Under the youthful 
Odoardo Farnese, Parma engaged in a contest with the Roman Bar- 
berini (1622) for the possession of Castro and Ronciglione. This war 
was continued and the disputed towns lost under the next Prince 
Ranuccio 1 1. He had no male heirs, and died of obesity, which had 
become hereditary in the Farnese family. He was succeeded by his 
brothers, Francesco (1694), and Antonio (1727) the last Famese — 
" non men buono, enormamente pingue, gran parassita " — who died 
childless in 1731. 

The Austrians besieged Parma in behalf of the nephew of the Farnese, 
Don Carlos, the InAint of Spain, son of the Queen Elisabetta Farnese. 
When Don Carlos was proclaimed King of Naples, he carried away the 
most valuable art treasures from Parma and presented them to his new 
capital (no pictures — I Michael Angelo, i Correggio, 8 Raffaelles, 9 
Titians, &c. ; 27 antique statues, including the Hercules and Flora ; 39 
ancient bronzes ; the Tazza Sardonica ; io,cxX) coins, and the curious 
archives of Parma). In the War of the Succession, the bloody tattle of 



S. Pietro was fought under the walls of Parma, in which the then united 
Franco-Sardinians, " combattendo da leoni," defeated the Austrians. 
By the peace of 1 728, Philip de Bourbon, second son of Elisabetta, 
was made Lord of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla ; his minister was 
the celebrated Frenchman du Tillot, who raised Parma to be the 
" Atene d' Italia : " he founded the Accademia delle Belle Arti, the 
Library and the Museum, he remodelled the University, and intro- 
duced a manufactory of majolica, silk cultivation, and agricultural in- 
stitutions. Don Ferdinando (1765), brought up by the celebrated 
Condillac (who wrote philosophical books for him), was a good- 
natured and popular prince. Du Tillot ruled under him till 1791, 
when, having become an object of suspicion to the Austrian court, 
because he tried to win the hand of Beatrice d'Este for his master (she 
was afterwards given to an archduke, while Ferdinando married an 
archduchess), he was deposed, banished, and died in poverty in France. 
On October 8, 1802, the duke was poisoned at the Badia di Fonterivo, 
and the duchies were declared by Tuscany to be incorporated with the 
French Republic. At the Vienna congress, the Empress Maria Louisa 
obtained Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla " in plena proprieta e 
sovranita." She died in 1847, and is still remembered with affection. 
She was followed by the last of the Bourbons, Charles IL, and (after 
the revolution of 1843 ^^^ ^^e intermediate reign of Charles Albert, 
1848 — 1849) by Charles IIL till 1854, when he was murdered in the 
Strada S. Lucia. His widow, a wise and popular princess, was driven 
out to make way for the government of Victor Emmanuel in 1856, 
since which Parma has sunk to the condition of a third-rate provincial 

Parma well deserves a halt from the traveller. It is an 
old University city, has sixty churches and a fine cathedral, 
and many palaces richly adorned with the beautifiil terra- 
cotta ornamentation. 

" Parma is perhaps the brightest Residenzstadt of the second class in 
Italy, Built on a sunny and fertile tract of the Lombard plain, within 
view of the Alps, and close beneath the shelter of the Apennines, it 
shines like a well-set gem, with stately towers and cheerful squares 
in the midst of verdure. The cities of Lombardy are all like large 
country-houses ; walking out of their gates, you seem to be stepping 
from a door or window that opens on a trim and beautiful garden, where 
mulberry-tree is married to mulberry by festoons of vines, and where 

VOL. II. 14 


the maize and sunflowers stand together in rows between patches of flax 
and hemp." — J. A. Symonds. 

Besides its architectural attractions, Parma is filled with 
the masterpieces of Antonio Allegri (1494— 1534) called 
Correggio from his birthplace, and of those of his scholars ; 
his son Pomponio Allegri, Bernardino Gatti, Francesco 
Rondani, Michael-Angelo Anselmi, and the Mazzolas — 
Girolamo, and Francesco, who was called Parmigianino. 
Vasari speaks of Correggio as the " Pittore singularissimo," 
and he is generally included in the circle of the five greatest 
masters, with Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo, Rafifaelle, 
and Titian. 

" Inwardly as little under the influence of any ecclesiastical traditions 
as Michelangelo, Correggio never sees in his art anything but the 
means of making his representation of life as sensuously charming and 
as sensuously real as possible. His gifts in this direction were great ; 
in all that assists realisation he is an originator and discoverer, even 
when compared with Leonardo and Titian. ... In the works of 
Correggjo, there is an entire absence of any moral elevation, but he is 
the first to represent entirely and completely the reality of genuine 
nature. He fascinates the beholder, not by this or that beautiful and 
sensual form, but by convincing him entirely of the actual existence of 
these forms, by means of perfectly realistic representations (enhanced by 
concealed means of attraction) of space and light. Among his means 
of representation, his chiaroscuro is proverbially famous. In Corre^o 
first chiaroscuro becomes essential to the general expression of a pic- 
torially combined whole : the stream of light and reflection gives exactly 
the right expression to the special moment in nature. Besides this, 
Correggio was the first to reveal the charm of the surface of the human 
body in half-light and reflected light. 

His colour is perfect in the flesh tints, and kid on in a way that 
indicates infinite study of the appearance in air and light. In the defi- 
nition of other materials he does not go into detail ; the harmony of the 
whole, the euphony of the transitions, is his chief object. But the most 
striking point of his style is the complete expression of motion in his 
figures, without which there is for him no life and no complete repre- 
sentation of space, which can properly only be measured by the eye. 


The real measure of his performance is in the human form in motion, 
with indeed an entire appearance of reality, and in some circumstances 
violently foreshortened. He first gives to the glories of the other world 
a cubically measurable space, which he fills with powerful floating 
forms. This motion is nothing merely external ; it interpenetrates the 
figures from within outwards. Correggio divines, knows, and paints 
the finest movements of nervous life. Of grandeur of lines, of severe 
architectonic composition, there is no question with him, nor of grand 
free beauty. What is sensuously charming he gives in abundance. 
Here and there he shows real depth of feeling, which, beginning with 
the real, reveals great spiritual secrets : there are pictures of suffering 
by him, which are not indeed grand, but perfectly noble, touching, and 
executed with infinite intelligence." — J. Burckhardt. 

All the principal sights of Parma may be taken in one 
circuit, starting from the Piazza Grande, close to which is 
the principal hotel. 

The Piazza Grande is picturesque, and generally crowded 
with countrymen in their bro\vn cloaks, and countrywomen 
in red shawls and hoods. It has a Clock tower on one side ; 
on the other is a fine old brick palace with arcades, in fi-ont of 
which stands a modem statue of Correggio, who seems strange 
under his real name of Antonio AUegri. On the other side 
of the palace is a fine bronze group of wrestlers, crowning 
a fountain. The Via Emilia nms through the square, and 
divides the city almost equally. Following it, by the Strada 
Maestro di S. Michele, architects will linger at the comer of 
a neighbouring alley on the right, to admire an exquisite 
terra-cotta shrine, and further on at the Collegio Lalatta, 
which has a grand entrance, supported by giants. Artists 
will proceed to S. Sepolcro, the last church on the right, to 
see a Parmigianino (in the first chapel on the right,) if they 
can get in, which is not very likely. 

The street close to S. Antonio, on the left of the Strada 
S. Michele, leads to the Cathedral, and the view on 


approaching it thus, from behind, is far the most effective. 
The outline is greatly varied. The apses and cupola are 
decorated by delicate Romanesque arcades all glowing with 
rosy colour, and beyond rises the soaring campanile, with 
its slender arches and its low spire crowned by a golden 
angel. Behind, in the shadow, lies the Baptistery. This 
quiet square, with its ancient surroundings, has a look 
of repose almost like that of an English close ; but the 
buildings are embossed on a pellucid sky, such as one sees 
in the pictures of Perugino. 

Behind the cathedral stands the grand Renaissance 
Church of S. Giovanni Evangelistay hviilt in 15 lo by Ber- 
nardino Zaccagni da Torrechiara. The front, of 1604, is 
by Simone Moschino da Orvieto. It is adorned with great 
statues of S. John and various Benedictine saints, and sur- 
mounted by the bronze eagle of the Evangelist. 

Inside, this church is really sublime in its proportions, 
and is rendered more effective by the rich dark colouring of 
the arabesques by Anselmi, on the vaulting of the ceiling. 
Here, the frescoes are in complete harmony with, and seem 
part of the building. In the cupola are famous frescoes of 
Correggio (painted 1520 — 24), but it is very difficult to see 
them, and it is scarcely possible to understand these and 
many other of Correggio's frescoes, unless prepared by a 
careful study of the beautiful copies by Toschi and his 
pupils in the Accademia. 

"This is the first dome devoted to a great general composition; 
Christ in glory, surrounded by the Apostles sitting upon clouds, all 
introduced as the Vision of John, seated on the edge below. The 
Apostles are genuine Lombards of the noble type, of a grandiose physical 
form ; the old ecstatic John (purposely ?j less noble. The view from 


below, completely carried out, of which this is the earliest preserved 
instance, and certainly the earliest so thoroughly carried through, 
appeared to contemporaries and followers a triumph of all painting. 
They forgot what parts of the human body were most prominent in a 
view from below, while the subject of this and most later dome paint- 
ings, the glory of heaven, would only bear what had most spiritual life. 
They did not perceive that for such a subject the realisation of the 
locality is unworthy, and that only ideal architectonic composition can 
awaken a feeling at all in harmony with this. Now here the impression 
is certainly overpowering : the confused group of numberless angels, 
who here, rushing towards each other with the greatest passion, and 
embracing, is without example in art : whether this is the noblest conse- 
cration of the events represented is another question. If so, then the 
confusion of arms and legs was not to be avoided ; if the scene were 
real, it must have been something like this. Farther below, between the 
windows, stand the Apostles gazing after the Virgin ; behind them, on 
a parapet, are Genii busy with candelabra and censers. In the Apostles, 
Correggio is not logical ; no one so excited as they are could stand still 
in his comer ; even their supposed grandeur has something unreal about 
it. But some of the Genii are quite wonderfully beautiful ; also many 
of the angels in the paintings of the cupola itself, and especially those 
which hover round the four patron saints of Parma, on the pendentives. 
It is difficult to analyse exactly the sort of intoxication with which these 
figures fill the senses. I think that the divine and the very earthly are 
here closely combined." — Burckhardt. 

"It must be evident that gradations in magnitude will be more fall 
and varied when they comprehend, if only in a limited degree, the per- 
spective diminution of forms. In the cupola of Parma (to say nothing 
of the objects being represented as if above the eye) the perspective 
diminution is extreme ; so that even the principal figures are altogether 
subservient to the expression of space." — Eastlake. 

" As a consequence of his predilection for sensuous and voluptuous 
forms, Correggio had no power of imagining grandly or severely. His 
Apostles, gazing after the Virgin who has left the eartii, are thrown 
into attitudes so violent and so dramatically foreshortened, that seen 
from below upon the pavement of the Cathedral, very little of their form 
is distinguishable, except legs and arms in violent commotion. . . . 
Correggio appears to have been satisfied with realising the tumult of 
heaven rushing to meet earth, and earth straining upwards to ascend to 
heaven in violent commotion — a very orgasm of frenetic rapture. The 
essence of the event is forgotten ; its external manifestation alone is 
presented to the eye ; and only the accessories of beardless angels and 


cloud-encumbered cherubs are really beautiful amid a surge of limbs in 
restless movement." — y. A. Symonds. 

The paintings on the ceiUng of the choir are by Girol. 
Mazzola; those on the sides of the nave are by Latanzio 
Gambara (1568 — 73); the woodwork of the choir is by 
Christofero da Lendinara \ the Ciborium, of 1484, is hy Leon 
Battista Alberti, 

The pictures are : — 

Choir. Parmigianino, The Transfiguration. 

Left Transept. * Correggio. (Over the door.) A beautiful fresco of 
S. John the Evangelist writing his Gospel. He is seated, pausing with 
his hand on his book, and looking up for inspiration. 

Left Aisle, 6th Cliapel Anselmi, Christ bearing his cross. 

tifth Chapel. Girol. Mazzola. The Virgin gives a palm branch to 
S. Catherine ; S. Nicholas stands by. 

\st and 2nd Chapels. Parmigianino. The saints and cherubs on 
the arches, very grand, but ill seen. 

The Campanile oi the church, built in 16 14, is exceed- 
ingly handsome. The adjoining Mofiastery (now a barrack) 
has stately cloisters and corridors. 

It is well that S. Giovanni should be seen before the 
Duomo, after which it pales. The latter is a Latin cross, 
7019 met long by 2565 met. broad. The west front is 
magnificent. It had three porches, but of the two side 
porches only the monsters which supported the pillars 
remain. The central porch rests on two huge lions of red 
Verona marble, one with a ram, the other with a serpent \ 
it is the work of Bono da Bisone {12S1). In the upper 
story is the pulpit whence the bishop gives the papal bless- 
ing to the people. A chapel on the north side should be 
observed for its exquisite terra-cotta ornaments, especially 
the vine-leaves and grapes round the windows. 


The Interior is one mass of beautiful decaying colour. 
The walls are almost entirely covered with precious frescoes 
of Correggio and his scholars. In general effectiveness this 
church can scarcely be surpassed. The nave is compara- 
tively dark, only lighted by such rays as steal in through the 
side chapels and by a tiny line of windows in the triforum ; 
but beyond, where a mighty staircase leads up into the 
choir, a whole mass of sunlight glory pours in from the 
cupola and transepts, and strikes upon the altar, and the 
golden baldacchino and organ galleries. The frescoes, 
especially of the cupola, are almost impossible to decipher 
without a previous acquaintance through the drawings of 
Toschi. Little can be seen of the Assumption of the 
Virgin, and the spectator is inclined to agree with the criti- 
cism of one of the canons to the painter, that it is un 
guazzeto di ra?it, " a hash of frogs." 

" In 1526 — 30, in the dome of the cathedral, Correggio gave himself 
up altogether, without any limit, to his special conception of the super- 
natural. He makes everything external and desecrates it. In the 
centre, now much injured, Christ precipitates himself towards the 
Virgin, who is surrounded with a rushing crowd of angels and a mass 
of clouds. The chief figure, Christ, is foreshortened in a truly froglike 
manner, and with some of the apostles the knees reach quite up to their 
necks. Clouds, which Correggio treats as solid round bodies of definite 
volume, are employed to define the locality, also as means of support 
and as seats, and pictorially as means of gradation and variety. Even 
on the pendentives of the cupola are seated figures, very beautiful in 
themselves, but exaggeratedly foreshortened ; an evangelist and a Father 
of the Church on clouds, where Michael Angelo in a similar place 
would have given his prophets and sibyls solid thrones." — Burckhardt. 

In each of the angles of the cupola is an Evangelist with 
a Father of the Church ; Luke with Ambrose ; Matthew 
with Jerome \ John with Augustine ; Mark with Gregory. 


In the frieze are the symbols of the Evangelists with 
garlands and ornaments like those on ancient reliefs. 
Making the circuit of the church : — 

Right Aisle, 2nd Chapel. F. Francia. The Virgin Mother adores 

her Child — a shepherd stretches out his hands in ecstacy. 
3r^ Chapel (Cappella Baiardi). 

An interesting example of early sculpture in the masterpiece of 
Antelami da Parma, of the I2th century, originally intended for the 

" In this alto-relief, the body of our Lord, which Nicodemus mounts 
upon a ladder to detach from the cross, is sustained by Joseph of Arima- 
thea, while an angel above the Virgin (who forms one of a procession 
of mourners) aids her in holding up his left arm. In a similar position, 
upon the other side of the composition, appears the archangel Raphael, 
above a soldier, who threatens with his hand a reluctant priest, whom 
the Divine messenger is pushing forward to the foot of the cross, and 
who, we imagine, from the word ' synagoga,' inscribed above his head, 
typifies the stiff-necked Jews. It would be easy to criticize this compo- 
sition (if such it may be called), but if we bear in mind the period 
when it was sculptured, we shall recognize the artist's superior capacity 
for expression above his contemporaries, and shall feel inclined to pardon 
these defects." — Perkin's Tuscan Sculptors. 

6th Chapel. A monument to Petrarch, once, as he quite accurately de- 
scribed himself, the " inutile Arcidiacono " of this cathedral, put up 
by Canon Cicognari in 1713. Here also is a Christ bearing his cross, 
by Bernardino Gatti. 

Left Aisle, $th Chapel. Frescoes of the fifteenth century, by Loschi 
and Grossi. The west window has some remains of fine stained glass 
of 1574, by Gondrate. 

The stately Crypt is supported by thirty pillars, with varied 
capitals. The services held here, especially funeral services, 
are very effective. The tomb of Bartolommeo Prato (1542), 
with two weeping figures and beautiful arabesques, is by 
Prospero Clementi. 

The Baptistery (the keys are kept in the house opposite 
the south door,) is built of red and grey marble, and sur- 


rounded by four tiers of small columns, with flat entabla- 
tures, which give it a harsh look. Encircling the lower 
story is a frieze of animals and human-headed monsters in 
square frames. There are pinnacles at the angles resting 
on small pointed arches. The three portals are richly 
sculptured. On the north door is inscribed : " Bis binis 
demptis annis de mille ducentis incepit dictus opus hoc 
sculptor Benedictus." This was Benedetto Antelami, who 
began the work in 1196, but it was not finished till 1281. 

"A lunette over the south door shows the mystical tendencies of 
Antelami. It represents a youth seated in the branches of a tree, so 
absorbed in eating a honeycomb, that, hke a man who forgets tlie future 
in present enjoyment, he does not see a furious dragon watching him 
from below." — Perkitis Italian Sculptors. 

The interior has sixteen sides, from which rise the ribs 
which support the cupola. In the centre is an octagonal 
font inscribed with the name of its sculptor, yohannes 
Fallassonus, 1298. There is another font covered with 
quaint carving, which is now used for the baptism of all the 
children born in Parma. The whole is lighted by twenty- 
four windows in the roof, which is covered with paintings of 
c. 1220. Those below are by Niccolh da Reggio and Barto- 
lino da Piacenza of the 14th century. 

The street in front of the cathedral leads to the Piazza 
di Corte, where are Palazzo Ducale, with a modem front, 
the Teatro Nuovo, and a little beyond, to the left, the 

Church of La Madonna della Steccata, begun 15 21, from 
plans of Gtov. Francesco Zaccagtii, and finished in 1539. 
It derived its name from a palisade (steccato) erected round 
a popular painting of the Virgin upon a house-wall, which 
was supposed to be miraculous, and which the church was 


afterwards built to enclose. The interior is very similar to 
the Madonna della Campagna of Piacenza, a Greek cross, 
with apsides at the four arms, at the angles of which are 
little polygonal chapels, with cupolas, and in the centre a 
lofty and wide round cupola. The effect is very striking, 
and the colour and design most harmonious. Over the 
high altar is a fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin by 
M. A. Anselmi. The paintings in chiaroscuro on the arches 
are by Parmigianino (^Francesco Mazzold): of these the 
Moses is the most remarkable, and Sir Joshua Reynolds 
mentions in confirmation of the impression it leaves upon 
the mind, that Gray " had warmed his imagination with the 
remembrance of this noble figure of Parmigianino when he 
conceived his sublime idea of the indignant Welsh bard." 
The frescoes of the cupola are by Gatti. 

Right Transept. A Pieta by Bondoni, erected by tlie town in memorj' 
of Maria Louisa. 

Over the altar is S. George by Francheschini. 

Right, 2nd Chapel. A fine tomb of Count Guido da Correggio, by 
Barbieri, 1568. 

Leji, 1st Chapel. F. Francia. Madonna and Child, with S. Luke 
and S. J. Baptist — much injured. 

Left, 2nd Chapel. A beautiful tomb of Sforzino Sforza (1523), son 
of Francesco Sforza IL, by Agnate, and the tomb of Ottavio Famese 
(1567), a bust, with his sword and helmet, by Briante, 

Opposite this is the Church of S. Alessandro, with a 
wholly uninviting exterior, but inside of remarkably good 
classical architecture. It was built, 1625, by Margaret of 
Austria, from designs of Magnani. The Ionic pillars are of 
red Verona marble. 

Right, 2nd Chapel. Tiarini. S. Bertoldo. 

High Altar. Parmigianino, The Virgin and S. Justina. 


The colossal Palazzo Farnese, commonly called La 
Pilotta, stands behind the modern Ducal Palace. It was 
begun by Ranuccio Farnese I., in 1597. Its courtyard is 
handsome. The immense brick buildings include Palace, 
Academy, Archceological Museum, Picture Gallery, Library, 
and the Farnese Theatre. Crossing the court, on the left 
of the second gate which leads to the bridge, is a staircase, 
on the first landing of which we reach the 

ArchcBological Museuf?!, founded by Duke Philip, c. 1760. 
It is chiefly interesting from the relics of the neighbouring 
Roman town of Velleja. 

The 2nd Room contains the Tabula Alimentaria of Trajan— his decree 
for the maintenance of poor children, engraved upon bronze. The 
giving of this charity is represented on reliefs lately discovered in the 
Roman forum. Here is a statue of Germanicus, and a small bronze 
statuette of the Drunken Hercules — full of character, from Velleja. 

4//i Room. Statues of Livia and Agrippina the elder from Velleja, 
and a statuette of Leda and the Swan from the Roman Theatre of 
Parma, deserve notice. 

The heavy, richly ornamented door opposite the top of 
the staircase leads to the Teairo Farnese, built 161 8, and 
opened in 1628, on the marriage of Duke Odoardo with 
Princess Margaret of Tuscany. It is well worth visiting. 

" It is a large wooden structure, of the horse-shoe shape ; the lower 
seats arranged upon the Roman plan, but above them great heavy 
chambers, rather than boxes, where the nobles sate, remote, in their 
proud state. Such desolation as has fallen on this theatre, enhanced in 
the spectator's fancy by its gay intention and design, none but worais 
can be familiar with. A hundred and ten years have passed since any 
play was acted here. The sky shines in through the gashes in the roof; 
the boxes are dropping down, wasting away, and only tenanted by 
rats ; damp and mildew smear the faded colours, and make spectral 
maps upon the panels ; lean rags are dangling down where there were 
gay festoons on the proscenium ; the stage has rotted so, that a narrow 


wooden gallery is thrown across it, or it would sink beneath the tread, 
and bury the visitors in the gloomy depths beneath. The desolation 
and decay impress themselves on all the senses. The air has a moulder- 
ing smell, and an earthy taste ; any stray outer sounds that straggle in 
with some lost sunbeam, are muffled and heavy ; and the worm, the 
maggot, and the rot have changed the surface of the wood beneath the 
touch, as time will seam and roughen a smooth hand. If ghosts ever act 
plays, they act them on this ghostly stage." — Dickens. 

Left of the theatre is the entrance to the Picture Gallery, 
open from 9 to 4 (on festas from 10 to 2). There is 
no catalogue and no special arrangement of the pictures. 
The greater part of the collection occupies one great 
gallery, divided at intervals, which count as so many cham- 
bers (11. to VI). The 7th room is entered from the oval in 
the middle of the gallery and leads to a number of small 
chambers which surround a courtyard. The pictures are 
not hung as they are numbered.* We should notice 

Room II. 

38. Jacopo Loschi (1471). Virgin throned, with angels. 

50. Cristofero Caselli, detto II Temporello (1499). Virgin and Child 
with S. J. Baptist and S. Paul the Hermit. 

47. Pierilario Mazzola (1538). Virgin and Child with saints. 

45. Alessandro Araldi (1465). Annunciation. 

4^.. Parmigianino. Marriage of the Virgin. 

35. Mich. Ang. Anselmi (i/^gi — lSS^)- Virgin and Child in glory 
with saints. 

31.* Correggiv. La Madonna della Scala. A fresco originally on 
the wall of a chapel near the Porta Romana. It takes its name from 
the ladder introduced in the background. 

30. Girolamo Mazzola (1503 — 68). Virgin and Child, with angels, in 
a grove of flowers, S. John asleep in the foreground. A very lovely 
and original picture. 

27, 28, 79, 80, 81. Gir. Mazzola. Five life-size figures of saints. 

76. Parmigianino (Francesco Mazzola, 1503 — 40). Virgin and Child 
with S. Jerome and S. Benedict. A most beautiful picture. 

* The order of the hanging is followed here. 


68. Girolamo Mazzola. S. Gregory and S. Augustine. 
6i. Forhinato Gatti (1648). Virgin and Child with S. Bruno and 
S. James. 

Roo7n III. (the Oval Hall) contains : 

Two gigantic statues of basalt : on the right, Hercules ; on the left, 
Bacchus with Ampelos ; found in 1724 on the Palatine at Rome. 

Room IV. — VI (beginning on left). 

120. Bart. Schidone {1^60 — 1615). Entombment. 

122. Ludavico da Parma (1469 — 1540). Virgin with S. Catherine 
and S. Sebastian. 

123. F. Frattcia. The Deposition. 

130.* F. Francia. "La Madonna di San Vitale." The Virgin and 
Child with saints. The infant S. John points to the throned group. 
Two female saints adore ; Scholastica holds a book, on which her white 
dove rests ; the Child turns to S. Catherine. Two male saints, Bene- 
dict and Placidus, seem to guard the picture with their croziers. 

133. Schidone. The Holy Women finding the Angel at the Se- 

134.* Lodavico Caracci (1555 — 1619). The Funeral of the Virgin. 
Her figure, in grand repose, is carried by the weeping Apostles with 
lighted torches ; the sweeping-onwards look of the figures is quite mag- 

158. Fra Paolo da Pistoia. Adoration of the Magi. 

203. Josaphat Aldis. S. Sebastian. The arrow in the forehead is 

188. Agostino Caracci {\^i)% — 1601) Virgin and saints. 

209 — 212. Agostino Caracci. Copies of the frescoes of Correggio at 
S. Giovanni. 

231. Tintoret. The Entombment. 

" In the gallery at Parma there is a canvas of Tintoret's whose sub- 
limity of conception and grandeur of colour are seen in the highest 
perfection, by their opposition to the morbid and vulgar sentimentalism 
of Correggio. It is an entombment of Christ, with a landscape dis- 
tance. Dwelling on the peculiar force of the event before him, as the 
fulfilment of the final prophecy respecting the passion, ' He made his 
grave with the wicked and with the rich in his death,' Tintoret desires 
to direct the mind of the spectator to the receiving of the body of Christ, 
in its contrast with the houseless birth and the desert life. And, there- 
fore, behind the ghastly tomb grass that shakes its black and withered 


blades above the rocks of the sepulchre, there is seen, not the actual 
material distance of the spot itself (though the crosses are shown faintly;, 
but that to which the thoughtful spirit would return in vision, a desert 
place, where the foxes have holes and the birds of the air have nests, 
and against the barred twilight of the melancholy sky are seen the 
mouldering beams and shattered roofing of a ruined cattle-shed, the 
canopy of the Nativity." — Ruskin, ^^ Modern Painters " ii. 164. 

165. Giiercino. Virgin and Child with S. Francis and S. Chiara. 

166. Lod. Caracci. The Apostles at the empty tomb of the Virgin. 
160. Annibale Caracci. The Dead Christ with saints. 

At the end of the gallery is a seated statue of Maria Louisa as Con- 
cord, by Canova. 

Room VIII. (entered on right from the Oval hall). 

297, 303. Gir. Mazzola. Portraits of Alessandro Famese and his 

300. Antonio Mora. A portrait. 

312, 314, 315. Portraits attributed to Velasquez. 

Room IX. (hung with green silk, stamped with A A in 
honour of " Antonio Allegri "). 

350.* Correggio. "La Madonna della Scodella." So called from 
the dish in the hand of the Virgin, being the arms of the Scodellari, 
for whom the picture was painted. 

"The dreamy lights in the mysterious wood, the charming heads, and 
the indescribable beauty of the whole treatment cause us to forget that 
this picture is essentially composed for the colour, and is exceedingly 
indistinct in its motives." — Burckhardt. 

Room X. 

Drawings of Toschi and his pupils from the frescoes of Correggio. 
Here study the invisible cupolas. 

Room XI. 

351.* Correggio. " La Madonna di San Girolamo," so called from 
the prominent figure of S. Jerome. 


*' The astonishing execution cannot outweigh the great material de- 
ficiencies. The attitude of Jerome is affected and insecure. Correggio 
is never happy in grand things : the child who beckons to the angel 
turning over the book, and plays with the hair of the Magdalen, is 
inconceivably ugly, as also the Putto, who smells at the vase of oint- 
ment of the Magdalen. Only this latter figure is inexpressibly beautiful, 
and shows, in the way she bends down, the highest sensibility for a 
particular kind of female grace." — Burckhardt. 

Louis XVIII. vainly tempted Maria Louisa, in her sorest poverty, by 
the offer of a million of francs, to allow this picture to remain in the 

Room XII. (by a door in the silk hanging). 
Exquisite drawings of Toschi, &c., after Correggio. 

Room XIIL 

360. • Cima da Conegliano. Virgin and Child throned with saints. 
361.* Id. Virgin and Child with S. Michael and 

S. Andrew. 
362.* Leonardo da Vinci. A most lovely head. 
352 * Correggio. The Maries with the Dead Christ. 
253.* Id. The Martyrdom of S. Placidus and S. Flavia. 

Holbein. Portrait of Erasmus. 
* Fraticia. Virgin and Child with S. John. 
Schidone. Virgin and Child with S. John. 

Room XIV. 

371.* Giulio Romano. (From a dra-wing by Raphael, which is at 
the Louvre ) Jesus glorified between the Virgin and S. J. Baptist : 
beneath the Virgin stands S. Paul, beneath the Baptist S. Catherine 
kneels with her wheel. 

367. Titian. Head of Christ. 

364. Murillo. Job. 

378. Van der Heist. Portrait 

Room XV. 

Early fourteenth-century paintings — not remarkable specimens. 

224 italiamV cities. 

The Library (open from 9 to 3, entrance opposite the 
Picture Gallery), contains the valuable Hebrew and Syriac 
MSS. of De Rossi, bought by Maria Louisa in 1816. 
Amongst the curiosities is the " Livre d'Heures " of Henri 
n. of France, and Luther's Hebrew Psalter, with his 
autograph notes. 

In the 2nd room is the remnant of Correggids fresco of 
the Coronation of the Virgin, brought hither from S. Gio- 

At the Picture Gallery we can obtain the keys of the 
famous Camera di S. Paolo (on the other side of the Piazza 
Grande, in the Monastery of S. Ludovico). Here, in 15 18, 
Correggio, by order of the abbess. Donna Giovanna da 
Piacenza, painted a wonderful chamber, which remains in 
the most perfect preservation. Over the chimney-piece is a 
fresco of the abbess herself as Diana, being, as it were, the 
goddess of an enchanted bower, for from all the coves of 
the ceiling lovely groups of cupids are looking out from a 
mass of leaves and flowers. Beneath are chiaroscuro repre- 
sentations of mythological subjects. 

"That which sharply distinguished Correggio from all previous 
artists, was the faculty of painting a purely voluptuous dream of beau- 
tiful beings in perpetual movement, beneath the laughter of moving 
light, in a world of never-failing April hues. When he attempts to 
depart from the fairyland of which he was the Prospero, and to match 
himself with the masters of sublime thought or earnest passion, he 
proves his weakness. But within his own magic circle he reigns 
supreme, no other artist having blended the witcheries of colouring, 
chiaroscuro, and faun-like loveliness of form into a harmony so perfect 
in its sensuous charm." J. A. Symonds. 

An inner chamber has frescoes by Alessandro AraldL 
Over its chimney are three crescent moons, the arms of the 



Through the Palazzo Pilotta, by the bridge called Ponte 
Verde, with its old gate-towers, we may reach the Palazzo 
del Giardino, built originally by Ottavio Farnese, but altered 
in 1767. In one of its rooms are unfinished frescoes by 
Agostino Caracci. This was the favourite residence of the 
late excellent Duchess Regent of Parma, with whose 
departure the prosperity of the town departed. The 
gardens, always open, but little used, are laid out with 
cUpped hedges and formal tanks of water. In summer, 
birds sing undisturbed all the day long amid the tall trees 
in the park, which are allowed to grow as they will. We 
may return to the town by the neighbouring Strada Maestra 
di S. Croce, which contains a hospital founded by Maria 
Louisa, and the Church of the Amiunztala, in which are the 
remains of a fresco of the Annunciation by Correggio. We 
cross the Parma torrent by the bridge called Ponte del 
Mezzo, which has a chapel built by Pier Luigi Farnese to 
S. John Nepomuk in 1517. Higher up the river we see the 
Ponte di Caprazucca, built 1280, and restored in the 15th 
century. The other churches of Parma are of little interest. 
Several of them contain pictmes by Girolamo and Ales- 
sandro Mazzola. 

Parma is the best point from whence to make the very 
important excursion to the fortress of the Countess Matilda 
at Canossa, where the Emperor Henry IV. performed his 
famous penance. Canossa is distant 1 8 Italian miles from 
Parma, and 15 from Reggio. The station of S. Ilario 
is a few miles nearer, but there are no carriages there. A 
carriage from Parma to Seano, the nearest practicable point, 
VOL. II. 15 


costs 20 frs. Very little, however, is remembered about 
Canossa in any of the neighbouring towns. The writer 
found it necessary to send to the University to find out 
where it was, and then the answer was that the professors 
knew nothing about it, unless it was the same as " II 
Castello di Donna Matilda." 

The road lies through a dull plain, and, after crossing the 
wide, stony bed of the Enza by a long bridge, ascends by 
the side of the torrent from S. Ilario to Montecchio, where 
Attendolo Sforza was bom. Hence, it passes through 
S. Polo to the foot of the Apennines, on which several 
castles may be distinguished, the most conspicuous being 
that of Rusina, a castle whose aspect would delight Robert 
Browning, who says : — 

" What I love best in all the world 
Is a castle, precipice encurl'd, 
In a gash of wind-grieved Apennine." 

At Seano it is best to take a guide for the day (4 frs.), 
otherwise it will be impossible to find the way. The savage 
ascent begins immediately behind the village, grassless, tree- 
less, even weedless. There is no path whatever, and only 
sometimes something which passes for it in the furrows riven 
by the melted snow. At the end of April there were great 
patches of snow itself, apparently level, but into which 
one sank knee-deep in crossing the hollows. At the 
top of the first ascent, rising from blackened excoriated 
rocks, is the fortress of Rusina, with a solitary tower, 
known as Castel d'Asso, on a second eminence, and a little 
village nestling between the two, in the dreariest position 
that can be imagined — an eternal winter, with scarcely a 



blade of vegetation to look upon. Further on, the county 
becomes wilder still. Beyond the range on which we stand, 
rise a forest of snowy Apennine peaks, but they look cheerful 
by comparison with the nearer hills, which are riven and fur- 
rowed by volcanic action like those near Radicofani, every 
inch of the ground being twisted and tossed and contorted 
into the most hideous chaos of crevasses, a Mer de Glace 
repeated in all the frightfulness of hardened brown mud. 
We wind along a ridge, looking down upon an avenue of 
ghastly abysses, in which foxes are the sole inhabitants. 
Where the valley opens, we see the stony bed of the Enza, 
and across the hills on the other side of it, the white line of 
the Po. On the further side of the mud valley of desola- 
tion is a distorted hill apparently of stronger material than 
the rest, supporting some solid buttresses of rock, and from 
these, looking like rocks themselves, from the equality with 
which Time has bestowed her colouring upon both, rise 

View from Canossa. 

some shapeless fragments of broken castle walls. That is 

It is a most impregnable-looking place. No road can 



ever have approached it. It must always have had its 
present hideous aspect, as if utterly abandoned by Nature. 
At first the rock walls seem utterly to cut it off from ail 
human access, no path is apparently possible, and its plat- 
form appears to be without an entrance. But, on coming 
close, a thread- like way discovers itself where a single per- 
son can but just pass, the only way which ever existed here, 
and which struggles up through the great grey stones and the 
withered brambles, till, close to the top, it widens a little 
where the castle well, the least ruined thing in this chaotic 
overthrow, still pierces the ground under a stone mouth, 

Gale of the Penance, Canossa. 

and where an arched gate remains in the mouldering and 
broken wall. It is the gate where the great Emperor sate 
shivering, fasting, and wailing for three days and nights. I 


" It was towards the end of January. The earth was covered with 
snow, and the mountain streams were arrested by the keen frost of the 
Apennines, when, clad in the thin penitential garment of white linen, 
and bare of foot, Henry, the descendant of so many kings, and the 
ruler of so many nations, ascended slowly and alone the rocky path 
which led to the outer gate of the fortress of Canossa. With strange 
emotions of pity, of wonder, and of scorn, the assembled crowd gazed 
on his majestic form and noble features, as, passing through the first 
and second gateway, he stood in the posture of humiliation before the 
third, which remained inexorably closed against his further progress. 
The rising sun found him there fasting ; and there the setting sun left 
him stiff with cold, faint with hunger, and devoured by shame and ill- 
suppressed resentment. A second day dawned, and wore tardily away, 
and closed, in a continuance of the same indignities, poured out on 
Europe at large in the person of her chief, by the Vicar of the meek, 
the lowly, and compassionate Redeemer. A third day came, and still 
irreverently trampling on the hereditary lord of the fairer half of the 
civilised world, Hildebfand once more compelled him to prolong till 
nightfall this profane and hollow parody on the real workings of the 
broken and contrite heart. 

" Nor was he unwarned of the activity and the strength of the indigna- 
tion aroused by this protracted outrage on every natural sentiment, and 
every honest principle, of mankind. Lamentations and reproaches 
rang through the castle of Canossa. Murmurs from Henry's inveterate 
enemies and his own zealous adherents, upbraided Gregory as exhibiting 
rather the cruelty of a tyrant, than the rigour of an apostle. But the 
endurance of the sufferer was the only measure of the inflexibility of 
the tormentor ; nor was it till the unhappy monarch had burst away 
from the scene of his mental and bodily anguish, and sought shelter in 
a neighbouring convent, that the Pope, yielding at length to the instances 
of Matilda, would admit the degraded suppliant into his presence. It 
was the fourth day on which he had borne the humiliating garb of a 
penitent, and, in that sordid raiment he drew near on his bare feet to 
the more than imperial Majesty of the Church, and prostrated himself, 
in more than servile deference, before the diminutive and emaciated old 
man, ' from the terrible glance of whose countenance, ' we are told, 
' the eye of every beholder recoiled as from the lightning. ' Hunger, 
cold, nakedness, and shame, had, for the moment, crushed the gallant 
spirit of the sufferer. He wept and cried for mercy, again and again 
renewing his entreaties, until he had reached the lowest level of abase- 
ment to which his over enfeebled heart, or the haughtiness of his great 
antagonist, could depress him. Then, and not till then, did the Pope 
condescend to revoke the anathema of the Vatican."— ^/r J. Stephens. 


There is no beauty in Canossa, but it is an extraordinary 
place and well worth the great trouble of getting there, for 
in summer the heat on the arid rocks must be quite as 
trying as the struggle through the snow in winter. 


IT is if hr. by quick train (6 frs. 85 c, ; 5 frs. 50 c.) from 
Parma to Modena. The country is exceedingly rich 
and luxuriant. 

" Here, they twine the vines around trees, and let them trail along 
the hedges ; and the vineyards are full of trees, regularly planted for 
this purpose, each with its own vine twining and clustering around it. 
Their leaves in autumn are of the brightest gold and deepest red, and 
never was there anything so enchantingly graceful and full of beauty. 
Through miles of these delightful forms and colours, the road winds its 
way. The wild festoons ; the elegant wreaths, and crowns, and gar- 
lands of all shapes ; the fairy nets flung over the great trees, and making 
them prisoners in sport ; the tumbled heaps and mounds of exquisite 
shapes upon the ground ; how rich and beautiful they are ! And every 
now and then, a long, long line of trees, will be all bound and garlanded 
together : as if they had taken hold of one another, and were coming 
dancing down the field ! " — Dickens. 

Half an hour takes us from Parma to Reggio {Inn. La 
Posta), occupying the site of the ancient Regium Lepidum. 
In the 1 2th century it was a Republic under the Visconti 
and Gonzagas, but in 1409, under Niccol6 d'Este, was 
united to Modena. 

The town is dull and uniform, and, like Parma, is divided 
into two parts by the Via Emilia. In the centre is the 
Cathedral, of the 15 th century. At the entrance are recum- 


bent statues of Adam and Eve by the native artist Prospero 
Clementi, i^di. In the interior : — 

Left, 1st Chapel. Tomb of P. Clementi with his bust, by his pupil 

Chapel left of Choir. Tomb of a Bishop, \>y Bartol. Spanus, 1508. 

Choir. SS. Prospero, Maximus, and Catherine, by P. Clementi; also 
a bronze group of Christ Triumphant at the high altar. 

Chapel right of Choir. Tomb of Bishop Ugo Rangoni, 1562, by P. 

Westward from the Cathedral is the Church of La Ma- 
donna della Ghiaja, a Greek cross, with five cupolas, designed 
by Balbi in 1597. The interior is covered with frescoes 
(1620 — 1640) by the inferior artists of the Bolognese school, 
who had studied under the Caracci, — Lionello Spada, Tiartni, 
Luca Ferrari of Reggio, &c. 

West from this, is the Church of S. Prospero, in front of 
which stand six marble lions which once supported its Lom- 
bard portico. In the interior are frescoes by Camp/, Ttan'm, 
Procaccini, &c. The famous " Notte " of Correggio, now 
at Dresden, was painted for one of the chapels of this 

Ariosto was bom at Reggio in 1474. 

On the whole, Reggio is not the least worth stopping to 

(About 20 m. from Reggio on the road to Mantua is 
Guastalla, a small unimportant cathedral town. It was a 
Countship of the Torelli from 1406 to 1509, and afterwards 
belonged to the Gonzagas. With Parma and Piacenza it 
formed the sovereignty of Maria Louisa. In the piazza is a 
bronze statue of Ferrante Gonzaga I. by Leone Leoni.) 

Half an hour more brings us to Modena. 



(Inns. Albergo Reale, Corso Canale Grande ; S. Marco, Corso di Via 
Emilia; Mondatora, Contrada della Mondatora. 

Carriages, the course, 70 c. , night, I fr. ; with 2 horses, 90 c, night, I fr. 
20 c. ; I hour, i fr. 10 c, night, i fr. 40 c. ; with 2 horses, i fr. 70 c, 
night, 2 fr. ; each succeeding | hour, with i horse, 50 c, with 2 horses, 
80 c. 

Omnibus, 20 c, each box 20 c, each bag 10 c. 

Post-office, between the University and the Porta Bologna. ) 

Modena, the ancient Mutina, called by Cicero — " firmis- 
sima et splendidissima colonia," was the earliest Roman 
colony in these parts. Like Parma it was celebrated for 
its wool — 

" Sutor cerdo dedit tibi, culta Bononia, munus j 
Fullo dedit Mutinse." — Martial, iii. Ep. 59. 

In the time of S. Ambrose it was so reduced, as to 
be described by him as only the corpse of a city. In the 
Middle Ages, it again flourished, though constantly the scene 
of conflicts between the Guelphs and Ghibellines. Obizzo 
d'Este obtained the chief power in 1288, and bequeathed 
it to his descendants. In 1452 Bono d'Este was created 
Duke of Modena by the Emperor Frederick III., and to 
this, the Dukedom of Ferrara was added by Pope Paul II. 
Duke Hercules I. (147 1 — 1505) and his son Alfonso I. 
(husband of Lucrezia Borgia) were the patrons of Ariosto. 
Alfonso II. (1558 — 1597) was the patron celebrated by 
Tasso — 

" Tu niagnanimo Alfonso, il qual ritogli 

AI furor di fortuna, e guidi in porto 

Me peregrino errante, e fra gli scogli 

E fra 1' onde agitato, e quasi assorto ; 

Queste mie carte in lieta fronte accogli 

Che quasi in voto a te sacrate i' porto." 

Gerus, Lib. i, 4. 

On the death of this Duke, without children, his dominions 
of Reggio and Modena passed to his connection Cesare 


d'Este (natural grandson of Alfonso I.), but he was expelled 
from Ferrara by Pope Clement VIII. The wife of Cesare 
was Virginia dei Medici, daughter of the Grand-duke Cosimo 
I., by his second marriage with Camilla de' Martelli. He 
was succeeded in 1628 by his son Alfonso III., who, after 
the death of his wife Isabella of Savoy, was so heart-broken 
tliat he retired into a Capuchin convent in the Tyrol, leav- 
ing his dominions to his son Francesco III. In the reign 
of this prince the historian Muratori (ob. 1794) lived at 
Modena as ducal Librarian. Hercules III., who died 
at Treviso in 1803, was the last sovereign of the house 
of Este, and lost his dominions at the Peace of Luneville. 
His pretensions were transferred to the Archduke Ferdinand 
(third son of the Emperor of Austria), who had married his 
only daughter Beatrix, and who died in 1806. His son 
was Francesco IV., who, when driven out of his country, 
fled to Vienna and was restored by the aid of Austrian 
troops. The government came to an end under his successor 
Francesco V., when the country proclaimed Victor Em- 
anuel its ruler in 1859. 

For a description of the situation of Modena, we may 
read the lines of Tassoni — 

" Modana siede in una gran pianura, 
Che da la parte d' austro e d' occidente 
Cerchia di baize e di scoscese mura 
Del selvoso apennin la schiena algente ; 
Apennin ch' ivi tanto a 1' aria pura 
S' alza a veder nel mare il sol cadente, 
Che suUa fronte sua cinta di gelo 
Par che s' incurvi e che riposi il cielo. 

Da r oriente ha le fiorite sponde 
Del bel Panaro e le sue limpid' acque ; 
Bologna incontro ; e a la sinistra, 1' onde 
Dove il figlio del sol gii morto giacque : 



Secchia ha da 1' aquilon, che si confonde 
Ne giri che mutar sempre le piacque; 
Divora i liti, e d' infeconde arene 
Semina i prati e le campagne amene." 

La Secchia Rapiia, st. 8, 9. 

The town, which is well built, is divided by the Via Emilia. 
Almost in the centre (close to the Hotels) is the Cathedral, 
which, is one of the most interesting and picturesque build- 
ing of its time. It was begun in 1099 by the desire of the 
Countess Matilda of Tuscany, from the designs of one Lan- 
francus, who is described by an inscription in the choir, as — 
*' ingenio clarus, doctus et aptus, opens princeps et rector." 
In 1 108 the church was sufficiently advanced for the body 

Lions of Modena. 

of S. Geminianus, the patron saint of Modena, to be deposited 
there. In 1184 it was consecrated in the presence of Pope 
Lucius m. 


The west front has a grand porch of two stories high (the 
upper story containing a tomb), with pillars resting on the 
backs of the colossal lions which were frequently used, being 
intended to typify the strength and watchfulness of the 
Church, but which here are perfectly stupendous in their 
calm magnitude. The reliefs upon the walls are exceedingly 
curious, and are perhaps the oldest pieces of sculpture in 
Northern Italy. 

"The reliefs on the facade are divided into four groups ; the style is 
genuinely Romanesque, similar to German works of the same period, 
and without any touch of Byzantine influence. The three first divisions 
depict the history of the Creation up to Cain's murder of his brother. 
We see throughout how the effort after lively expression struggles with 
the unskilfulness of thp chisel. Wonderful, for instance, are the kneel- 
ing angels, who are supporting the Creator. Equally curious is the 
action of Adam, who, in his creation, is in the act of prostrating himself 
before the Lord. In the Fall of Man, they are standing one behind the 
other ; Eve is looking round towards Adam, who, unconcerned, is 
biting the apple. In the next scene, where God is reproving the two 
sinners, the expression of embarrassment in Eve's countenance becomes 
a broad grin. In the Expulsion from Paradise they are advancing sadly 
behind one another, covering themselves with fig-leaves, while the left 
hand supports the head with an expression of intense grief. The 
influence of northern legends is evidenced in the fourth relief group, 
which represents the history and death of King Artus. In the principal 
portal the inner part of the side-posts contains, likewise, in strict 
Romanesque style, the figures in relief of the Prophets. The ornament, 
which is full of spirit and beauty, contrasts strikingly with the simple 
and awkward style of the human figures. Splendid branch-work covers 
the pilasters, interspersed with small figures of animals and fantastic crea- 
tures, sirens, lions, and dragons, all full of sparkling life, and excellently 
finished. Still more excellent are the arabesques on the main portal of 
the south side, while the figures of the apostles on the side-posts and the 
six small scenes on the architrave, though full of life, are just as primitive 
as the work of the faqade." — Liibke. 

The west front is hemmed in by houses on each side. 
From under an archway on the right, we enter the pictur- 
esque Piazza Grande, crowded with stalls of fruit, which the 


market-women hold under matted roofs like sheds. Upon 
this busy scene looks down the south front of the cathedral, 
with a porch of red marble, resting on grand lions. Beyond 
this is an open-air pulpit, decorated with the emblems of the 
Evangelists. The sculptured frieze round the smaller door 
on this side, is wonderfully beautiful and delicate. 

The noble tower, 315 ft. high, is only connected with the 
church by a cloistered walk. It is called La Ghirlandina, 
from the sculpture which encircles it like a garland, and it 
is always regarded as one of the four great towers of 
Northern Italy. It was partially finished in 1224 and com- 
pleted in 1 3 19. In the tower is preserved the famous 
bucket " La Secchia Rapita " which was carried off by the 
Modenese (the "Geminiani," from their saint) from a 
fountain at Bologna to the great discomfiture of the " Pe- 
troniani " or protected of S. Petronio. 

"Quivi Manfredi in su I'altar maggiore 
Pose la Secchia con divozione; 
E poi ch' egli, ed il clero, e Monsignore 
Fecero al santo lunga orazione, 
Fu levata la notte a le tre ore, 
E dentro una cassetta di' cotone 
Ne la torre maggior fu riserrata, 
Dove si trova ancor vecchia e tarlata.. 

Ma la Secchia fu subito portata 
Nella torre maggior, dove ancor stassi 
In alto per trofea posta, e legata 
Con una gran catena a curvi sassi. 
' S'entra per cinque porte ov' e guardata, 
E non e cavalier, che di la passi, 
Ne pellegrin di conto, il qual non voglia 
Veder si degna e gloriosa spoglia." — Tassoni, i. 63. 

In the Piazzetta at the foot of the tower is a statue of the 
poet Tassoni (1565 — 1635) erected in i86o. 


"The Duomo of Modena is Italian, and not French, English, or 
German. Still it is a form of Italian far less widely removed from 
French, English, or German work than the style of Pisa or S. Vitale of 
Ravenna. As at Pisa, the architect seems to have halted between two 
opinions. The church is cruciform, but the transepts have no projection 
on the ground-plan ; there are real lantern-arches, not obscured as they 
are at Pisa, but they do not bear up any central dome or tower. The 
lantern-arches are pointed; but here, as at Pisa, the pointed form is 
more likely to be Saracenic than Gothic. Without, three eastern apses, 
rising from between pinnacles of quite Northern character, group boldly 
with one of the noblest campaniles in Italy, which is certainly not im- 
proved by the later addition of a spire. The great doorways rest on 
lions ; the west front has a noble wheel -window ; the greater part of the 
outside is lavishly arcaded, but the favourite form of arcading is that of 
several ^mall arches grouped under a containing arch. ... At Modena 
we find as genuine a triforium as in any minster in England or Nor- 
mandy. To be sure its form seems somewhat rude and awkward, as if 
the containing arch had been crushed by the lofty clerestory above, and 
eyes familiar with Norman detail may possibly be amazed at the sight of 
mid- wall shafts, and those of a somewhat rough type, showing themselves 
in such a position. But the mid-wall shaft is constructively as much in 
its place in a triforium as it is in a belfry window, and in the whole ele- 
vation there is nothing lacking ; there are pier-arch, triforium, and 
clerestory, and the deep splay of the highest range hinders the presence 
of any continuous blank spaces such as we have seen in the Basilican 
churches. The capitals are a strange mixture of classical and barbaric 
forms, and in the alternate piers, supporting the arches which span the 
nave, we find huge half columns, which form a marked contrast to the 
tall slender shafts commonly used in like positions in Northern churches. 
Altogether the cathedral of Modena is strictly an Italian church, yet the 
approaches to Northern forms are very marked, and they are of a kind 
which suggests the direct imitation of Northern forms or the employ- 
ment of Northern architects. " — Freeman. 

The Interior of the cathedral is very stately in effect. 

" A grand crypt with arches on slender shafts occupies the whole 
space under the eastern part of the church. The access to the choir 
from the nave is by stairs against the side walls in the same position as 
at San Zenone, Verona. Here the stairs and their hand-rails are not 
later than the thirteenth century, and the choir is divided from the aisles 
by screens of the same age ; solid below, and with a continuous cornice 
carried on coupled shafts above. The cathedi-al is said to have been 
founded in 1099, but an inscription on the south wall gives the date of 


the consecration of the building by Pope Lucius III., in July 1184. I 
believe that the former date represents the age of the plan, and of most 
of the interior columns and arches still remaining, but that before the 
later date the whole exterior of the cathedral had been modified, and the 
groining added inside. The work of both periods is extremely good and 
characteristic. The columns of the nave are alternately great piers and 
smaller circular columns of red marble, the great piers carry cross 
arches between the groining bays, and each of these in the nave is equal 
to two in the aisles. The capitals here are very close imitations of 
classical work, with the abaci frequently concave on plan. The main 
arches and the triforium openings of three lights above them are seen 
both in the nave and aisles, the vaulting of the latter being unusually 
raised. There is also a plain clerestory, and the vaults are now every- 
where quadripartite. The outside elevation of the side walls is very in- 
teresting. Here we seem to have the old aisle wall with its eaves-arcade 
added to and raised in the twelfth century, and adorned with a fine deep 
arcade in each bay, enclosed under round arches, which are carried on 
half columns in front of the buttresses or pilasters." — G. E. Street. 

The pictures are not generally of great importance :— 

Left, 2nd Chapel. A curious terra-cotta Altar of the 15th century, 

2,rd Chapel. A Gothic Altar-piece, with one of the earliest specimens of 
Modenese art, a Coronation of the Virgin, &c., by Seraphinus deSeraphi- 
nis, 1385. 

l^h Chapel. Dosso Dossi, 1536, one of the best works of the master. 
A Madonna in the clouds with SS. Antony and Pellegrino, and SS. J. 
Baptist, Sebastian, and Jerome below. Opposite is a beautiful Gothic 
pulpit by Tommaso Ferri, or Tommaso da Modena, 1322. 

Iti a Niche. Ant. Begarelli, 1521. The Nativity. 

At the end of the aisle, on right, a richly sculptured Holy-water 

Left of the Choir. Tomb of Claudio Rangoni, Count of Castelvetro, 
ob. 1537. He married Lucretia, daughter of the famous Pico della 
Mirandola. The tomb was designed by Giulio Romano, as was that of 
Lucia Rusca Rangoni, mother of Claudio. Here also is the tomb of 
Francesco Molza the Poet, and (in a chapel) that (by Pisari) of Ercole 
Rinaldo, last Duke of the House of Este, who was deprived of his 
dominions by the French, ob. iSojf. His only child Mary Beatrix mar- 
ried the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, and was the grandmother of 
Francesco V., Duke of Modena. 

The immense Crypt extends under the whole of the transepts and the 
three tribunes. S. Geminiano reposes here. Near the altar is a very 


curious coloured terra-cotta group of the Adoration of the Infant Saviour 
by Mazzoni. At the entrances are four grotesque lions. 

If we take the cathedral as a centre for exploring the town, 
we may follow the Contrada della Torre to the Piazza Reale, 
where stands the vast and handsome Palazzo Ducale, built 
by Bart. Avanzini for Duke Francesco I. in 1634. Since 
the revolution by which Modena, from the rank of a capital, 
degraded itself to that of a third-rate provincial town, this 
abode of its former princes has in part been used as a mili- 
tary school. On the further side, however, it retains its — 

Picture Gallery (entrance No. 4, Corso Cavour. Open 
from 9 to 3. The catalogue is useless and the names are 
under the pictures). There are very few important pictures 
— the great names given being frequently false. We may 
notice : — 

2nd Hall. — 

Entrance Wall : 

30. Baldovinettil (1138-1466). Madonna. 

Bernabo da Modena, 1370- Madorma and Crucifixion. 

. Left Wall : 

36. Francesco Francia. Annunciation. 

37. Luigi Angussola da Cremona, 1512. Baptism of Christ. 

Wall of Exit : 

39. F. Francia. Assumption. 

42. Lorenzo Bicci, 1400 — 1460. Madonna and Child. 

43. Filippo Lippi. Madonna and Child with S. John. 

44. Antonio Veneziano (1309 — 1383). Annunciation. 

46. Bart. Bonasia da Modena, 1485. Christ in the tomb between 
the Virgin and S. John the Evangelist. " Interesting from 
its powerful colouring." It is signed " Hoc opus pinxit Bar 
tolomeus de Bonasciis." 

50. Francesco Caroto, 1501. Madonna sewing a little shirt. There 
is a background of lemon-trees. The Infant Saviour pulls at 
the veil of the Madonna. 



Right Wall : 

52. Spinello Aretino {\lo% — 1389). Marriage of a Knight. 

"^rd Hall. — 

On the ceiling is a medallion of the Rape of Ganymede, on linen, 
by Correggio, transported by the Duke of Modena from the 
Gonzaga castle of Novellara. 

66, 67, 71, 78, 83, 88, 89, 94, 95 to 100. Niccolb Abbate da Modena. 
A series of scenes from the ^neid, brought from the Bojardi 
castle of Scandiano, together with several landscapes by the 
same master. 

66. Correggio. Cherub from a ceiling at Novellara. 
107. Niccolb Abbate. Eight medallions from Scandiano, representing 
Count Matteo Maria Boiardo with figures singing and playing. 

4//; Hall (Venetian School). — 

On the ceiling — five scenes from Ovid by Tintoret. 

Entrance Wall: 
117. Titian. " La Moretta," a portrait of a woman with a Moor- 
ish boy. 
113. Paul Veronese. A Warrior. 

Left Wall : 

125. Fa7'is Bordone. The Coming of the Magi. 
127. Gio. Bellini. (?) Madonna and S. Sebastian. 
129. Pahjia Vecchio. Holy Family. 

Right Wall : 

*I4I. Bonifazio. The Adoration of the Magi— a grand and beau- 
tiful picture. 
14.3. Cinia da Conegliano. The Deposition from the Cross, "executed 
, for Alberto Pio of Carpi, a well-known admirer of the works 
of Cima." — Crowe. The deep woe in the face of the Ma- 
donna, who has fainted, is very striking. * 

^th Hall.— 

Entrance Wall : 

149. Gmdo Reni. The Crucifixion — a poor specimen of the master. 

Wall of Exit : 
164. Lad. Caracci. Assumption. 
VOL. n. 16 


6th Hall (School of Ferrara). — 

Entrance Wall : 
172. Garofalo. The Crucifixion. ' 

176. Dosso Dossi (1480 — 1560). The Nativity. 
178. Id, Hercules II., Duke of Ferrara. 

Window Wall : 

189. Garofalo. Madonna with S. Contardo d'Este, the Baptist, and 

S. Lucia. 

190. Id. Madonna and Saints. 

♦191, Dosso Dossi. Alfonso I., Duke of Ferrara — a magnificent 

Wall of Exit: 

192. Girolamo Carpi. Alfonso II., Duke of Ferrara. 

193. Dosso Dossi. A laughing figure — grand in colour. 

']th Hall (Bolognese School). — 

Entrance Wall : 

205. Mich. Ang. Caravaggio. Drinking Soldier. 

Left Wall : 
207. Guercino. Amnon and Tamar. 

206. Id. Venus and Mars. 
210. Francesco Albani. Aurora. 

239. Lod. Lana da Modena {1597 — 1646). Clorinda and Tancred. 

Window Wall : 
218. Guercino. Portrait of Cardinal Mazzarin. 

%th Hall— 
Left Wall : 
251. Paul Potter. A Peasant's Cottage. 

9M Hall. — 
Wall of Entrance : 
298. Bern. Luini. (?) The Saviour. 
297. Falsely attributed to Andrea del Sarto., 

xoth Hall. — 

Entrance Wall : 
: 335. Ippolito Scarsellini, \i)<f\ — 1621. The Nativity. 



337. G. C. Procaccini, 1616. The Circumcision. 

341. Guercino. The Preparation for the Crucifixion of S. Peter. 

348. Lionello Spada. Masquerade. 

Left Wall : 
355. Guercino, i6i)0. Marriage of S. Catherine. A beautiful picture. 

Opposite Wall : 

363. Lionello Spada. Vision of S. Francis. 
370. Mccolb dalle Pomerance {l$i<)—l$<)i). Crucifixion. 
375. Guido Reni. S. Roch in prison. 

wth Hall (School of Modena). — 
Left Wall : 
404. Gaspare Pagani da Modena. Marriage of S. Catherine — the 
only known picture of the artist. 

Wall of Exit : * 

418. Abbate Pietro Paolo da Modena {i$f)2— 162,0). The Presentation 

in the Temple. 

419. Ercole Sette da Modena (1$"]$) Coronation of the Virgin. 

420. Munari da Modena (1480— 1523), a pupil of Raffaelle. The 


i7,th Hall.— 
Entrance Wall : 
123. Giorgione.^i) (More likely Palma Vecchio). A portrait. 
458. Gerard David von Brugge. S. Christopher — a copy from the 
Memling at Munich. 

Right Wall : 

471. Girol. Moceto. 1480. His own Portrait. 
Wall of Exit : 

488. Attributed to Raphael, but by an indifferent pupil of Perugino. 
Madonna and Child with two angels. 

The Passage leading to the library is filled with a very interesting 
collection of Drawings by the Old Masters. 

The Biblioteca Estense was brought from Ferrara by 
Cesare d'Este. West of the Palace are the dull Giardini 


From these we may descend the Corso Canale Grande to 
(right) the Church of S. Vincenzo, which contains sepulchral 
memorials of the ducal family, especially (in the right tran- 
sept) the tomb, by Mainoni, of Maria Beatrix, wife of Fran- 
cesco IV. 

Passing (right) the University, founded 1683, we reach 
(left — at the south-east angle of the town) the Church of S. 
Pietro, the earliest building in Modena. The facade is 
richly adorned with terra-cotta. The interior (spoilt by 
hideous modern painting) has five aisles, the centre with 
round arches, the side aisles pointed. It contains : — 

* Right, yd Altar. Dosso Dossi. Assumption. The Virgin with 
the Dead Christ — a grand and solemn picture. 

Right Transept. Antonio Begarelli. 1532. A curious terra-cotta group 
(in perspective) ,of the Madonna in glory, with a group of saints beneath. 

Chapel Right of Choir. Atttonio Begarelli. Four terra-cotta figures 
bewailing the dead Christ. 

"The Madonna is sustained by S. John as she kneels by the dead 
body of our Lord, whose head rests upon the lap of Nicodemus. The 
mourners are absorbed by one feeling, their draperies are well managed, 
and the head of S. John especially is fill! of sentiment." — Perkins' Italian 

Against the pillars of the central aisle are terra-cotta statues. 

From here we may cross the town to — at its south-west 
angle — the Gothic, Church of S. Francesco, which contains : — 

Chapel left of Choir. Ant. Begarelli. A very remarkable deposition 
in terra-cotta. 

"Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea with two other persons are re- 
presented in the act of detaching the body of our Lord from the cross, at 
whose base the Virgin swoons in the arms of the three Marys. SS. 
Anthony of Padua and Jerome stand at the foot of the two side crosses, 
and SS. Francis and John the Baptist kneel near them in ecstatic con- 
templation. By far the most striking feature in the composition is the 
central group of women, one of whom supports the head, while the other 
two hold up the drooping hands of the Virgin, whose attitude is one of 
complete abandomnent, and whose face wears that expression of sufifering 


which the features sometimes retain while consciousness is suspended. 
Had this group been painted by Correggio, it would have ranked as a 
masterpiece, but owing to its fluttering and complicated draperies, and 
the hasty action of the women who seem to have turned from the Cruci- 
fied just in time to receive the fainting form of His mother, it is bad in 
sculpture. " — Perkins. 

Mounting the wall at the adjacent Porta S. Francesco, we 
may follow the Passeggio Pubblico to the Porta S. Agostino, 
near the vast Piazza d'Armi, where, in the Piazzale di S. 
Agostino, is the Church of S. Maria Po7nposa. It contains a 
Pietk of Begarelli. Left of the High Altar is the tomb of 
Carlo Sigonius, 1524 — 1584, and close by, in the pavement, 
the grave of Lud. Ant. Muratori, the historian. There is a 
monument to him in the side-porch, and his statue adorns a 
neighbouring piazza. Close to the church is the Museo 
Lapidario with a collection of ancient sarcophagi and in- 

The Church of S. Giovanni Decollato may be visited for 
the sake of — 

"The Mortorio, by Guido Mazzoni, called II Modanino after his birth- 
place, and // Paganino after his grandfather. The dead body of our 
Lord lies upon the ground ; the Madonna, a weeping old woman, who 
kneels on one knee at the foot of the cross behind the body of her son, is 
supported by the beloved disciple, and by the Magdalen, who leans for- 
ward with dishevelled hair and distorted features, as if screaming in an 
agony of grief. S. Joseph sits at the head of the body stretching out his 
hands towards it, and several of the disciples are grouped around. The 
startling effect of these coloured life-sized figures, robed in heavy but 
carefully arranged draperies, modelled with no small skill, may easily be 
imagined. " — Perkins. 



THREE quarters of an hour in quick train (4 frs. 90 c; 
3 frs. 90 c.) brings us from Modena to Bologna. 

[Ltits. S. Marco, excellent and reasonable. Albergo Brun, good. 
Del Pellegrino. Italia. 

Banker. Neri, Pal. Fava, Strada Galliera. 

Post-office. Selciata di S. Francesco — to the left of the hotels. 

Carriages, from the station to the hotels, with one horse, I fr. ; 
2 horses, 2^ frs. In the town, 75 centimes the course, i^ fr. the hour. 
With 2 horses i fr. the course, 2 frs. the hour ; for each half-hour 
beyond, l fr. To S. Michele in Bosco l^, or, with 2 horses, 3 frs.) 

Bologna had its origin in Felsina, which is mentioned 
by Pliny as the chief of the Etruscan cities (" princeps Etru- 
riae ") north of the Apennines. It became a Roman colony 
in B.C. 189, under the name of Bononia. St. Ambrose (Ep. 39) 
speaks of it as much decayed in the 4th century. But 
after the fall of the Roman empire it seems to have regained 
its importance. In mediaeval times it was one of the fore- 
most cities in the Guelphic cause, and became especially 
distinguished in the war of 1249, which followed upon the 
event of " La Secchia Rapita." King Enzius, the Ghibelline 
chieftain, was taken prisoner by the Bolognese in the battle 
of Fossalto, and incarcerated for the remaining 23 years of 
his life in the palace of the Podesta. In the 13th century the 
city was distracted by the feuds of the Gieremei family with 



that of the Lambertazzi, the former being Guelphs, the L-.tter 
Ghibellines. Pope Nicholas III. was called in as mediator 
and the chief power rested with the Popes, till a revolution in 
1334, under Taddeo Pepoli, who seized the government of 
Bologna, which he afterwards sold to the Visconti. The 
feuds between the Visconti and the Popes gave a handle 
to the powerful clan of Bentivoglio — of which so many 
memorials remain in the city — who seized and administered 
the government in the Pope's name. But their almost in- . 
dependent rule excited the jealousy of Julius II., who de- 
stroyed their palaces and exiled their family. Bologna was long 
considered as the second city in the Papal States, but under 
the rule of the Popes retained the management of its 
finances, the election of its magistrates, and the adminis- 
tration of its laws, that is to say, the essential forms of a 
republic. It resisted every encroachment upon its privi- 
leges, and not unfrequently expelled the papal legates when 
inclined to overstrain the prerogatives of office. This guard- 
ed and conditional dependence produced at Bologna all the 
advantages that accompany liberty; industry, commerce, 
plenty, population, knowledge, and refinement.* 

Burke, in speaking of the state of Bologna under the 
papal rule before the French invasion, calls it "the free, 
fertile, and happy city and state of Bologna, the cradle of re- 
generated law, the seat of sciences and of arts, the chosen 
spot of plenty and delight" Very different has been the 
state of the city since its annexation, in i860, to the new 
kingdom of Victor Emanuel. It still however retains its 
reputation as the most intellectual of Italian towns, and has 
an agreeable society of well-informed resident nobility 

* See Eustace's Classixral Tour, 


The palaces formerly contained very fine collections of 
pictures, but, since the owners have become impoverished 
by the taxations of the present government, these have, for 
the most part, been dispersed. 

"The two grand features of the Bolognese character, are formed by 
the two most honourable passions that can animate the human soul — 
the love of knowledge, and the love of liberty ; passions which predom- 
inate through the whole series of their history, and are justly expressed 
on their standard, where ' Libertas' (Liberty) blazes in golden letters in 
the centre, while 'Bononia docet' (Bologna distributes knowledge) 
waves in embroidery down the borders." — Eustace. 

No one will visit Bologna without wishing to know some- 
thing of its famous ScJiool of Paint iftg. Its founder is said 
by Malvasia to have been Franco, a miniaturist celebrated 
by Dante, but all his works have perished. His more re- 
markable pupils were Lorenzo, and Vitale (1320), sumamed 
Delle Madonne, from his success in painting the Virgin \ 
Jacopo Avajizi ; and Lippo Dalmasio, also Delle Madonne. 
To these succeeded, as if inspired by the pictures of Peru- 
gino, which first appeared about that time, the glorious 
Francesco Franda, 1490 — 1538. Of the pupils who followed 
in his steps, tlie chief were his son Giacomo Franda, Amico 
and Guido Aspertini, and Lorenzo Costa. Innocenza da 
Imola and Bagnacavallo were also his pupils, but afterwards 
exchanged his style for that of Mariotto Albertinelli, under 
whom they studied at Florence. The style of Michael 
Angelo was afterwards to a certain extent engrafted upon 
the Bolognese school by Francesco Primaticcio, Niccolb Abate, 
and Pellegrino Pibaldi. These painters were followed by 
Lorenzo Sabbatini, Orazio Fumacchini, Lainnia Fontana, 
and Passerotto. 

In the latter part of the i6th century, when the works of 
Correggio were in highest repute, the importance of the 


Bolognese school, which had long been waning, was revived 
under the Caracci. Of these, the greatest was undoubtedly 
Lodovico (1555 — 1619), who, after a long course of study 
under Titian and Tintoret at Venice, and from the works of 
Correggio and Parmigianino at Parma, began to compete 
with the old school, introducing a new style of his own, and 
for that purpose formed a party among the rising pupils at 
Bologna. Of these the most important were his own two 
cousins, Agostino (1558 — i6oi)and Annibale (1560 — 1609) 
— sons of a tailor at Bologna. The extraordinary genius of 
the Caracci, and their temper and judgment, speedily filled 
their school, and amongst their pupils were Donienichino 
(Domenico Zampieri), Francesco Albani (1578 — 1660), and 
Guido Rem (1575 — 1642), in whose time Bologna attained 
its greatest celebrity. Guido had many pupils and suc- 
cessors, of whom Semenzi, Dojneriico Canuti, Gutdo Cagfiacci, 
Simone Cantarini, Gio. Andrea Sirani and his daughter 
Elizabetta, are the best known. Among other celebrated 
followers of the Caracci were, Guercino (Gio. Francesco 
Barbieri), 1590 — 1666; Giovanni Lanfranco, 1581 — 1647; 
Giacomo Cavedone; Lionello Spada; Alessandro Tiarini ; 
and Lucio Mazzari. Dionysius Calvaert (II Fiammingo) 
was a contemporary of the Caracci, but their most zealous 

The works of Lodovico Caracci especially ought not to be 
judged anywhere except at Bologna or Parma. Here no 
one can fail to acknowledge their grandeur. 

"The three Caracci may be almost said to define the boundaries of 
the golden age of painting in Italy. They are her last sovereign mas- 
ters, unless we are willing to admit a few of their select pupils, who 
extended that period during the space of some years. Excellent mas- 
ters, doubtless, flourished subsequently ; but after their decease, the 


powers of such artists appearing less elevated and less solid, we begin 
to hear complaints respecting the decline of art." — Lanzi. 

The pictures are the chief attraction of Bologna, but there 
is much to be admired in its picturesque old buildings, 
and curious piazzas, with their relics of mediaeval architec- 
ture and sculpture; and delightful excursions may be made 
into the lower ranges of the Apennines, which are most 
beautiful when the woods with which they are covered are 
glowing with the scarlet tints of autumn, 

" Bologna is emphatically the city of columns. Every street has its 
long shady arcades, with capitals often richly wrought ; and to the west 
of the town a colonnade of three miles in length, built at different times 
by the liberality of various individuals and societies among the citizens, 
leads up to the church of La Madonna della Guardia. This fancy for 
colonnades has made Bologna a very picturesque city, and renders its 
exploration much more pleasant to the traveller, who is enabled to pass 
from church to church in the shade." — Dean Alford. 

" To enter Bologna at midnight is to plunge into the depths of the 
middle ages. 

" Those desolate sombre streets, those immense dark arches, those 
endless arcades where scarce a foot-fall breaks the silence, that labyrinth 
of marble, of stone, of antiquity : the past alone broods over them all. 

" As you go it seems to you that you see the gleam of a snowy plume, 
and the shine of a rapier striking home through cuirass and doublet, 
whilst on the stones the dead body falls, and high above over the lamp- 
iron, where the torch is flaring, a casement uncloses, and a woman's 
hand drops a rose to the slayer, and a woman's voice murmurs, with a 
cruel little laugh, * Cosa fatta capo ha ! ' 

*' There is nothing to break the spell of the old world enchantment. 
Nothing to recall to you that the ages of Bentivoglio and the Visconti 
have fled for ever." — Pascarel. 

Two or three days may be most advantageously given to 
the town, where the traveller will find every comfort in the 
hotels, Modena and Ferrara may also be pleasantly visited 
in the day from Bologna, but Ravenna has too much of 
interest, and richly deserves a separate visit. Most of the 
churches in Bologna itself contain some object worth seeing, 


but the sights which should on no account be left unvisited 
are, the Piazza Maggiore and S, Petronio, the Leaning Towers, 
the pictures in S. Giacomo and S. Cecilia, the University, 
the Pinacoteca, the Portico of the Servi, the extraordinary- 
Church of S. Stefano, and the tomb of S. Domenic in S. 
Domenico, with its adjoining piazza. Besides these build- 
ings in the town, no one should fail to see La Madonna di 
Mezzaratta, and to ascend the hill to the Church of S. 
Michele in Bosco, and the magnificent view from the garden 
of what was the Papal Palace. Most travellers will also 
consider the Campo Santo well worth visiting. S. Luca 
may be omitted if S. Michele is seen. It should be re- 
membered that the smaller churches are seldom open after 
1 2 o'clock. The principal hotels are all close together and 
in the best situation. We shall therefore take them as a 

Turning to the right from the hotels (S. Marco or Brun), 
and skirting the walls of the Zecca or Mint, with its huge 
machicolations, built in 1578 by Dom. Tibaldi, we are almost 
immediately amid the group of buildings which form both 
the historic and the actual centre of the city. The open 
spaces, used as markets, and crowded with picturesque 
figures, with their brilliant stalls shaded by great red and 
blue umbrellas, are surrounded by a succession of mag- 
nificent buildings, rugged indeed and unfinished as most 
Italian buildings are, but stupendous in their forms, grand 
in their proportions, and, from the rich and varied colouring 
of their dark brown roofs, grey walls, and brilliant orange 
window-blinds, well worthy of an artist's sketch-book. 

The first portion of the square on the right is called 
Piazza Nettuno. On its right is the Palazzo Pubblico, on 


its left the Palazzo del Podesta, and, in the centre, the 
famous fountain, surmounted by the celebrated Statue of 
Neptune, executed in 1564 by Giovanni da Bologna* which 
is, as Vasari calls it, " a most beautiful work, studied and 
executed to perfection." The marble sculpture below is by 
Antonio Lupi. All the surroundings are grandiose to the 
last degree, and make one smile to remember to what 
buildings one is accustomed to apply such epithets as 
" magnificent " in England. 

The Palazzo Pubblico, formerly Apostolico, begun in 1300, 
is adorned on the outside with a Madonna in terra-cotta by 
NicoVo deir Area, and a bronze statue of Gregory XIII., who 
was a native of Bologna, by Alessandro Menganti (1580). 
In 1796, in order to preserve it from the revolutionists, the 
tiara was removed and it was turned into a statue of S. 
Petronius, the patron of the city. To the right of this is a 
beautiful range of terra-cotta arches, now filled in with brick- 

If we enter the palace, we shall find a magnificent stair- 
case a cordoni, a work of Bramante, which leads to the great 
ante-chamber called the Hall of Hercules, from a colossal 
model of a seated statue by Alfonso Lombardi of Ferrara. 
Several of the other rooms are interesting. The Sala Farnese 
(so called from a bronze statue of Paul III.) has frescoes 
relating to the history of Bologna by Carlo Cig?iani, Scara- 
muccia, Fasinelli, and others. The ante-chamber of the 2nd 
floor has a beautiful door decorated with the arms of Julius 
III. In the third court is a fountain by Francesco Terribilia. 

The Falazzo del Fodesta was begun in 1201, and was 
worked at with such diligence that its beautiful tower — Tor- 

♦ He was a native of Douai in Flanders. 


razzo deir Aringo — was finished in 1264. The fagade was 
added in 1485 under Bartolomeo Fioravanti. The sculpture 
of its pillars and the richly-wrought iron-work are of 
great beauty. Pope John XXIII. was elected (14 10) 
in the great hall called Sala del Re Enzio. On the upper 
staircase leading to the Archivio is a curious picture of the 
Annunciation by the rare master, Jacopo di Paolo Avanzi. 
The archives are of great interest and importance, and con- 
tain among their treasures the Bull Spiritus Sandus of 
Eugenius IV. (July 6, 1439) for the union of the Greek and 
Latin Churches. 

Amongst those who have inhabited this vast old palace, 
the chief interest hangs around the unfortunate King Enzius 
(son of the emperor Frederick II.), who was imprisoned here 
from 1249 to 1272. 

" In a skirmish before the city Enzio was wounded and taken prisoner. 
Implacable Bologna condemned him to perpetual imprisonment. All 
the entreaties to which his father humbled himself ; all his awsx splendid 
promises that for his ransom he would gird the city with a ring 
of gold, neither melted nor dazzled the stubborn animosity of the Guelfs ; 
a captive at the age of twenty-four, this youth, of beauty equal to his 
bravery — the poet, the musician, as well as the most valiant soldier 
and consummate captain — pined out twenty-three years of life, if not in 
a squalid dungeon, in miserable inactivity. Romance, by no means 
improbable, has darkened his fate. The passion of Lucia Biadagoli, 
the most beautiful and high-bom maiden in Bologna, for the captive, 
and her efforts to release him, were equally vain : once he had almost 
escaped, concealed in a cask ; a lock of his bright hair betrayed the 
secret." — Milnian, Hist, of Latin Christianity. 

Beneath this vast old pile are four arched corridors, paved 
ruggedly like streets, and occupied by vendors of small 
wares. At the centre, where they meet, are terra-cotta 
statues of the four saintly protectors of Bologna by Alfo?iso 


Lombardo* Artists will not fail to admire the exquisite 
effect of the beautiful fountain of Giovanni with its jets of 
silvery spray shooting up against the rich colour of the 
opposite palace, as seen through the deep shadow of one 
of these dark arcades. 

The wider part of the square towards which the Palazzo 
Podestafaces, 'xaX}^.^. Piazza Maggiore (now sometimes foolishly 
called Vittorio Emanuele). On the right, is the Portico del 
Banchi, arranged (1562) by the great architect Vignola, and 
containing some of the best shops in the town — a cloistered 
walk with the most charming effects of perspective imaginable. 
In the Residenza dei Notari, which opens from the portico, a 
building of the 13th century, Rolandino Passeggieri acted 
as pro-consul. The chapel contains a Madonna by Part. 
Passerotti, and a diploma of Frederick III., 1462 (confirmed 
by a bull of Julius II.), conferring the singular power of 
legitimatizing natural children ! 

The noble church which reigns over the piazza is the 
Basilica of S. Petronio, the most important ecclesiastical 
building in Bologna. It was begun on the most colossal 
scale by Antofiio Vincenzi in 1388, 'what we now see being 
only the nave and aisles of the original design, according to 
which its length would have been 750 feet, 136 more than 
that of S. Peter's at Rome. 

Unfinished as it is, the fagade with its marble platform 
and huge basement is excessively grand, and its details 
deserve the most careful examination. Many of the most 

• There are a vast number of the works of Alfonso Lombardo in Bologna, who was 
much patronized while here by Charles V. He made himself exceedingly unpopular 
by his vanity, and was eventually driven out of Bologna by the ridicule excited, when 
he was overheard saying at a ball, with an amorous sigh to a great Bolognese lady — 
" S'amor non h, che dunque 6 quel ch'io sento '' — " If it is not love that I feel, what 
is it?" to which she answered — " E'sera qualche pidocchio " — "Perhaps it is a 
louse ! " 



famous architects of the 14th and 15th century have laboured 
at it ; Paolo di Bonasuto in 1394, who executed several of 
the half-length figures of saints ; Giacomo della Querela in 
1429, by whom are the reliefs round the central doorway, 
which are of marvellous beauty ; and in their footsteps 
followed Alfonso Lombardo {1^20), Niccolh Tribolo, and many 

Over the principal entrance the famous bronze statue, by 
Michael Angelo, of Julius II. was erected in 1508. The 
Pope was represented seated, with the keys and a sword in 
his left hand and his right hand raised — " to bless or to 
curse?" asked the warrior-pope, — " to teach the Bolognese 
to be reasonable," replied the sculptor. The statue only 
existed for three years, then it was destroyed by the people 
and sold as old metal to the Duke of Ferrara, who made out 
of it the cannon called " Julian." 

Though injured in effect by paint and whitewash, the In- 
terior of S. Petronio is sublimely beautiful in its proportions, 
and reminds the traveller of the pure Gothic north of the 
Alps. From the great nave, a vast number of chapels open 
on either side, immense in themselves. S. Petronio has been 
compared to the universal Church of Christ, in which many 
separate churches exist, and hold their own services quite 
distinct, none having any share with its neighbour, though 
all with the same end in view, and all diverging from one 
great common centre. Charles V. was crowned here by 
Clement VIL, Sep. 24, 1530. On the right and left of the 
great door are the tombs of Bishop Beccadelli, and Cardinal 
Lazzaro Pallavicini. Making the round of the church from 
the right, we find : — 

1st Chapel. Hans Ferrabeck. Madonna della Pace. 

2nd Chapel (of the Pepoli family). Two frescoes on the side-walls 


of Madonnas with Saints by Luca di Peruxa, a Bolognese master, 
signed 1431 and I4S7. 

3r^ Chapel. Amico Aspertini (1519). A Pietk in tempera. Tlie 
monument of Cardinal Carlo Oppizzoni, Archbishop of Bologna for 53 
years, who left all his fortune to the charities of the city. 

6^h Chapel. Stained glass by the Beato Jacopo (of Ulm), 1407— 1491. 
The beautiful marble rails are by Vignola. 

6th Chapel. Lorenzo Costa. S. Jerome — injured. 

'jth Chapel — of the Relics — quite a Museum. 

%th Chapel (of the Malvezzi Campeggi), by Vignola, the stall work is 
by Raffaelle da Brescia. 

gth Chapel. Jacopo Sansavino. Statue of S. Antonio. On the walls 
the miracles of the saint are painted in chiaro-scuro by Girolamo Pen- 
nacchi da Trevigi. 

nth Chapel. Nicoclb Tribolo. Arelief of the Assumption. The two 
angels on the right and left are by Properzia de' Rossi. 

We now reach the Sacristy, which contains 22 pictures of the life of 
S. Petronio by different artists. 

The Baldacchino is from a design by Terribilia. The fresco of the 
Madonna and S. Petronio, with the town of Bologna, is by Franceschini. 

Opposite to the entrance of the Sacristy is that of the halls of the 
Reverenda Fabbrica (the workshop of the church), which contain many 
interesting designs for the unfinished faqade by the great architects of 
the time — Palladio, Peruzzi, Giulio Romano, Vignola, &c. The most 
interesting of the sculptures preserved here are those of the unhappy 
Properzia dei Rossi (so greatly extolled by Vasari), who died of unre- 
quited love during the coronation of Charles VII., just when Pope 
Clement VII., struck by her genius, had decided to give her an honour- 
able appointment at Rome. They include the bust of Count Guido 
Pepoli, executed as a proof of her skill when competing to be allowed 
to work in the bas-reliefs of the great doorway ; and a relief of Poti- 
phar's wife, which is considered to be her master-piece. 

Returning by the left aisle of the church : — 

\^h Chapel. Dion Calvaert (Fiammingo). The Archangel Michael. 
A beautiful iron railing of the 15th century. 

\^th Chapel. Parmegianino. S. Roch. 

*\(ith Chapel. Lorenzo Cw/rt (1492). S. Anne and the Virgin en- 
throned, with saints. The stained glass is from designs of Costa. Here 
are the tombs of Eliza Bacciochi, sister of Napoleon I., and her husband. 

\%th Chapel. Francesco Cossa. Martyrdom of S. Sebastian. The 
frescoes of the Annunciation and the 12 Apostles are by Lorenzo Costa. 


The stall work is by Agostino da Crema. The enamelled tiles are ol 
1487. On the pillar beyond this chapel is a very curious ancient wooden 
statue of S. Petronio. He was Bishop and Patron Saint of the town, 
and is represented in the latter character in the great Pieta of Guido. 
He died a natural death Oct. 4, 430, having been chiefly distinguished 
for banishing the Arians from Bologna. 

19//4 Chapel (Bolognini), of 1392, which has a screen of red and white 
marble, is the oldest part of the church. The frescoes, which are 
very curious, are attributed by Vasari to Buffalmacco. 

21 st Chapel, was gaily modernized to receive the head of S. Petronio, 
removed by Benedict XIV. from S. Stefano. 

The four ancient Crosses in this church have been brought here from 
different quarters of the town. That near the clock bears the name 
" Petrus Alberici," and the date 1159. 

" Tradition says that these crosses were erected near the old gates by 
S. Petronius, in the 5th century. One of them is particularly interesting 
on account of its sculptures, and because the names of Petrus Albericus 
and his father who made it are recorded in one of its inscriptions. At 
the back of .this cross Christ is represented in a mandorla, supported by 
the three Archangels, Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, holding the book 
of the new law open upon his knee, and giving the benediction with his 
right hand. Upon the front, Christ crucified holds this dialogue with 
his mother : ' My son, ' she says to him ; and he, ' What, mother ? ' — 
Q. 'Are you God?' — A. 'I am.' — Q. ' Why do you hang (upon the 
cross)?' — A. 'That mankind may not perish.'" — Perkins' Italian 

On the Pavement is the meridian line of Giov. Dom. Cassini, 1653. 

Behind S. Petronio, on the left of the arcade, is the 
Public Library, formerly the Antico Archiginnasio (open on 
week days from 10 to 4). It was built by Terribilia in 

1562. The court is most brilliant in colour, its colonnades 
being completely covered with armorial bearings of former 

jrofessors of the University. From hence opens the 
^'Chapel, covered with frescoes of the Life of the Virgin by 
\Bart. Cesi. The altar-piece of the Annunciation is by Dion. 
I Calvaert. In the upper floor are a long series of halls filled 
[with books, and decorated with armorial bearings of dis- 
[tinguished students, producing altogether a beautiful and 
VOL, u. 17 


harmonious effect of colour. Beyond these is the Museum, 

containing an admirable collection of Egyptian and Etruscan 

antiquities, bequeathed by Cav. Pelagio Pelagi. But most 

interesting is the collection of Etruscan antiquities of great 

importance, discovered in 1870 at Bologna itself, when 

I digging the foundations of a house near the Campo Santo. 

I They have all been removed and brought hither with great 

; care, and comprise a number of monumental stones of very 

j curious forms, and sculptured in low relief (one of them, of a 

j dead man received by a good Genius, of wonderful beauty), 

I a number of perfect skeletons of people who lived 2500 

years- ago — the ladies in several cases still wearing their 

bracelets, and with their bottles of perfume by their sides, 

the children having whole services of little cups and saucers, 

in some of which egg-shells &c. remain, a noble bronze 

cista, and a great variet}' of candelabra, vases, and jewels. 

To the student of Etruscan antiquities this collection will 

prove quite invalual)le. 

On the other side of the Piazza Nettuno is the Cathedral 
of S. Pietro, a dull edifice of the 17th century, with an 
ancient campanile. The interior, which is of Corinthian 
architecture, contains : — 

Right, znd Chapel. The skull of S. Anna, given by Henry VI. of 
England to the Blessed Niccol6 Albergato. 

On the arch above the high-altar. Lodovico Caracci. The Annunci- 
ation. Lanzi mentions that the artist died of grief on discovering that 
he had made a fault in the foot of this Madonna, which he was not 
allowed to rectify. 

The Holy- Water Basons are supported by marble lions which pro- 
bably upheld the portico of the earlier church. They are ascribed to 
Ventura da Bologna. 

In the Crypt is a curious group of the Maries mourning over the dead 
Christ, by Alfonso Lombardo. 

Behind the cathedral, with a tall mediaeval tower on either 


side, is the handsome Palazzo Arcivescovile, built by Pel- 
legrino Tibaldi, 1577, and adorned by modern artists. 

A little to the left, beyond the Duomo, is the Church of 
La Madonna di Galliera, which has a beautiful unfinished 
fagade of terra-cotta of 1470, though the church itself was 
built by Giov. Bait. Torri in 1689, It contains : — 

Left, \st Chapel. Guercino. The Ecstasy of S. Filippo Neri. 

2nd Chapel. Albani. A very lovely picture. "The presentiment 
of the Passion is expressed by the child Christ looking up with emotion 
at the cherubs floating above with the instruments of martyrdom (like 
playthings) ; at the foot of the steps are Mary and Joseph ; above, God 
the Father, sad and calm." — Burckhardt. 

The oil lunettes of Adam and Eve and the decorations of the roof 
are also by Albani. 

^h Chapel. Teresa Muratori. The Incredulity of S. Thomas. 

Opposite this church is the Palazzo Fava (No. 591), 
which has a handsome court-yard, and is richly adorned 
with the works of the Caracci. The great hall is decorated 
with the story of Jason, the first work in fresco by Agostino 
and Afinibale. In the adjoining chamber the voyage of 
^neas is described by Lodovico. The next room is painted 
by Albani, with a continuation of the yEneid. In the 
following room the same artist was the assistant of Lucio 
Mazzari. The story of the Rape of Europa, in a small 
chamber, is by Annibale Caracci. The history of ^neas, 
painted in opposition to a frieze by Cesi, in the same 
chamber, was the turning-point in the history of the Caracci. 
Then, as Lanzi says, " Bologna at length prepared to do 
justice to the worth of that divine artist Lodovico." 

Behind the church is the Palazzo Piella (formerly Bocchi), 
built by Vignola for Achille Bocchi, the founder of the 
Academy. It has a ceiling by Prospero Fontana. 

Returning to and following the Mercato di Mezzo, be- 


tween the Palazzo Podestk and the Cathedral, we soon reach 
the twin Leaning Towers. Of these — 

The Torre degli Asinelli derives its name from Gherardo 
degli Asinelli, by whom it was begun in 1109. It is 292! 
feet high, and its inclination is as much as 3 ft. 4 in. from 
the centre of gravity. It can easily be ascended, and pos- 
sesses a fine view. Its neighbour La Garisenda, built about 
the same time, by the brothers Filippo and Oddo Garisendi, 
is only 130 feet high, but leans 8 feet from the perpendicular 
to the south, and 3 feet to the east. Dante compares the 
giant Antaeus bending to lift him down into the depths of 
Inferno to this — 

"Qual pare a rigiiardar la Garisenda 

Sotto il chinato, quando un nuvol vada 
Sovr' essa si, ch'ella in contrario penda ; 
Tal parve Anteo a mea che stava bada 
Di vederlo chinare, e fu talora 
Ch'io avrei voluto ir per altra strada." — Inf. xxxi. 

" Pour rendre sensible le mouvement formidable du colosse s'abais- 
sant ainsi vers les profondeurs de I'enfer, le poete a fait, comme en tant 
d'autres endroits de son poeme, un eniprunt k la realite physique : il a 
pris pour objet de comparison un objet determine, un monument celebre 
en Italie, la tour de la Garisenda ; il compare done 1' impression produite 
sur lui par le geant qui se penche, a I'efFet qu'un nuage, passant au- 
dessus de cette tour et venant du cote vers lequel il s'incline, produit 
sur le spectateur place au-dessous d'elle. C'est alors la tour qui semble 
s'abaisser de toute la vitesse du nuage. " — Ampire. 

There can be little doubt that the inclination of the 
towers is the result of an earthquake, owing to which Gari- 
senda was never completed. Nevertheless, the theory of 
Goethe is very ingenious : — 

"The leaning tower has a frightful look, and yet it is most probable 
that it was built thus designedly. This seems to me an explanation of 
the absurdity. In the troublous times of the city every large house was 


a fortress, and every powerful family had a tower. Bye and bye the 
very possession of such a building became a mark of importance and 
distinction, and as at last a perpendicular tower became a perfectly com- 
mon and every day object, a leaning tower was built. Architect and 
owner attained their object : the mass of upright towers are just glanced 
at, and all hurry on to examine the leaning one. " — Goethe. 

Garisenda especially, having been begun in rivalry a little 
later than Asinelli, may be looked upon as a memorial of 
architectural family pride. 

Behind the Towers, is the Church of S. Bartolommeo di 
Porta Ravegnana, of 1653, with a portico (of an earlier 
church) by Andrea Marchesi (15 16 — 1531). It contains; — 

Right, 2nd Chapel. Lod. Caracci. S. Carlo at the tomb at Varallo, 
with an angel. 

•4/A Chapel. Albani, 1632. Annunciation. By the same artist are 
the pictures of the Nativity and Joseph's Dream at the sides of the chapel. 
The beautiful figure of Gabriel in the Annunciation is certainly a glorious 
contrast to Lod. Caracci's conception of the same subject in the apse of 
the cathedral. 

Behind High-altar. Franceschini . Martyrdom of S. Bartholomew. 

The roof of the nave is decorated by Colonna with pictures relating 
to the Theatins, to whom the church formerly belonged . 

Opposite the towers is a beautiful Palazzo, with rich terra- 
cotta ornaments. 

Close by, to the right of the Towers, is the Loggia dei 
Mercanti, a beautiful brick building of 1294, restored in 1439 
by the Bentivoglio family. It is richly ornamented with 
terra-cotta. The medallions between the arches contain 
the images of the patron saints, and below the windows are 
the arms of the city and of the Bentivoglio family, who 
ruled Bologna during the greater part of the 15th century. 
From the canopied balcony in the centre sentences were 
passed, and bankruptcies proclaimed. Within the building 
is the Exchange. The staircase is decorated with paintings 
of the arms of the ten city corporations. 



Turning to the left, by the Torre Garisenda, down the 
arcades of the Strada Luigi Zambari, formerly S. Donato — 

"Strada S. Donato." 

which are occasionally wonderfully picturesque with their 
heavy sculptured capitals, and fragments of colour and 
terra-cotta work — we reach, on the right, the handsome 
brick Gothic Church of S. Gtaco?no Maggiore, which was 
begun in 1267, but afterwards much enlarged. The beau- 
tiful clock-tower is of 1472. The cloistered walk with its 
34 arches towards the street is hy Fra Giovanni Faci, 1477. 
The pillars of the doorway rest upon lions ; on either side 
are arched recesses for tombs. 


Right Aisle, 1st Chapel. "La Madonna della Cintura," an ancient 

^th Chapel. Ercole Procaccini. The Conversion of S. Paul. 

5//^ Chapel. Giacomo Cavedone. Christ appearing to Giov. de S. 

bth Chapel. Bart. Passarotti. Madonna enthroned, surrounded by 
saints and donors. 

"Jth Chapel. Prospero Fontana. S. Alexis giving alms. 

*Zth Chapel. Innocenza da Imola. Marriage of S. Catherine — her 
wheel is broken in the foreground ; noble figures of saints stand at the 
sides. The Nativity is represented in the gradino. 

" One of the greatest and most characteristic, perhaps the most beau- 
tiful picture of the master, of most praise-worthy solidity of execution 
for the year of its production, 1536. — Miindler. 

loth Chapel. Lod. Caracci. S. Roch comforted by an angel while 
sick of the plague. 

ilth Chapel. Lor. Sabbatini and Dionys. Calvaert. S. Michael 
tramples on Satan, and weighs souls in the presence of the Holy Family. 

I2th Chapel (of the Poggi Family), built and painted by Pellegrino 
Tibaldi. (The altar-piece of the Baptism of our Lord and the com- 
partments of the roof are by Prospero Fontana. ) 

" Pellegrino Tibaldi (1527 — 1591) was recognized by the Caracci as 
the true representative of the transition from the great masters to their 
own epoch. His large fresco in S. Giacomo is almost gi-and in its real- 
ization of an important symbolical idea — ' Many are called, but few are 
chosen. ' 

" The Caracci bestowed the highest praises on these works of Tibaldi, 
and it was on these that they and their pupils bestowed most study. In 
the one fresco is represented the preaching of S. John in the desert ; in 
the other the separation of the elect from the wicked, where, in the 
features of the celestial messenger announcing the tidings, Pellegrino 
has displayed those of his favourite, Michael Angelo. What a school 
for design and expression is here ! What art in the distribution of such 
a throng of figures, in varying and in grouping them. " — Lanzi. 

iT,th Chapel. Dion. Calvaert. Madonna in glory, with SS. Lucy and 
Catherine and the Beato Ranieri beneath. 

i^th Chapel. Jacopo Avanzi. The Coronation of the Virgin, the 
central compartment of a large altar-piece. On the left wall is a Crucifix 
by Sitnone da Bologna, 1 370. 

*i2>th Chapel (of the Bentivogli). Francesco Francia. The Ma- 
donna and Child with angels and saints — one of the loveliest works of 
the master. 


"Francia produced his first picture in the year 1490, when he had 
already attained his fortieth year. This first essay was considered a 
master-piece, and the artist was immediately employed to paint a Ma- 
donna, with all the accessory details, in the chapel of Giovanni Benti- 
voglio. Here he so far surpassed the hopes his countrymen had 
entertained of him, that they began to look upon him as something 
superhuman, and proudly opposed him to the leaders of the rival 
schools." — Rio. 

" This picture was so admirably painted by Francia, that he not only 
received many praises from Messer Giovanni, but also a very handsome 
and most honourable gift." — Vasari. 

"In 1490 Francesco Francia was employed by Gio. Bentivoglio to 
paint the altar-piece of his chapel, where he signed himself ' Franciscus 
Francia Aurifex,' as if to imply that he belonged to the goldsmith's art, 
not to that of painting. Nevertheless, that work is a beautiful specimen, 
displaying the most finished delicacy of art in every figure and orna- 
ment, especially in the arabesque pilasters, in the Mantegna manner." 
— Lanzi. 

The lunette above, an " Ecce Homo," is also by Francia. Another 
lunette, a vision from the Revelations, is by Lorenzo Costa, as well as 
the picture (of 1488) on the right wall of Gio. Bentivoglio and his 
Family in adoration before the Vii^in, and the two curious alle- 
gorical processions on the left wall. The relief of Annibale Benti- 
voglio (ob. 1458) on horseback is by Niccolo ddP Area. The bas-relief 
of Giov. Bentivoglio is attributed to Francia. Outside the chapel on the 
choir is the tomb, attributed to Jacopo della Quereia, of Antonio Benti- 
voglio, who was beheaded in 1435. Near it is the very interesting 
tomb of Niccolo Fava, a famous professor of medicine in the 15th cen- 
tury ; he is represented above in death, and below lecturing to his atten- 
tive pupils. 

Near the 24th chapel, by a side door, is a Madonna in fresco re- 
moved from the ancient palace of the Bentivogli. 

The custode of S. Giacomo has the keys of the adjoining 
Church of S. Cecilia, built 1481 by Gaspare Nadi for the 
famous Giovanni 11. Bentivoglio. It was famous for its 
frescoes of the school of the Francias, which were sadly 
mutilated during the French occupation. They are still, 
however, worthy of examination, as follows : — 

S. CECILIA. 265 

1. Francesco Francia. The marriage of Cecilia and Valerian. 

2. Lorenzo Costa. Pope Urban instructs Valerian in the Christian 


3. Giacomo Francia. The Baptism of Valerian. 

4. Chiodarolo. An angel crowns Valerian and Cecilia with roses. 

5. Amico Aspertini. The Martyrdom of Valerian and his brother 


6. Id. Their Burial. 

7. Id. S. Cecilia before the Prefect. 

8. Giacomo Francia. S. Cecilia condemned to the boiling bath. 

9. Lor. Costa. Having survived the bath, Cecilia distributes her 

wealth to the poor. 
10. Francesco Francia. The Burial of Cecilia. 

"The composition in these works is extremely simple, without any 
superfluous accessory figures : the particular moments of action are con- 
ceived and developed in an excellent dramatic style. We have here the 
most noble figures, the most beautiful and graceful heads, an intelligible 
arrangement and pure taste in the drapery, and masterly landscape 
backgrounds. " — Kiigler. 

" The most celebrated ef Francia's pupils were collected round him 
when he worked at the chapel of S. Cecilia, but only three among them 
appear to have assisted in the execution of these frescoes, still so beau- 
tiful, in spite of the injuries they have sustained, and which are, for the 
school of Francia, what the Loggia of the Vatican is for that of 
Raffaelle." — Rio, Poetry of Christian Art. 

Close to S. Giacomo is the Liceo Rossini, which has a 
magnificent musical library worthy of the musical reputation 
of Bologna. Near this, is the Casa Lambertini, in which 
Pope Benedict XIV. was born, with the inscription : — 

" Parva domus Benedictum excepit matris ab alvo 
Magnum parva cui maxima Roma fuit." 

Opposite S. Giacomo, is the Palazzo Malvezzi-Campeggio, 
remarkable as containing some tapestries given by Henry 
VIII. to Cardinal Campeggio, when papal legate in England. 

A little behind this, marked by the pillar in its piazza, is 
the Gothic Church of S. Martino, built by the Carmelites 


in the 14th century, but much modernized externally. It 
contains : — 

Right, 1st Chapel. Girolamo de" Carpi. The Adoration of the 

yh Chapel. Amico Aspertini. The Virgin and Child with saints — 
girls receiving their dowries. 

^th Chapel. Gir. Sicciolante. Virgin and Child with saints. 

%th Chapel. Perugino ? Assumption, with the Apostles at the empty 

<jth Chapel. Lod. Caracci. S. Jerome. 

\Oth Chapel. Cesi. The Crucifixion. 

The Cloister is rich in interesting monuments. That (on the right 
wall) of a professor of the Saliceti family (1403) lecturing, is attributed 
to Andrea de Fiesole. Near it is a similar tomb to Professor Fabio 
Renucci, of 1610, most powerful and expressive. On the same wall is 
an interesting monument of a young knight, with the names of the bat- 
tles in which he fought. A monument on the next wall encloses a fine 
fragment of fresco — the head of Christ. 

Returning to the Strada S. Donato, the quaint tower 
on the right is that of The University^ which was founded 
in 1 1 19, by a Professor of Law named Irnerius. In 
the 13th century it assembled as many as 10,000 stu- 
dents. The University was moved here (to the ancient 
Palazzo Poggi) in 171 1, from the "Antico Archigin- 
nasio " near S. Petronio. One of its remarkable features 
has been the number of its distinguished female pro- 
fessors, of whom was Novella d' Andrea in the 14th 
century, whose beauty was so great that she was made to 
lecture from behind a curtain, in order that the attention of 
the students might not be distracted by her charms. In 
later times Laura Bassi was Professor of Mathematics and 
Natural Philosophy, Madonna Manzolina was Professor of 
Anatomy, and (early in the present century) the beautiful 
and saintly Clotilda Tambroni was Professor of Greek. 


" The honours, titles, and privileges conferred upon this University 
by kings and emperors, by synods and pontiffs, the deference paid to its 
opinions, and the reverence that waited upon its graduates, prove the high 
estimation in which it was once held ; and the names of Gratian and Aldro- 
vandus, of Malpighi and Guglielmini, of Ferres and Cassini, are alone 
sufficient to show that this high estimation was not unmerited. " — Eustace. 

The University possesses (on the ground-floor) a small 
collection of antiquities Egyptian and Etruscan, the gem of 
the latter being a very beautiful Patera from Arezzo repre- 
senting the birth of Minerva. At the end of the last hall, 
between fine bronze busts of Gregory XIV. and XV.', is a 
most extraordinary statue of Boniface VIII. 

"The colossal statue of Boniface VIII. is made of beaten plates of 
metal fastened together with nails. It is the work of a native goldsmith 
and painter named Manno, and was erected to the pope during his life- 
time by the Bolognese, out of gratitude for a decision he had given 
against the Modenese in a dispute between them concerning the castles 
of Bazzano and Savignano. The eyes are staring and inexpressive ; the 
head is covered with a plain mitre ; and the stiff figure is robed in a long 
vestment, with a short cape falling over the shoulders ; one hand rests 
upon the heart, and the fingers of the other are bent in sign of benedic- 
tion." — Perkins' Italian Sculptors. 

In the fine Library, the famous Giuseppe Mezzofanti 
(born 1776), whose father was a small shopkeeper in 
Bologna, began his career as librarian. In his 35th year 
he spoke 18 languages fluently, and at the time of his death 
as many as 42. He was made Cardinal in 1837 by Gregory 
XVI., and died at Naples in 1849. The Library of Mezzo- 
fanti, sold after his death, was purchased by Pope Pius IX., 
and presented to the University. It occupies the last room 
of the suite. In the Reading Room are a number of por- 
traits, including that of Clotilda Tambroni. In the corridor 
are monuments to Morgagnio the Anatomist, and Galvano 
the inventor of Galvanism. The University now possesses 
48 professors and about 400 students. 


On the left, a few steps down the Borgo della Paglia 
(No. i), is the entrance of the Accademia delle Belle Arti, 
containing the Picture Gallery, which is open daily free 
(Sundays included) from 9 to 3. The pictures are not num- 
bered as they are hung, but occur in the order described 
here. Visitors ring. The catalogue (ij fr.) is useless. 

From the entrance corridor, it is necessary to turn first to 
the left, to take the Schools in their order. We then find — 

2nd Hall (or Corridor). — 

64, Francesco Cossa da Ferrara (1474). Madonna with SS. Peter 
and John. 

"An excellent work, though the heads are wanting in charm." — 

145. Jac. Tintoretto. The Visitation. 

33. Lod. Caracci. S. Roch. 

30. Ann. Caracci. The Assumption. 
141. Guido Reni. Coronation of the Virgin. 

292. {over door) Innocenzo da Imola. Madonna with SS. Francis 
and Clara. 

"Freely executed in the Raphaelesque spirit." — Burckhardt. 

^rd Hall (containing a curious collection of early pictures, 
chiefly by Bolognese masters). — 

102. Giotto. An Ancona, originally in four divisions, with the figures 

of SS. Peter and Paul, Michael and Gabriel. (The central 

compartment is at Milan.) 
205. Ant. e Bart. Vivarini da Murano, 1450. Madonna and saints. 

The ornaments by Cristofero da Ferrara. 
202. S. Caterina Vigri (an Ursuline nun, the only female artist 

canonized, 1413 — 1463). S. Ursula. 

"Her pictures are of weak but pleasing expression, and may be 
classed with the better Sienese works of the day." — Kiigler. 

109. Giov. Martorelli. Altar-piece with Madonna and saints. 
36. Niccolb Alumno da Foligno. An altar-piece painted on both sides 

160. Jacopo degli Avanzi. The Bearing of the Cross. 


/^th Hall. — 

(No number). Lorenzo Costa, 1491. Throned Madonna with saints. 

*i. Francesco Albani (1599). Madonna with SS. Catherine and 

Mary Magdalene, painted by the artist in his 21st year. 

275. An. Raphael Mengs. Pope Clement XIII. (Carlo Rezzonico). 

" Grander, truer, and less pretentious than any Italian portrait of the 

1 8th century. ' ' — Burckhardt, 

61. Cima da Conegliano. Madonna with God the Father above. 
Giuliano Bugiardini (1481^1556). Madonna. 
♦83. Francesco Francia. The dead Christ supported by two angels. 
116. Parmigianino. Madonna and Child with saints. 

5/// Hall (the masterpieces of the Bolognese School). — ■ 
*I35. Guido Rent. The Massacre of the Innocents. 

"A very celebrated picture. The female figures are beautiful, and 
the composition is very animated, but the feeling for mere abstract 
beauty is here very apparent." — Kiigler. 

"Guido personified hardness in the executioners, but not bestial 
ferocity ; he softened the grimace of lamentation, and even by beautiful 
truly architectonic arrangement, and by nobly-formed figures, elevated 
the horrible into the tragic ; he produced this effect without the access- 
ories of a heavenly glory, without the doubtful contrast of ecstatic faint- 
ing at the horrors : his work is certainly the most perfect composition of 
the century as to pathos." — Burckhardt. 

182. Aless. Tiarini. Lamentation over the Dead Christ. 
138. Guido Retti, 1630. "La Madonna del Rosario," seen above 
the town of Bologna, with the patron saints interceding for 
it. This picture, which commemorated the deliverance of the 
town from a pestilence, was formerly in the Palazzo Pubblico, 
and used to be carried in processions. 
13. Guercino. S. Bruno in the Wilderness, and his Vision of the 
*I37. Guido Reni. The Triumph of Samson after having vanquished 
the Philistines. Painted to go over a chimney-piece (whence 
the form) for Cardinal Ludovisi-Buoncompagni, Archbishop of 
Bologna, who bequeathed it to the town. 
12. Guertino (1620). S. William, Duke of Aquitaine, receiving the 
habit of a monk from S. Felix. From the church of S. 
♦136. Guido Reni. The Crucifixion. 


"The Madonna and S. John are beside the Cross; the Virgin is a 
figure of solemn beauty ; one of Guido's finest and most dignified crea- 
tions." — Kiigler. 

208. Dommkhino. Death of S. Peter Martyr. Painted for two nuns 
of the Spada family, for the convent of " Le Monache Do- 
minicane." " It is only a new edition of the work of Titian." 

*I34. Guido Reni (1616). "La Madonna della Pieta," with two 
angels bewailing the dead Christ. Below are SS. Petronio, 
Domenico, Carlo Borromeo, Francis, and Proculus, with the 
town of Bologna. 

♦140. Id. S. Sebastian bound to a cypress-tree. 

" Le S. Sebastien n'est qu'ebauche, et cependant il a toute son ex- 
pression de douleur et de sacrifice. " — Valery. 

*I39. Id. S. Andrea Corsini, Bishop of Fiesole (ob. 1373). In the 
right hand, which is gloved, he holds his pastoral staff, in the 
left a copy of the Scriptures, 

dth Hall— 

84. Giacomo Francia (son of Francesco), 1526. Madonna with SS. 

Francis, Bernard, Sebastian, and George. 
122. Niccolbda Cremona (15 18). The Deposition from the Cross. 

" *78. Francesco Francia (1494). Madonna with the Baptist, SS. 
Augustine and Monica, SS. Francis, Proculus, and Sebastian, 
and the donor — Bartolomeo Felicini ; most exquisite in colour 
and expression. 

•197. Pietro Perugino. Madonna in glory, with SS. Michael, Cath- 
erine, Apollonia, and John (in old age) beneath ; formerly in 
theCappellaVizzani in S. Giovanni in Monte. Signed " Pe- 
trus Peruginus pinxit." 
79. F. Francia. Annunciation. The Virgin receives the message 
standing between the Baptist and S. Jerome. 

*204. Timoteo della Vite, 1 508. (The favourite and son-like pupil of 
Francia.) The Magdalen in the Wilderness, from the cathe- 
dral of Urbino. 

"The Magdalen stands in a cave clothed in a red mantle ; her hair 
flows to her feet, as she leans her head giacefully towards her left 
shoulder. This picture, though in the old manner, is extremely well 
executed ; the drapery falls in large and beautiful folds : the painting 
is soft and warm, and the expression of the countenance full of feeling." 


" A mysteriously attractive figure." — Burckhardt. 

" The Magdalen is standing before the entrance of her cavern, array- 
ed in a crimson mantle ; her long hair is seen beneath descending to 
her feet ; the hands joined in prayer, the head declined on one side, and 
the whole expression that of girlish innocence and simplicity, with a 
touch of the pathetic. A mendicant, not a Magdalen, is the idea sug- 
gested ; and, for myself, I confess that at the first glance I was reminded 
of the little Red-Riding-Hood, and could think of no sin that could 
*have been attributed to such a face and figure, beyond the breaking of 
a pot of butter ; yet the picture is very beautiful." — Jameson'' s Saa-ed 

89. Innocenzo da Imola, 1517. Madonna in glory with angels. S. 

Michael subdues Satan beneath. 
198. Giorgio Vasari, 1 540. The Supper of S. Gregory, in which 
our Saviour appeared as the thirteenth guest. 

80. Francesco Francia, Madonna and saints. 

26. Gugl. Bugiardini. Marriage of S. Catherine. 
*I52. Rafaelle. S. Cecilia in ecstasy, surrounded by SS. Paul, 
John the Evangelist, Augustine, and Mary Magdalen. In 
listening to the heavenly choir, the saint has dropped her 
earthly instruments of music, which lie broken at her feet. — 
Painted for the Bentivoglio chapel at S. Giovanni in Monte. 

" All are listening to the choir of angels only indicated in the air 
above. Raphael gave song to this wonderfully improvised upper group, 
whose victory over instruments is here substituted for the conquest, 
itself impossible to represent, of heavenly tone over the earthly, with a 
symbolism worthy of all admiration. Cecilia is wisely represented as a 
rich and physically-powerful being ; only thus (not, e. g. as a nervous in- 
teresting being'l could she give the impression of full happiness without 
excitement. Her regal dress also is essential for the desired object, 
and increases the impression of complete absorption in calm delight. Paul, 
inwardly moved, leans on his sword : the folded paper in his hand in- 
dicates that in the presence of the heavenly harmonies the written re- 
velation also must be silent, as something that has been fulfilled. John, 
in whispered conversation with S. Augustine, both listening, variously 
affected. The Magdalen is, to speak openly, made unsympathetic, in 
order to make the beholder rightly conscious of the delicate scale of 
expression in the four others ; for the rest, one of the grandest, most 
beautiful figures of Raphael. The true limits within which the inspira- 
tion of several different personages has to be represented, are in this 


picture preserved with a tact which is entirely strange to the latest 
painters of the Feast of Pentecost. " — Burckhardt. 

" There appears in the expression throughout this simply-arranged 
group a progressive sympathy, of which the revelation made to S. Cecilia 
forms the central point." — Kuglei-. 

"S. Cecilia is listening in ecstasy to the songs of the celestial choir, 
as their voices reach her ear from heaven itself. Wholly given up to 
the celestial harmony, the countenance of the saint affords full evidence 
of her abstraction from the things of earth, and wears that rapt expres- 
sion which is wont to be seen upon the faces of those who are in ecstasy. 
Musical instruments lie scattered around her, and these do not seem to 
be merely painted, but might be taken for the objects they represent. 
... It may indeed with truth be declared that the paintings of other 
masters are properly to be called paintings, but those of Raphael may 
well be described as the life itself, for the flesh trembles, the breathing 
is made obvious to sight, the pulses of his figures beat, and life is in its 
utmost animation through all his works. " — Vasari. * 

133. Bart. Ranunghi (Bagnacavallo) (1484 — 1542). A pupil of 
Francia and Raphael. Holy Family with saints — a very lovely 

*65. Lorenzo Costa. S. Petronio, S. Francis, and S. Thomas Aquinas 

— magnificent colour on a gold ground. 
81. Francesco Francia (1499). The child Jesus with the Madonna, 
SS. Augustin, Joseph, and Francis, also the portraits of the 
Protonotary, Mgr. Antonio Galeazzo Bentivoglio, and of the 
poet Girolamo dei Pandolfi di Casio. Painted for the church 
of the Misericordia and known as " the Bentivoglio Madonna." 

lOb. Girolamo da Cotignola. Marriage of the Virgin. 

•* His master-piece, inspired indeed not by his father, but by the 
Venetians, and therefore free from sentimentality." — Burckliardt. 

']th Hall (works of the Caracci and their scholars). — 

45. Lod. Caracci (1597). The Birth of the Baptist. The portrait 
of Monsignor Ratta is introduced, who gave the picture to the 
Monastery of S. John Baptist. 

♦ The story told by Vasari that Francia died of envy on seeing this picture is 
utterly false. Francia survived Raphael 10 years, and regarded him with unmixed 
respect and affection. They were correspondents, and presented each other with 
their portraits. When Francia suffered severely by the expulsion of the Bentivoglio 
family, Raphael wrote imploring him to take courage, and a:>suring him that he felt 
his affliction as his own. 


*' A resolute, grand picture." — Burckhardt, 

183. Aless. Tiarim {iS77~i66S) Marriage of S. Catherine. 

" SS. Margaret and Barbara also assist at the ceremony. The good 
Joseph in the mean time converses in the foreground with the three little 
messengers who have in charge the wheel of S. Catherine, the dragon 
of S. Margaret, and the little tower of S. Barbara." — Burckhardt. 

34. Agost. Caracci. The Communion of S. Jerome. The most im- 
portant picture by Agostino (whose works are rare) in the 

46. Lod. Caracci (1602). Preaching of the Baptist. 

207. Domenichino. Madonna dell Rosario. From this the famous 

Domenichino at the Vatican is evidently in great measure 

taken. Pope Honorius III. kneels amongst the figures in the 

foreground. From the Ratta chapel at S. Giovanni in Monte. 

"The Madonna del Rosario is seated in glory, and in her lap the 
Divine Infant ; both scatter roses on the earth from a vase sustained by 
three lovely cherubs. At the feet of the Virgin kneels S. Domenic, 
holding in one hand the rosary ; with the other he points to the Virgin, 
indicating by what means she is to be propitiated. Angels holding the 
symbols of the ' Mysteries of the Rosary ' (the joys and sorrows of the 
Virgin), surround the celestial personages. On the earth, below, are 
various groups, expressing the ages, conditions, calamities, and neces- 
sities of human life : — lovely children playing with a crown ; virgins 
attacked by a fierce warrior, representing oppressed maidenhood ; a man 
and his consort, representing the pains and cares of marriage, &c 
And all these with rosaries in their hands are supposed to obtain aid, 
' per I'intercessione del' santissimo Rosario.' " — yamesoti's Monastic 

55. Giacomo Cavedoni (1580 — 1668). Madonna in glory, with 

kneeling saints. 
47. Lod. Caraccu The Calling of S. Matthew. Painted for the 

chapel of the Corporation of Meat-Salters. 
37. Ann. Caracci, 1593. Madonna and saints. 
2. Francesco Albani. The Baptism of Christ, with God the Father 

in glory. From the church of S. Giorgio. 

' ' On looking at the angels in this picture, one remembers involun- 
tarily, how, in mediaeval pictures, the angels who hold up drapery have 
still time and feeling to spare for adoration." — Burckhardt. 

^z. Lod. Caracci, 1558. Madonna with saints and angels. 
VOL. II. 18 


•206. Domenichino. Martyrdom of S. Agnes, 

Lanzi mentions that Guido, the rival of Domenichino, valued this 
picture above the works of Raphael. It was painted for the Convent 
of S. Agnes, where it remained till 1796. The famous group of the 
mother and terrified child is introduced here on the right as at S. 
Gregorio at Rome. 

' ' The stabbing on the pile of wood, makes the harshest possible con- 
trast with all the violin-playing, flute-blowing, and harping of the 
angelic group above." — Burckhardt. 

36, Ann. Caracci. Madonna and Child in glory, with saints below. 

From the high altar of SS. Ludovico ed Alessio. The S. 

Roch is a magnificent figure. 
35. Agostino Caracci. Assumption. 
47. Lod. Caracci, 1607. Conversion of S. Paul. 
43. ~Id. 1593. The Transfiguration. 

Wl If all.— 

172. Giov. Andrea Sirani. The Presentation of the Virgin in the 
75. Lavinia Fontana, 1590. S. Francesco di Paula blesses the 
infant son of the Duchess of Savoy. 
175. Eliz. Sirani, 1662. S. Antony of Padua kneeling at the feet 
of the Infant Saviour. 
88. F. Francia. Small pictures from the Life of Christ. 

"The Virgin is represented in a vast and sublime landscape, which 
for the pastoral poetry it contains equals, if it does not surpass, the 
most celebrated works of the same kind produced by other painters." — 

♦142. Guido Reni. Head of Christ. Study on paper for the picture 
in the Louvre. 
Guercino. God the Father. A study for the Presentation in the 

Temple, in the Museum at Lyons. 
14. Guercifw. The Death of S. Peter Martyr. 
3. Fr. Albani. Madonna, with saints and angels. 

" Of Albani it has been said that the Loves seem to have mixed his 
colours, and the Graces to have fashioned his forms ; such is the soft 
glow of his tints, such the ease and beauty of his groups of figures. "— 

19. Gttercino. Magdalen, half-length. 


48. Lod. Caracci. Madonna in a glory of angels, standing on the 

moon, with Jerome and Francis beside her. 
18. Guercino. S. John, half-length. 
279. Dion. Calvaert. The Flagellation. 

74. Prospero Fontana. The Deposition. 
274. Francesco Francia. Madonna with SS. Bernard, Anthony, 
John Baptist, and Roch. Signed ' ' Francia Aurifex. B. pinxit 

The annual exhibition of modem pictures at Bologna is 
generally one of the best in Italy. 

Behind the Academy is the Orto Botanico e Agrario, which 
is worth visiting, as it occupies the site of the villa of Gio- 
vanni II. Bentivoglio. The only part of the ancient buildings 
remaining (now used as a lecture-room) is decorated with 
frescoes of classical subjects by Innocenzo da I viola. 

In the Borgo della Paglia is the Palazzo Bentivoglio, com- 
memorating by its name the ancient palace destroyed at the 
instigation of Julius II, 

Returning to the Leaning Towers, let us now follow the 
Strada S. Vitale. On the left is the Church of SS. Vitale 
td Agricola, on the site of a building said to have been con- 
secrated by S. Petronius and S. Ambrose in 428. In 
the porch is a sarcophagus by Alaestro Rosa da Parma, the 
tomb of the Anatomist Mondino de' Liucci : it is adorned 
with a relief of the professor expounding to his pupils. The 
church contains : — 

Right, 2nd Cliapel. Aless. Tiarini. Scene from the Flight into 

dth Chapel. Wrongly attributed to Perugino. The Nativity. 

"Jth Chapel. Giacorno Francia (fresco). The Nativity. 

Bagnacavallo (fresco). The Visitation (with portraits of the donors). 

%th Chapel. Francesco Francia. Covering an old picture of the 


The column with an ancient Cross in this church once marked the 
spot in the street outside, where SS. Vitale and Agricola were martyred, 

Opposite'the church is the Palazzo Fantuzzi or Pedrazzi, 
built 1605, after plans left by A. Marchesi. At each angle 
is the crest of its original owner, an elephant with a castle 
on its back. 

Returning to the Towers, and following the Strada Mag- 
giore, on the left is the Palazzo Zampieri, which formerly 
contained a very fine collection of pictures. These have now 
been dispersed ; but the ceilings of the five principal apart- 
ments are decorated with noble frescoes, viz. ; 

1. Lod. Caracci. Jupiter in combat with Hercules. 

2. Ann. Caracci. Hercules conducted by Virtue. 

3. Agost Caracci. Hercules and Atlas. 

4. Guercino. Hercules and Antseus. 

5. Id. Hercules, the Genius of Power, 

Just beyond this Palazzo is the Casa Rossini (No. 243), 
built by Rossini in 1828, and adorned with Latin and Italian 
inscriptions. In front is — from Cicero — 

" Non domo dominus, sed domino domus." 

On the right is the Church of S. Maria del Servi, with 
its beautiful Portico resting upon marble columns, built by 
Fra Andrea Manfredi da Faenza in 1393. In the lunettes 
under the church wall are 20 subjects, illustrative of the life 
of the Beato Filippo Benizzi, by the later painters of the 
Bologna school. The Church is also from designs of 
Manfredi, and was begun in 1383, It contains : — 

Right, 2nd Chapel. Fraitceschini (painted in his 85th year). Ma- 
donna giving the habit to the seven founders of the Servites. 

5/A Chapel. Dion. Calvaert, i6oi. Paradise. 

\oth Chapel. A marble pitcher said to have been used at the Feast 
of Cana, presented by Fra. Vitale Baccilini, general of the Servites, who 
had been ambassador to the Sultan of Egypt in 1350. 


The High Altar is by Giulio Broi, 1560, the figures of Adam and 
Moses near it by Fra. Gio Angiolo da Alontorsolo. At the back of the 
choir is the slab tomb of the architect Manfredi, ob. 1396. 

2ist Chapel (of S. Carlo) is said by tradition to have been painted by 
Guido by lamplight in one night. 

23^4/ Ckapd. Imiocmzo da Imola. Annimciation. The roof and 
walls are by Bagnacavallo. 

2$lh Chapel. Albaai. S. Andrew adores the cross on which he is 
about to suffer. The tomb of Cardinal Ulisse GozzadinL 

2"] th Chapel. Albaui. " Noli me tangere. " 

Opposite the Servi is the huge Palazzo BargellinL 
Just beyond S. Maria is the Palazzo Mercolani, built at 
the end of the last century by Ang. Venturoit, with a fine 
staircase by Carlo Bianconi. All its art-collections have 
been dispersed. 

The next street on the right, beyond this, leads, by the 
closed Church of S. Cristina, to the Strada S. Stefano, near 
the Porta of that name, and almost opposite the Palazzo di 
Bianchi, which has a frescoed ceiling by Guido Reni repre- 
senting ^neas and the Harpies. Adjoining this palace is 
the Church of the SS. Trinita, which contains : — 

Right, 2nd Altar. Lavinia Fontana. Birth of the Virgin. 
High Altar. Guercino. The Virgin appearing to S. Roch. 

Turning towards the town, down the Strada S. Stefano, 
we come (left), close to the Teatro del Corso, to the Church 
of S. Giovan?ii in Monte, so called from being situated on a 
slight rise, the highest ground in the city. It was founded 
by S, Petronio, in 433, was rebuilt in 1221, and though 
restored since, retains internally somewhat of its Gothic 
character. The eagle of S. John in painted terra-cotta, over 
the great door, is by Niccolo delU Area. The interior con- 
tains : — 

Right, 1st Chapel. Giac. Francia. Christ appearing to the Magdalen. 
2nd Chapel. Bart. Cesi. The Crucifixion. 



2,rd Chapel. Guercino. Oval pictures of S. Joseph and S. Jerome. 
That of S. Joseph is excellent. The Child holds out to its foster- 
father a rose to smell. 

6th Chapel. Lippo Dalmasio, 1340. Small picture of the Madonna. 
Some authorities attribute this picture to Vitale. 

"jth Chapel. Lorenzo Costa. Madonna throned with saints. 

Apse of Choir. Id. The Vir^n throned with the Almighty and the 
Saviour ; beneath, SvS. John, Augustin, Victor, and others. The Intarsia 
work of the choir stalls is by Paolo Sacca, 1525. The terra-cotta busts 
of the apostles over the stalls are by Alfonso Lombardo. 

\2th Chapel. The original position of the S. Cecilia of Raphael — a 
bad copy now here. Under the altar is buried the Beata Elena Dugli- 
oli dairOlio, at whose expense the picture was painted. 

x^th Chapel {last but one). Guercino. S. Francis adoring the crucifix. 

The Stained Glass is good, especially the round window representing 
S. John in Patmos. 

S. Stefano, Bologfna. 

A little further down the street, on the right, is the Church 
of S. Stefano, one of the most curious in Bologna, being rather 
a collection of churches than a single building. The chief 
portal (near which is an outside pulpit) leads into the 
Church of the Crocifisso of 1637. Hence some steps lead 
down into the Cliapel of the Beata Giuliana //<?' Banzt, who 
is buried there in a marble sarcophagus. The third church 

S. STEP A NO. 279 

is S. Sepolcro, evidently an ancient Baptistery, surrounded 
by marble columns, said to be taken from a temple of Isis, 
and rather like S. Vitale at Ravenna. Beneath the altar is 
the tomb which was intended to receive the body of S. 
Petronio, who is said to have rendered the water of the 
central well miraculous. The fourth church, ^S^". Pietro e 
Paolo, is said to have been the original cathedral of Bologna, 
founded by S. Faustinianus in 330. It contains a Madonna 
and Child with SS. Nicolas and John, by Lor Sabbatini, and 
a Crucifix by Simon of Bologna.* 

" Like Giotto's, the crucifixes of ' Simone de' Crocifissi ' have only one 
nail in the feet, but the emaciation is in the worst Byzantine taste, and 
grief in the attendant figures of the Virgin and S. John is uniformly 
caricatured. This is perhaps one of his best Works." — Lord Lindsay. 

The fifth church, which is in fact a small open cloister, 
called LAtrio di Pilato, contains a mediaeval font removed 
from the Baptistery, and a Crucifixion with SS. Jerome, 
Francis, and Mary Magdalen by Giac. Francia, 1520. The 
sixth church. La Coiifessione, is a kind of crypt, in which the 
native martyrs Vitale and Agricola are buried. The seventh 
church, 6'. Trinitd, contains a reliquary by 'yacopo Rossetti, 
1380, and a figure of S. Ursula^by Simone da Bologna, and 
some quaint pictures. 

" This nest of queer little churches has little of architectural — as dis- 
tinguished from antiquarian— interest. The brick- work in the cloister 
and in some of the external walls is extremely good. Some of the latter 
are diapered or reticulated on the face with square yellow tiles w ith 
dividing lines of red brick, and the cornices are of the same two colours 
also. In the cloister the columns and inner order of the arches are of 
stone, the rest of the walls and cornices being of red and yellow bricks, 
and in one part there is a course of red, green, and yellow tiles alternated. 
The effect of this work is extremely pretty." — Street. 

• It is inscribed : — " Affixus lingnopte suffero peiias. Symon fecit hoc opus. Me- 
mento Q. Pulvis es, et pulvi reiiteris. Age penitocia et vives in Eternum." 



On the left side of the piazza is the Palazzo Bolognini 
of 1525, adorned with terra-cotta heads in medaUions by 
Alfonso Lofnbardi. 

The adjoining Palazzo Pepoli (facing into the street 
behind the Strada S. Stefano) is an immense brick building 
of 1344, more like a castle than a palace. It has a beautiful 
terra-cotta entrance. Opposite it, is a later palace of the 
same name, occupying the site of the palace of the great 
captain Taddeo Pepoli. 

(On the left of the Via Castiglione (some way down) is 
the Church of S. Lucia, which contains a letter in Portuguese 
written by S. Francis Xavier, and a fine picture by Cignani 
{^rd altar, left) in which the Holy Child rewards SS. John 

Razza S. Domenico, Bologna. 

and Teresa wath crowns. The Church of La Madonna della 
Misericordia, just outside the gate, has some good carving by 
Marco Tedesco da Cremona.) 


The first turn to the right of the Strada Castiglione (Via 
Ponte di Ferro), will bring us to the Piazza Cavour, above 
which is the interesting Piazza di S. Domenico, highly 
picturesque, from its two columns supporting statues of the 
Virgin and S. Domenic (1623), and two curious canopied 
mediaeval tombs, — that, in the centre of the piazza, of 
Rolandino Passaggieri, who wrote the proud answer of the 
republic to the Emperor Frederick II., when he demanded 
the release of his son Enzius ; and that of one of the Fos- 
cherari family of 1289. 

" The Foscherari monument has a square basement of brick, sup- 
porting detached shafts, above which are round arches, the whole being 
finished with a brick pyramid. Under the canopy thus formed is placed 
the sarcophagus, marked with a cross at the end, and finished at the 
top with a steep gabled covering. The detail of this is all of late 
Romanesque style. The Passeggieri monument is of later date and much 
finer design, though keeping to. the same general outline. In place of 
the brick basement of the lirst, this has three rows of three shafts, which 
support a large slab. On this are arcades of pointed arches, three at 
the sides and two at the ends, carried on coupled shafts, and within this 
upper arcade is seen the stone coffin carved at the top, and with a stiff 
effigy of the deceased carved as if lying on one of the perpendicular sides. 
This monument is also finished with a brick pyramid. The whole de- 
sign is certainly striking ; it has none of the exquisite skill that marks 
the best Veronese monuments, but it is a very good example of the con- 
siderable success which may be achieved by an architectural design 
without any help from the sculptor, without the use of any costly 
materials, and with only moderate dimensions. The upper tier of 
arches is kept in position by an iron tie, and, in spite of its slender look, 
still stands, after five hundred years' exposure, in perfect condition." — 

The Church itself has been quite modernized, but is very 
interesting from its monuments, especially from the tomb of 
S. Dominic, who died at Bologna in 1221. 

Right, \st Altar. Lippo Dalmasio {\yj()—\i^\o). La Madonna "di 


y-d Chapel. F. Francia. (?) Madonna. 

dth Chapel (of S. Domenico). On the ceiling is represented the re- 
ception of the saint in Paradise by Gtiido Reni. The picture on the 
right, of his raising a boy from the dead, is by Tiarini, that on the left, of 
his burning heretical books, is the masterpiece of Lionello Spada, another 
pupil of the Caracci. In the centre stands the famous shrine called the 
Area di S. Domenico, one of the great works of Niccolh Pisaiio. The 
lowest series of reliefs are added by Alfonso Lombardo, 1528, the statu- 
ette of S. Petronius in front and the angel on the left by Michael Angelo. 

"This angel is so utterly unlike the style of Michael Angelo, that its 
authenticity might well be questioned were it not for the evidence of 
Vasari and Condivi, both of whom had from his own lips the story of 
his residence in Bologna. We can only account for this by supposing, 
that he endeavoured as far as possible to assimilate his work to the other 
statuettes about the shrine, and then for a moment lost his individuality. " 
— Perkins^ Italian Sculptors. 

"This is perhaps the most pleasing work Michael Angelo ever pro- 
duced, the effusion of an imaginative youthful mind, scarcely yet come 
into contact with the rude reality of \\{e.."—Liibke. 

"The prominent features of the Area are the six large bas-reliefs, de- 
lineating the principal events in the legend of S. Domenic, disposed, 
two behind, one at each extremity, and two in front, between which last 
is fixed a small statue of the Virgin, crowned, and holding the infant 
Saviour in an attitude which almost every one of the successors of 
Niccola has imitated during the following century, none, however, 
equalling the original. A small statue of our Saviour occupies the cor- 
respondent place at the back of the Area, and the four Doctors of the 
Church are sculptured at the angles. The operculum, or lid, was added 
about two hundred years afterwards. 

" The series of bas-reliefs begins and ends at the back, running round 
from left to right. The subjects are briefly as follows : — 

" I. The Papal confirmation of the rule of the Dominican order. — S. 
Dominic, a Spaniard, of the illustrious Gothic house of Guzman, having 
formed the scheme of a new religious fraternity, expressly devoted to the 
defence of the faith against heresy, applied to the Pope for his sanction, 
but unsuccessfully ; the following night his Holiness beheld, in a dream, 
the church of the Lateran giving way, and the Saint propping it with 
his shoulders. The warning was obvious, and the confirmation was 
accordingly granted. Each step in the march of this important event is 
represented in a distinct group in this compartment. 

" II. The appearance of the Apostles Peter and Paul to S. Dominic, 
while praying in S. Peter's. — S. Peter presented him with a staff, S- Paul 


with a book, bidding him go forth and preach to Christendom. To the 
right, S. Dominic is seen sending forth the ' friar's preachers ' on their 
mission to mankind. 

"III. S. Dominic praying for the restoration to life of the young 
Napoleone Orsini, nephew of the Cardinal Stefano, who had been 
thrown from his horse and killed, as seen in the foregromid ; his mother 
kneels behind, joining in the prayer. 

"IV. S. Dominic's doctrine tested by fire. — After preaching against 
the Albigenses, he had written out his argument and delivered it to one 
of his antagonists, who showing it to his companions as they stood round 
the fire, they determined to submit it to that ordeal ; the scroll was 
thrice thrown in, and thrice leapt out unbumt. 

" V. The miracle of the loaves. — The brethren, forty in number, assem- 
bled one day for dinner, but nothing was producible from the buttery 
except a single loaf of bread. S. Dominic was dividing it among them, 
when two beautiful youths entered the refectory with baskets full of 
loaves which they distributed to the fraternity, and then immediately 

" VI. The profession of the youthful deacon, Reginald. — He fell sud- 
denly ill when on the eve of entering the order ; his life was despaired 
of S. Dominic interceded for him with the Virgin, who appeared to 
him the following night, when on the point of death, accompanied by 
two lovely maidens, anointed him with a salve of marvellous virtue, 
accompanying the unction with words of mystery and power, and pro- 
mised him complete recovery within three days, showing him at the 
same moment a pattern of the Dominican robe as she willed it to be 
worn thenceforward, varied from the fashion previously in use ; three 
days afterwards he received it from the saint's hands in perfect health, 
as the Virgin had foretold. 

" With the exception of the Adoration of the Kings on the pulpit at 
Pisa, I know nothing by Niccola Pisano equal to these bas-reliefs. 
Felicity of composition, truth of expression, ease, dignity, and grace of 
attitudes, noble draperies, together with the negative but emphatic merit 
of perfect propriety, are their prevailing characteristics ; but the whole 
are finished with unsurpassed minuteness and delicacy. And you will 
recollect too that these compositions are wholly Niccola's own, — he had 
no traditional types to guide and assist him, the whole is a new coinage, 
clear and sharp, from the mint of his own genius. Altogether, the 
' Area di S. Domenico ' is a marvel of beauty, a shrine of pure and 
Christian feeling, which you will pilgrimize to with deeper reverence 
every time you revisit Bologna." — Lord Lindsay's Christian Art. 

The Sacristy contains a terra-cotta Pieta by Rondellone, and railings 
with intarsia work bv Fra Dainiano da Bergamo. 


The Cappella Isolani (right of the apse), Filippino Lippi, 1501 — 1551, 
Marriage of S. Catherine (in the presence of SS. Paul, Sebastian, Peter, 
and J. Baptist), painted in the decline of the master.' 

Choir. The stalls, with intarsia-vior'k, are by Fra Damiano da Ber- 
gamo, 1530, of the history of the Old and New Testament. The picture 
of the Adoration of the Magi is by fiart. Cesi. 

Left. Tomb of King Enzius, taken prisoner 1249, died 1272. The 
monument only dates from 1731. In the adjoining chapel is the fine 
tomb of Taddeo Pepoli, 1337, by yacopo Lanfrani. The altar-piece 
of SS. Michael, Domenic, and Francis, with our Saviour and angels 
above, is by Giac. Francia. 

Transept. Opposite the tomb of King Enzius is a very interesting 
picture of S. Thomas Aquinas, by Simone da Bologna, proved to be an 
authentic portrait by the annals of the Order. 

15M Chapel [of the Relics). Here is preserved the head of S. Do- 
minic, in a silver case ; the body of the Beato Giacomo da Ulma, who 
painted on glass ; and the mummy of the Venerable Serafino Capponi. 

The Chapel of the Rosary (opposite S. Domenico) is adorned with 
frescoes by Dion. Calvaert, Guido Reni, Lod. Caracci, &c. In the 
centre is the grave of Guido Reni and his pupil Elizabetta Sirani, 1665. 
The early and sudden death of the latter excited at the time some suspi- 
cion of poison, but it was afterwards proved that she died from internal 

In the porch leading from the aisle into the "piazza is the tomb of the 
learned Alessandro Tartagni of Imola, 1477, by Francesco di Simone. 
It is ornamented with beautiful and delicate foliage and arabesques 
quite deserving of study. Opposite this is a tomb of the Volta family, 
1557, with a statue by Prospero Clementi. 

Last Chapel but one. Lod. Caracci. S. Raimond crossing the sea 
upon his mantle. 

Last Chapel. A bust of S. Filippo Neri, from a cast taken after his 

(A little behind the Piazza S. Domenico is the handsome 
Palazzo Grabinski, formerly Bacciochi, designed by Palla- 

The street opposite the west front of S. Domenico, leads 
into the Strada di S. Mammolo. Turning left, we imme- 
diately reach the Church of S. Frocolo. Over the entrance 
is a lunette of the Madonna between SS. Sixtus and Bene- 
dict, by the early Bolognese master, Lippo Dalmasio. 


" Lippo Dalmasio would only paint images of the Holy Virgin, and 
professed a peculiar devotion for her ; and such was the importance he 
attached to this work, that he never commenced painting without the 
previous preparation of a severe fast on the evening before, and the re- 
ception of the communion on the day itself, in order that his imagination 
might be purified and his pencil sanctified. The best proof that the in- 
fluence of a preparation of this nature was not chimerical, is the fact of 
the extraordinary popularity that the Madonnas of this artist enjoyed, 
so that it was considered almost a disgrace to be without one ; and also 
the remarkable testimony of Guido, who, discovering in the Virgins of 
Lippo Dalmasio something of a superhuman character which could only 
be attributed to a secret influence directing his pencil, did not hesitate 
to declare that it was impossible for any modem artist, however he might 
be assisted by the resources of talent and study, to succeed in uniting so 
much holiness, modesty, and purity, in one figure. It was also no 
unusual thing to find Guido standing entranced before one of these re- 
vered images, when they were uncovered for public devotion on the days 
set apart for the worship of the Madonna." — Rio 

" On the return of Clement VIII. from his conquest of Ferrara, he is 
said to have halted before the Madonna of S. Procolo, and reverently 
saluting it, to have declared that he had never seen images more devout 
or that touched his heart nearer (' e che piii lo intenerissero ') than those 
painted by Lippo Dalmasio." — Lord Litidsay, 

■ Left, 1st Chapel. Ercole Graziani. S. Maurus. 

2nd Chapel. Grave of the early martyr S. Proculus, and of a bishop 
of the same name. 

^h Chapel. Ere. Graziani. The Virgin appearing to S. Benedict. 

Near the door, on the outside wall, is an inscription in memory of a 
man named Procolo, who was killed, 1393, by one of the bells falling 
on him, as he was passing under the tower ; — 

" Si procul a Proculo Proculi campana fuisset. 
Nunc procul a Proculo Proculus ipse foret." 

Just outside the Porta S. Mammolo is (left) the Church of 
the S. Annunziata, of the 15th century; its pictures are re- 
moved to the Academy. 

Returning down the Strada S. Mammolo, on the left is a 
wall with a rich fringe of terra-cotta. It is that of the Con- 
vent of S. Caterina Vigri, the artist-nun, 1456. The ad- 


joining Church of Corpus Domini, generally called La Santa, 
has a fine terra-cotta doorway and contains : — 

Right, 1st Chapel. Calvaert. S. Francis. 

2nd Chapel. Tomb erected by Bologna to Luigi Galvani. 

i^h Chapel. Lod. Caracci. The Assumption and Burial of the 
Virgin . 

Choir. Marc Antonio Franceschini, 1648 — 1729. Last Supper. 

Left, 1st Chapel. Id. Death of Joseph. 

2nd Chapel. Id. Annunciation. 

On the organ-loft is a curious relief by Cesi, from a design by Baldas- 
sare Peruzzi. 

Further down the street is the Palazzo Bevilacqua (formerly 
Campeggi) designed by Bramantino, with a magnificent court. 
An inscription in one of the rooms tells us that the Council 
of Trent assembled there in 1547, having removed thither 
from causes of health. 

Turning left, below this palace is the Church of S. Paolo, 
of 161 1, containing : — 

Right, 2nd Chapel. Lod. Caracci. Paradise. The Madonna be- 
neath is by Lippo Dalmasio. 

"The Paradise is remarkable as a complete specimen of those con- 
certs of angels, by which the school are involuntarily distinguished from 
their author Correggio. " — Burckhardt. 

■yd Chapel. Giac. Cavedone. Nativity, Adoration of the Magi, and 
decorations of the ceiling. 

i^h Chapel. Guercino. S. Gregory and the souls in Purgatory. , 
High Altar. Aless. Algardi. The Beheading of S. Paul. 

Behind this church is the Palazzo Zamheccari, with a 
fagade by Carlo Bianconi, 1771. It had a fine gallery, for 
the most dispersed. A few pictures by Bolognese masters 
still remain. 

Close to S. Paolo (left) is the Collegio di Sfagna, founded 
by Cardinal Albornoz, in 1364. The picturesque entrance 
is adorned with the arms of Spain. The court -yard with its 


double cloister is full of colour. In the upper gallery is a 
beautiful but injured fresco by Bagnacavallo, in which Car- 
dinal Albornoz is represented kneeling in the presence of 
the Holy Family. In the side chapel is an interesting altar- 
piece by the rare master Marco Zoppo. The important 
fresco of the Coronation of Charles V., once in the portico, 
to which Murray continues to direct the attention of travel- 
lers, was totally destroyed 40 years ago. 

Dom Emanuele Aponte was amongst the most cele- 
brated of the Jesuit Fathers who taught in this college. 

Further down the Via Saragozza (left) is the handsome 
Palazzo Albergati, built 1540, from designs of Baldassare 

The street opposite this contains the house (No. 1347) in 
which the Physician Galvani, of electric celebrity, was born. 
It bears the inscription : — 

"Galvanum excepi natum liixique peremptum 
Cujus ab invento junctus uterque polus." 

On the left is the great brick Church of S. Francesco, 
)f the 13th century, but greatly desecrated. The High 
[Altar has a beautiful screen of 1388, by Giacobello and Fier 
vFaolo delle Massegne, sculptors well-known in Venetian art. 
[Pope Alexander V. (Peter Phylargyrius), 1410, was buried in 
'^this church. The lunettes in the portico, representing the 
story of S. Antony of Padua, are by Tiarini, Gessi, &c. 

The street opposite S. Francesco (Porta Nuova) leads 
to the Church of S. Salvatore, built in the 17th century by 
Ambrogio Magenta. It contains the unmarked grave of 

Right, 1st Chapel. Ere. Graziani. Beato A. Canetoli refusing tlie 
Archbishopric of Florence. 
^h Chapel. Jacopo Coppi, 1579. The Miracle of the Crucifix. 


High Altar. Francesco Gessi. Christ bearing his cross. 
dth Chapel. Aless. Tiarini. The Nativity. 

" How entirely Tiarini misunderstood the calm, idyllic feeling of the 
scene in this picture, which is otherwise excellent ! He paints it on a 
colossal scale, and makes Joseph point rhetorically to Mary, as if to call 
the attention of the spectators." — Burckhardt. 

"Jth Chapel. Innocenzo da Imola. Crucifixion, with four saints. 

%th Chapel. Carlo Bonone. Ascension. 

^th Chapel. Garofalo. S. John and Zacharias. 

Sacristy. Frescoes by Cavcdone. 

Opposite this church is the Palazzo Marescalchi by Dom. 
Tibaldi. It has chimney-pieces painted by Guido and the 

Immediately below S. Francesco (right) are the Hotels, 

Several other churches may be visited from hence. The 
Via del Pratello leads left to the Church of S. Rocco, an 
oratory adorned with paintings of the life of S. Roch, almost 
all voluntary offerings from the young artists of the 17th cen- 
tury, Camullo, Cavedofii, Gessi, &c. 

From the same point (near S. Francesco), the Strada 
Felice leads to (right) the Church of S. Niccolb, which con- 
tains — 

^th Chapel. Ann. Caracci. The Crucifixion. 

Behind this church (No. 449) is the Casa Guercino, which 
was the abode of the painter. 

The street behind S. Niccolo leads to the Church of S. 
Bartolotnmeo di Reno c Madonna di Pioggia (generally 
closed) ; it contains : — 

Left, 1st Chapel. Agostino Caracci (painted in his 27th year). The 
Nativity. Also two prophets on the ceiling. 


Lod. Caracci. The Circumcision and the Adoration of the Magi. 

Oratory. Alfonso Lombardi. S. Bartholomew. 

Hence, following the Riviera di Reno and the Strada di 
Galliera (which contains the handsome Palazzo Montanari, 
once Aldrovandi) of 1 748, we may reach the Church of S. 
Benedetto, built 1606 by Giovanni Ballarini, It contains : — 

Right, 1st Chapel. Lucio Afazzari. Marriage of S. Catherine. 
2nd Chapel. Ercole Procaccini. Annunciation, The other pictures 
by Cavedoni. 
^h Chapel. Cavedoni, S. Antony beaten by demons. 
Left, 1st Chapel. Tiarini. The Virgin conversing with the Magdalen. 

Behind this church are the dull walks of the Giardini 
Pubblici and the rising ground called La Montagtiola. 

In returning we may turn (left) from the Riviera di Reno 
to (right) the Church of S. Giorgio. It contains : — 

Left, 1st Chapel. Tiarini. Flight into Egypt. 
2,nd Chapel. Ann. Caracci. Annunciation. 
ird Chapel. Id. The Pool of Bethesda. 
^h Chapel. Cantarini. S. Filippo Benizzi before the Virgin and 
Child. The lower part is by Albani. 
High Altar. Procaccini. S. George. 

A little further down the same street (left) is the Church 
of S. Gregorio, which contains : — 

Left, 2nd Chapel. Lodovico Caracci. S. George and the Dragon, 
with S. Michael and the Devil above. 

^h Chapel. Ann. Caracci. Baptism of Christ. 

High Altar. Calvaert. Miracle of S. Gregory. 

We are now again close to the hotels. 

Outside the Porta S. Mammolo, the second turn on the 
right is a steep paved walk, Hned with acacias, leading to the 
Convent of La Madonna del Monte. Half-way up the 

VOL. II. 19 


ascent, on the right is the Villa of Minghetti, the Minister of 
Finance, marked by a bow-window, and, built into this villa, 
but (though used as a receptacle for plants in winter) care- 
fully preserved, is the little Chapel of La Madonna di Mez- 
zaratta, of great importance in the history of art. It was 
built in 1 1 06, and a great part of it has fallen down through 
age and neglect, but what remains has been restored. 

" This humble sanctuary has been correctly styled by Lanzi the 
Campo Santo of Bologna. It was built in the twelfth century, but the 
actual paintings are not more ancient than the middle of the fourteenth. 
Vitale was employed first, to paint a large ' Presepio, ' or Nativity, 
immediately above the door, — -it is his sole work there. The early his- 
tory of Genesis, and that of Joseph, Moses, and Daniel were afterwards 
represented in four rows of compartments on the southern wall ; the life 
of Our Saviour in the same manner on the northern, and the history of 
the Passion on the eastern, or altar-wall. The compartments are small, 
and the compositions of a very infantine and primitive character, far in- 
ferior to contemporary works at Florence and Siena, yet full of fire 
and originality ; while impatience is rebuked by the recollection that 
Michael Angelo is said to have commended them, and by the certaint\ 
that Bagnacavallo and the Caracci took the most active interest in their 
preservation. Now, indeed, few of the series survive ; many have been 
whitewashed, the church has been re-roofed, cutting off the whole upper 
row, and having become private property, there is little security against 
the remainder being ultimately obliterated. Meanwhile it is a sweet 
and tranquil spot, unprofaned by tourists, musical with nightingales, 
and commanding a view which, if not equal to that from S. Michele 
in Bosco, will well reward you for the ascent ; while the remembrance 
of S. Bernardino of Siena, who loved the place and used to preach 
there,* lends it an association of historical and religious interest. But 
to revert to the Presepio. The composition is the old traditional one, 
happily varied ; Joseph, for instance, instead of sitting moodily in his 
comer, pours water into a vase for the Virgin to wash the child with, 
and a number of angels are kneeling in front in adoration. The execu- 
tion is very defective ; but there is an air of grace and feeling of the 
ideal in the composition, and in the figure of the Madonna. The paint- 

• The "picciol pergamo (incastrato nel muro) ove tante volte fe' udirsi S. Bernar- 
dino Sanese, divotissimo di questo luogo, e padre spirituale di que' confratelli," is still 
to be seen there. 


ings immediately to the right and left are by another, and an imknown 
hand, apparently a Giottesco. 

" According to Vasari, the whole southern wall was painted by Cris- 
toforo, an artist — some say of Ferrara, others of Modena, while the 
Bolognese claim him as their own countryman. Malvasia tells us he 
was the first that painted on the southern wall, — if so the uppermost 
row only can belong to him, the second, and possibly part of the third, 
having been executed by a painter named Jacobus, and the fourth by • 
one Lorenzo. Of this uppermost row, two or three fragments may be 
seen in the granary above the modem ceiling of the church ; the pret- 
tiest of them is a representation of Eve spinning, with her children on 
her knee, after the Fall. They are pale in colour, like the paintings of 
acknowledged Ferrarese origin, and the primitive Roman school of 
Lombardy, and decidedly different in style from the frescoes in the 
church beneath. Cristoforo also painted the altar-piece, now removed, 
but engraved by Agincourt, and which bore his name, and the date 

" Of the frescoes by Lorenzo, representing the history of Daniel, not a 
trace remains. The Marriage, which seems to have been painted over 
one of the original compartments, is evidently by a more modern and 
practised hand, of the fifteenth century : it is singularly graceful, but 
has been sadly injured. 

" Simon and Jacobus rank next in order among the artists of Bologna 
and of the Madonna di Mezzaratta. Both are said to have been of the 
Avanzi family. The compositions of Jacobus have been more fortunate 
as to their preservation than those of Simon. They may easily be re- 
cognized by comparison with the fourth compartment of the lowest row 
on the left-hand wall, representing the Pool of Bethesda, and which is 
signed with his name, 'Jacobus p.,' ox fecit. The earliest in point of 
date are the series representing the history of Joseph, forming the second 
row, on the right-hand wall. Some of these are characterized by singular 
naivete ; the seventh, eighth, and ninth, are perhaps the most worth 
notice. The row immediately below these, dedicated to the life of 
Moses, is of comparatively inferior interest, though the four last com- 
partments (representing the Reception of the Tables of the Law, and 
the Worship of the Golden Calf ; the Judicial Massacre of the Israelites ; 
and the Delivery of the Tables to the Princes of Israel after their re- 
delivery from the Mount, and the Destniction of Korah, Dathan, and 
Abiram) bear a resemblance to the manner of Jacobus, and may possibly 
be by his hand. But the remaining frescoes on the left-hand wall are 
certainly his. The third and fourth of the lowest row are the most in- 
teresting. In the former, Our Saviour sits among his disciples, dis- 
coursing, while those without uncover the roof of the house, and let 


down the man sick of the palsy, who turns to Christ with clasped hands ; 
while, to the right, he is seen walking away healed, with his mattress 
bundled upon his shoulders. The foreshortenings are daring to an 
absurd degree, and the whole composition is very rude, but it is full of 
life and character, and it is impossible not to sympathize with such fear- 
less boldness. And the like may be said of the adjacent Pool of Beth- 
esda ; the angel descends to trouble the water, a sick person stands in 
it praying, the cripple who had been suffering for thirty-eight years sits 
up in bed in the centre of the composition, looking with earnest suppli- 
catory gaze and clasped hands towards Christ, whose attention however, 
like that of Joseph in the fresco described above, is drawn away from 
him by another work of love, the resuscitation of a little child ; he is 
seen again to the left, enthroned under a portico, surrounded by Phari- 
sees, and addressing a poor woman, who kneels at his feet. The groups 
and figures are well arranged, and there is more expression than in the 
frescoes' on the opposite wall. The face of our Saviour is throughout 
peculiarly sweet and holy. Of the composition of Simon, carrying the 
history down to the Last Supper, and those on the altar-wall represent- 
ing the Passion, executed above half a century afterwards by Galasso of 
Ferrara, no traces whatever are now visible." — Lord Lindsay's Chris- 
tian Art. 

We may now return to the high-road and ascend the hill, 
directly above the Porta S. Mammolo, by a delightful ter- 
raced road lined with plane-trees, to the great OHvetan 
Convejit atid Church of S. Michele in Bosco. Here the 
Popes had a summer residence, which is now taken posses- 
sion of by Victor Emanuel. Its many cloisters are bright 
with flowers in summer. The last, which is octangular, was 
adorned with frescoes by Lodovico Caracci, but little of his 
work remains entire, except some striking figures in a fresco 
of the Miracle of S. Benedict. 

"The masterly dignity of the character of Lodovico Caracci appears 
to most advantage in the cloister, where, assisted by his pupils, he re- 
presented the actions of S. Benedict and S. Cecilia in thirty -seven separ- 
ate histories. By his hand is the conflagration of Monte Cassino, and 
some other portions ; the remaining parts are by Guido, by Tiarini, by 
Massari, by Cavedoni, by Spada, by Garbieri, by Buzio, and other 
young artists. These paintings have been engraved and are worthy of 


the reformers of that age. On beholding what we may term this gallery 
by different hands, we should be almost inclined to bestow upon the 
schools of Lodovico this trite eulogy ; that from it, as from the Trojan 
house, there issued only princes." — Lanzi. 

In the Church, over the doors at the sides of the choir, 
are some admirable heads of monks of Dom. Canuti. The 
Sacristy, which ends in a curiously illusive perspective- 
picture, has frescoes by Bagnacavallo, and a Magdalen by 
Canuti. The halls of the Palace are handsome, but little 
worth seeing. The convent Dormitory is used as a kind of 
extra museum by the Belle- Arti. 

But the great attraction is the glorious view from the ter- 
race of the Papal Garden, which no one should omit to visit. 
Like a map, Bologna lies stretched beneath with its innumer- 
able churches, amid which S. Petronio is a centre, and the 
Leaning Towers rise fantastically conspicuous. 

" The prospect, from an elevation, of a great city in its silence, is one 
of the most impressive, as well as beautiful, we ever behold." — Hallatn. 

A separate excursion should be made from the Porta 
Saragossa by the extraordinary portico of 635 arches, three 
miles in length (built 1676 — 1739 by voluntary contributions 
in honour of the Virgin), to the shrine of La Madonna di 
S. Luca, which is such a striking feature in all distant views 
of the town, occupying the same position in regard to 
Bologna as the Superga does to Turin. The view from the 
summit is quite magnificent. 

The Church intended to receive one of the black images 
of the Virgin attributed to S. Luke and said to have been 
brought here from Constantinople in 1160 — was built, in 
1 73 1, by Carlo F. Dotti. The only pictures of interest are 


some early works of Guido relating to the Mysteries of the 
Rosary in the 3rd Chapel on the right. 

Near the foot of the hill of S. Luca is the Certosa, a Car- 
thusian monastery founded in 1335, whose gardens are now 
used as the magnificent Campo Santo of Bologna (conse- 
crated 1801). The Church contains many pictures by late 
Bolognese artists, the most interesting are : — 

Andrea Sirani. The Supper in the Pharisee's house. 
Elisabetta Sirani (painted in her 20th year). The Baptism of Christ 
The artist has introduced her own figure sitting. 

The Cemetery is entered by a cloister devoted to monu- 
ments removed from suppressed convents and other build- 
ings. The most striking is that of Francesco Albergati, 
ob. 151 7, with his beautiful sleeping figure. 

Among the monuments in the cloisters which surround 
the Campo Santo, we may notice that by Tadolmi to the 
famous Clotilda Tambroni, who only died in 181 7, and by 
Vela (1865) to Letizia Murat Pepoli (ob. 1859), with a statue 
of her father King Murat. 

A spot about three miles west of Bologna, at a place now 
called Crocetta del Trebbo, is pointed out by local authorities 
as the famous meeting-place of the second Roman triumvi- 
rate — Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus — B.C. 43. It is an 
island formed by the Reno — the Rhenus of ancient times — 
but its size (half a mile long, and a third of a mile wide) 
does not seem to correspond with the description of the spot 
in question. 


IN entering upon a tour through the country towns of the 
Emilia, it may be well to recollect that here money 
ought to go much further than in other parts of Italy. If 
travellers have no courier, 2 frs. for a room and 3 frs. for a 
dinner will be found to be the usual prices. 3 frs. is cer- 
tainly the proper price at which to order a dinner, as no 
more would be obtained if you ordered it at 10 frs. The 
people of the Emilia are almost invariably kind, civil, and 
hospitable to strangers. They are celebrated for their 
beauty, especially the women of Pesaro and Fano, while the 
young men of Forli are considered the noblest specimens of 
humanity in existence. The men have no national costume, 
women of the upper classes generally wear knitted veils, 
something like Spanish mantillas, especially in the churches. 
The Emilia is very richly cultivated, the partition system 
being adopted ; by which the owner lets out the land to the 
contadino, for the benefit of his labour and implements, 
receiving half the produce in return. 

(It is three hours by rail from Bologna to Ravenna. I. 7. frs. 40 c. 
IL 5 f''S' 60 c. III. 2 frs. 80 c. Trains are changed at Caste! 


(The Railway nearly follows the course of the Via 

Jmola Station. Imola occupies the site of the Roman 
station Forum Cornelii, mentioned by Cicero and Martial. 
It is the birth-place (1506) of the painter Innocenzo da 
Imola, but there is no good work of his here. The 
Cathedral of S. Cassianus has a picturesque octangular 
tower. In its crypt is the grave of S. Peter Chrysologus 
(the great orator of the 5th century, whose surname illus- 
trates the effect of his sermons), and of S. Cassianus. 

*' S. Casciano (Cassian), patron of Imola, was a school -master of that 
city, and being denounced as a Christian, the judge gave him up to the 
fury of his scholars, whom the severity of his discipline had inspired with 
the deepest hatred. The boys revenged themselves by putting him to a 
slow and cruel death, piercing him with the iron styles used in writing ; 
his story is told by Prudentius." — yameson^s Sacred Art. 

Pius VII. was Bishop of Imola when he was raised to the 
Papal throne in 1800, and Pius IX. was its Bishop in 

After leaving Castel Bolognese, we pass — 

Lugo {Station) supposed to occupy the site of the Lucus 
Dianae. 3 m. S. E. is Cotignola, where Attendolo, father of 
Francesco Sforza, was bom 1369,* who here, a peasant's son, 
threw his axe into an oak to decide by its falling or re- 
maining fixed in the trunk, whether he should remain a day- 
labourer or join a band of condottieri. The painters 
Francesco and Bernardino Zaganelli took, from this their 
birth-place, the surname of Cotignola. Four miles north is 
Fusignano, where the poet Vincenzo Monti and the com- 
poser Angelo Corelli were bom. 

Bagnacavallo {Station) gave a name to the painter Bartol. 
Ramenghi, who was born here, 1484.) 

* Montecchio, near Parma, also claims to be his birth-place. 



(Inns. Spada d Oro ; Europa, — tolerable, as very rough Italian Inns, 
— both in the Strada del Monte. Carriages from the station to the town, 
with I horse, 50 c. j with 2 horses i fr. ; night, 75 c, with 2 horses, 
I fr. 50 c. Carriage for the afternoon to S. Apollinare in Classe, the 
Pineta, &c., 5 frs. 

For Photographs of Ravenna. Ricci, 295, Strada Porta Sisi (Byron's 

" If we seek through the world for a city which is absolutely unique 
in its character and interest, we shall find it at Ravenna. It is a city in 
which, as soon as we set foot, we at once find ourselves among the 
memorials of an age which has left hardly any memorials elsewhere. 
The sea, which once gave Ravenna its greatness, has fallen back and 
left the once Imperial city like a wreck in the wilderness. In the like 
sort the memory of an age, strange if not glorious, full of great changes, 
if not of great deeds, has passed away from other spots without leaving 
any visible memorial ; at Ravenna the memorials of that age are well- 
nigh all that is left. It is well that such a strange comer of history 
should still abide as a living thing in one forsaken corner of Europe. 
It is well that there should be one spot from which the monuments of 
heathen Rome and mediaeval Christendom are alike absent, and where 
every relic breathes of the strange and almost forgotten time which comes 
between the two." — Freeman. 

" Ravenna in her widowhood — the waste 

Where dreams a withered ocean ; where the hand 
Of time has gently played with tombs defaced 
Of priest and emperor ; where the temples stand, 
Proud in decay, in desolation grand, — 
Solemn and sad like clouds that lingeringly 
Sail, and are loath to fade upon the sky." — y. A. S. 

" Une chose console pourtant de la vue de ce desert qui a pris 
possession d'une cite jadis si populeuse, si animee, ruine encore debout 
survivant a tant d'autres mines. Cette chose, c'est une incomparable 
reunion de monuments de I'art chretien, qui, nuUe part ailleurs ne se 
trouve aussi purement, aussi completement represente dans ses formes 
primitives et son mysterieux symbolisme. Plus byzantine que Con- 
stantinople elle-meme, Ravenne, sauf la puissance et la gloire qui se 
sont retirees d'elle comme le font chaque jour les flots mouvants de 
I'Adriatique, Ravenne est restee a peu pres ce qu'elle etait au temps de 
Justinien et des exarques. De meme que Caere rappelle la ville etrusque. 


Cumes et Pompei la cite grecque et le municipe remain, I'ancienne 
capitale de I'Exarchat nous transporte en plain Bas-Empire. Sa 
decadence, son immobilite ne representent que trop fidelement la 
decadence et I'immobilite d'un etat qui dix siecles durant ne cessa de 
pencher vers son declin. Aussi, en la visitant, on ressent le triste 
plaisir d'avoir sous les yeux la necropole la mieux conservee de 1' Italic. 
Apres avoir fait le tour de ses vieilles murailles qui gardent les traces des 
breches ouvertes par les Barbares, penetrez dans I'interieur de ses 
austeres basiliques, et vous venez que I'antiquite chretienne y revit plus 
intacte qu'a Rome, car vous n'y rencontrez pas le melange, parfois 
choquant, du sacre et du profane. Ainsi qu'on I'a dit avec raison, 
Ravenne est done une ville essentiellement hieratique, sortant tout k 
coup de la profondeur de ses cryptes, et dont les portes semblent encore, 
de nos jours, gardees par deux statues, celles de 1' Empire et de la 
Religion,"— Z>a«^iirr, " Z'//a//<?." 

The early History of Ravenna may be told in the words 
of Gibbon : — 

" On the coast of the Adriatic, about ten or twelve miles from the most 
southern of the seven mouths of the Po, the Thessalians founded the 
ancient colony of Ravenna, which they afterwards resigned to the natives 
of Umbria. Augustus, who had observed the opportunity of the place, 
prepared, at the distance of three miles from the old town, a capacious 
harbour, for the reception of two hundred and fifty ships of war. 
This naval establishment, which included the arsenals and magazmes, 
the barracks of the troops, and the houses of the artificers, derived its 
origin and name from the permanent station of the Roman fleet ; the 
intermediate space was soon filled with buildings and inhabitants, and 
the three extensive and populous quarters of Ravenna (Ravenna, Cesarea, 
and Classis) gradually contributed to form one of the most important 
cities of Italy. The principal canal of Augustus poured a copious 
stream of the waters of the Po through the midst of the city, to the 
entrance of the harbour ; the same waters were introduced into the pro- 
found ditches that encompassed the wall ; they were distributed by a 
thousand subordinate canals, into every part of the city, which they 
divided into a variety of small islands ; the communication was main- 
tained only by the use of boats and bridges ; and the houses of Ravenna, 
whose appearance may be compared to that of Venice, were raised on 
the foundation of wooden piles. The adjacent country, to the distance 
of many miles, was a deep and impassable morass ; and the artificial 
causeway, which connected Ravenna with the continent, might be easily 



guarded, or destroyed, on the approach of a hostile army. These 
morasses were interspersed, however, with vineyards ; and though the 
soil was exhausted by four or five crops, the town enjoyed a more 
plentiful supply of wine than of fresh water. The air, instead of 
receiving the sickly and almost pestilential exhalations of low and 
marshy grounds, was distinguished, like the neighbourhood of Alex- 
andria, as uncommonly pure and salubrious ; and this singular advantage 
was attributed to the regular tides of the Adriatic, which swept the canal, 
interrupted the unwholesome stagnation of the waters, and floated every 
day the vessels of the adjacent country into the heart of Ravenna. The 
gradual retreat of the sea has left the modern city at the distance of four 
miles from the Adriatic ; and as early as the fifth or sixth century of 
the Christian era, the port of Augustus was converted into pleasant 
orchards ; and a lonely grove of pines covered the ground where the 
Roman fleet once rode at anchor. Even this alteration contributed to 
increase the natural strength of the place ; and the shallowness of the 
water was a sufficient barrier against the large ships of the enemy. 
This advantageous situation was fortified by art and labour : and in the 
twentieth year of his age, Honorius, emperor of the west, anxious only 
for his personal safety, retired to the perpetual confinement of the walls 
and morasses of Ravenna. The example of Honorius was imitated by 
his feeble successors, the Gothic kings, and afterwards the exarchs, who 
occupied the throne and palace of the emperors ; and, till the middle of 
the eighth century, Ravenna was considered as the seat of government, 
and the capital of Italy." — Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 

This Venice-like condition of Ravenna is alluded to by 
many of the Latin poets,* especially by Claudian : — 

" Antiquse muros egressa Ravennse 
Signa movet ; jamque ora Padi, ponusque reliquit 
Flumineos, certis ubi legibus advena Nereus 
.^stuat, et pronas puppes nunc amne secundo, 
Nunc redeunte vehit ; nudataque litora fluctu 
Deserit, Oceani lunaribus semula damnis." 

Cons. Hon. vi. 494. 

In A.D. 79, Christianity is said to have been first preached 
in Ravenna by its patron S. Apollinaris, who suffered mar- 
tyrdom here. In 404, Honorius, son of the great Theodo- 

• Sil. Ital. viii. 602 ; Martial, xiii. Ep. 18; Id. iii. 56; Sid. Apol. c. ix. 


sius, removed the seat of the government of the Western 
Empire from Rome to Ravenna, and here his brave sister, 
Placidia, ruled for 25 years after his death, in the name of 
her son Valentinian III., in which time Ravenna attained 
its greatest glory, and the churches of S. Giovanni Evange- 
lista, S. Agata, S. Francesco, and SS. Nazaro and Celso were 
built. After the fall of Olybrius, who had married Placidia, 
daughter of Valentinian, the Herulian Odoacer nominally 
ruled for three years (490 — 493) in Ravenna as King. He 
was murdered in his palace, and succeeded by Theodoric, 
the Ostrogoth, who had already obtained a partnership in 
his government. Theodoric was an Arian,* and during his 
reign six great Arian churches were built, of which S. Apol- 
linare Nuovo and S. Spirito remain. Owing to the tolerance 
of Theodoric, Ravenna was no less enriched during his life- 
time with great Catholic churches, of which (the modernized) 
S. Maria Maggiore is one ; S. Vitale and S. Apollinare in 
Classe were also both commenced before his death. 

Theodoric died in 526, and was succeeded by a series 
of elective kings. The last who ruled in Ravenna was 
Vitiges, who was besieged in Ravenna and subdued (539) 
by Belisarius, the general of Justinian, then Emperor of 
the East. Under Justinian, Ravenna was ruled and its 
palace inhabited by the eunuch Narses, who took the 
title of Exarch, and for fourteen years (554 — 568) admin- 
istered the entire kingdom of Italy, During his reign 
and that of the succeeding Exarchs, Ravenna continued to 
be the chief town of Italy, Rome a mere provincial city. 

* The Arian heresy was concerning the nature of the Divine Trinity. The Arians 
maintained that there was only one God, and that the Son and the Holy Ghost 
were created beings. 


While it looked to Constantinople as its mother city, Byzan- 
tine treasures and the knowledge of Byzantine arts natur- 
ally contributed to its adornment, so that, in the words of 
Gregorovius, " Ravenna has become the Pompeii of the 
Gothic and Byzantine times." The Exarchate lasted 185 
years — the later Exarchs ruling feebly, like satraps of an 
old eastern monarchy. It came to an end under the Exarch 
Eutychius, who was driven out by Astaulphus, king of the 
Lombards, in a.d. 752. The attempt of the Lombards to 
seize Rome also, brought Pepin, king of the Franks, to the 
rescue, and he made over Ravenna as a temporal possession 
to the Holy See. 

From this time Ravenna lost its importance, though its 
Archbishops often gave it a certain lustre, many of them 
being raised to eminence either as Popes or Anti-Popes. 
From 1295 to 1346 it was ruled by the house of Polenta, 
under whom Dante found a refuge here. From the govern- 
ment of the Polentani, Ravenna passed to that of Venice, 
who ruled it till 1509, when it was ceded to Julius 11, , who 
made it the capital of the Romagna. In 1 5 1 2, the battle of 
Ravenna was fought beneath the walls, in which a victory 
was gained over the Papal troops by the army of Louis XII., 
but Gaston de Foix was killed. 

The town, apart from its antiquities, is miserably ugly, 
squalid, and featureless, and even the wonderful interiors are 
too much spoilt by modernization to be beautiful, except the 
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia and S. Apollinare in Classe. 

The early art history and the political history of Ravenna 
are identical. In later times the so-called " School of Ra- 
venna" was a very poor one; Luca Longhi (1507 — 1580) 
being its greatest luminary. 


One architectural feature of Ravenna will strike all visitors. 
It is that while almost all other campaniles in Italy are 
square, here they are almost all round. 

Two days at least should be given to Ravenna. The 
sights may thus be divided : — 

\st Day. Morning. S. Spirito. S. Maria in Cosmedin. S. Gio- 
vanni Battista. Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Tomb of the Exarch 
Isaac. S. Vitale. S. Giovanni Evangelista. 

Afternoon. Tomb of Theodoric (S. Maria Rotonda), and S. Maria 
in Porto Fuori. 

2nd Day. Morning. Piazza da Aquila. Battistero. Duomo. Chapel 
of the Arcivescovado. Pinacoteca. S. Agata. S. Francesco. Tomb 
of Dante. S. ApoUinare Nuovo. The Palace of Theodoric. S. Maria 
in Porto. 

Afternoon. Drive to S. ApoUinare in Classe and the Pineta. 

If (which will prove a misery) only one day can be given 
to Ravenna, the things which must be seen are, the Mau- 
soleum of Galla Placidia, the Baptistery, Chapel of the 
Arcivescovado, Tomb of Dante, S. ApoUinare Nuovo, the 
Palace of Theodoric, and (by a carriage) the Tomb of 
Theodoric, S. ApoUinare in Classe, and a glimpse of the 

The Pineta alone is inexhaustible. 

"The great monuments of Ravenna all come within less than a 
hundred and fifty years of each other, and yet they fall naturally into 
three periods. First come the monuments of the Christian Western 
Empire, the churches and tombs of the family of Theodosius. Next 
come the works of the Gothic Kingdom, the churches and the mauso- 
leum of Theodoric. Next come the buildings, S. Vitale amongst the 
foremost, which are later than the recovery of Italy under Justinian." — 

The Hotels are in the Strada del Monte. Turning left 
from hence by the Corso Garibaldi, the first street on the left 
contains the Church of S. Spirito, or S. Teodoro, which was 


a basilica ("ecclesia matrix") built in the 6th century by 
Theodoric for the Arian bishops. It has three aisles separated 
by 14 grey marble columns with capitals of white marble. In 
the I St chapel on the left is a curious ambo, with sculptures 
of the 6th century. In the court in front of this church is 
S. Maria in Cosmedin, the octagonal Arian Baptistery of 
S. Spirito, also of the 6th century. The mosaics were added 
after it was given over to Catholic worship. They represent 
the Baptism of Christ, whose form is seen through the 
water, surrounded by the apostles, their figures divided by 

" Of doubtful age are the mosaics in S. Maria in Cosmedin, though the 
decoration of that building belongs almost indisputably to the time of 
the veritable Byzantine dominion ; probably, therefore, to the middle of 
the sixth century. We here observe a free imitation of the cupola 
mosaics of the orthodox church. Surrounding the centre picture of the 
Baptism of Christ are arranged here, as well as in them, the figures of 
the Twelve Apostles, bearing crowns in their hands, except that their 
line is interrupted on the east side by a golden throne with a cross. The 
figures are no longer advancing, but stand motionless, yet without stiff- 
ness. The heads are somewhat more uniformly drawn, but the draperies 
already display stiffness of line, with unmeaning breaks and folds, and 
a certain crudeness of light and shade. The decline of the feeling for 
decoration shows itself not only in the unpleasant interruption of the 
figures caused by the throne, but also in the introduction of heavy palm- 
trees between the single figures, instead of the graceful acanthus-plant. 
In the centre picture the naked form of the Christ is somewhat stiffer, 
though that of St. John is precisely the same as in the Baptisteries of 
the orthodox church. On the other hand, the river Jordan is introduced 
as a third person, with the upper part of the figure bare, a green lower 
garment, hair and beard long and white, two red crescent-shaped horns 
on his head, a reed in his hand, and an urn beside him." — KUgler. 

Returning to the Corso Garibaldi, we must take the next 
turn on the left (Strada S. Elia). Here (left) is the Church of 
S. Giovanni Battista, also called S. Giovanni delle Catine, 


which was built in 438 by Galla Placidia for her confessor 
S. Barbatian, and consecrated by S. Peter Chrysologus. It 
was, however, almost entirely rebuilt in 1683, and nothing 
remains of the old building but the curious round campanile, 
and 16 ancient columns, arranged in pairs, in the interior. 
In the piazza before the church stand three great sarcophagi. 
From the front of this church the Strada S. Crispino leads 
hence almost direct to the Church of SS. Nazaro and Celso, 
the famous Mausoleum of Galla Placidia* Outside it 
would not be recognized as a church, it is rather like a 
lowly outhouse of brick, the front not rising above the 
level of the wall in which it is engrafted. It is a Latin 
cross, 40 ft. long and 2,2> ft- broad, vaulted throughout, and 
with a cupola at the cross. In the centre is an ancient altar 
of oriental alabaster, formerly in S. Vitale, and referred 
to as existing in the 6th century. The three great sarco- 
phagi are the only tombs of the Caesars, oriental or occi- 
dental, which remain in their original places. That in the 
chancel, of Greek marble, contained the body of the Empress 
Galla Placidia. Through a hole (now closed) in one of its 
sides the embalmed body of the Empress might once be 
seen (as Charlemagne at Aix la Chapelle), seated in her 
cypress-wood chair and clad in her imperial robes, but in 
1577 some boys set the robes on fire and the body was con- 

Placidia was daughter of the great Theodosius by his second wife 
Galla. After her father's death at Milan, in a.d. 395, and the removal 
of the court of her brother Honorius to Ravenna, she continued to reside 
in Rome. She was there during the siege by Alaric, was amongst the 
prisoners, and afterwards married Adolphus, King of the Visigoths, 
brother of Alaric. This husband, whom she loved, was murdered in 

* The Sacristan of S. Vitale has the keys of the Mausoleum. 



his palace at Barcelona, A.D. 414, and Placidia herself treated with 
great cruelty by his assassin, the barbarian Sarus. Having been ran- 
somed by her brother from the Goths for 600,000 measures of wheat, 
she was shortly afterwards married to Constantius, the successful general 
of Honorius, by whom she became the mother of Honoria and Valentinian 
III. Her second husband was associated with Honorius in the govern- 
ment, but died in the 7th month of his reign, and, after a violent quarrel 
with her brother, Placidia and her children were forced to fly to Con- 
stantinople. Upon the death of Honorius she returned to capture 
Ravenna, and execute justice upon John, a usurper who had seized the 
throne. After this she practically ruled the Western Empire for 25 
years, in the name of her son, the feeble Valentian IH., who was only 
six years old at the time of her return to Ravenna, and during this time 
devoted her great wealth to the adornment of the capital. She died at 
Rome in 440. 

Tomb of Galla Placidia, Ravenna. 

The sarcophagus in the right transept contains the body 

of the Emperor Honorius II., brother of Galla Placidia; 

that in the left transept the body of Constantius III., the 

second husband of Galla Placidia and father of Valentinian 
VOL. II. 20 


III. Near the entrance are two smaller sarcophagi con- 
taining the ashes of the tutors of Valentinian son of Placidia, 
and of her daughter Honoria. 

The story of Honoria is a tragic romance. Forbidden to make any 
but a distasteful and political marriage, she was discovered at 1 7 in an 
intrigue with her chamberlain Eugenius, and, after having been cruelly 
imprisoned by her mother, was exiled to pass the rest of her days in a 
weary confinement with her cousins at Constantinople, the sisters of 
Theodosius, Emperor of the East. Sick of her life, she adopted the 
desperate remedy of writing to Attila, King of the Goths, offering him 
her hand, if he would obtain her freedom. He listened to her proposal, 
but in asking her from her family, demanded also her share of the im- 
perial patrimony. He was indignantly refused (the right of female suc- 
cession .being denied), and Honoria, removed to Italy, was condemned 
to languish in a perpetual prison for the rest of her life. 

The whole of the roof is covered with mosaics of the 5th 

" Before A.D. 450, we may consider the rich decorations of the monu- 
mental chapel of Galla Placidia, preserved entire with all its mosaics ; 
and therefore alone fitted to give us an idea of the general decorations 
of the ornamented buildings of that period. This chapel is built in the 
form of a cross, the centre being occupied by a square elevation, archetl 
over in the form of the segment of a cupola : aisles and transepts termin- 
ate above in waggon roofs. The lower walls were formerly faced with 
marble slabs. From the cornice upwards begin the mosaics, chiefly 
gold upon a dark-blue ground, which binds the whole together with a 
pleasant effect. Upon the arches are ornaments, which, though not in 
the antique taste, belong, in point of elegance, to the most excellent of 
their kind. On the lunettes, at the tennination of the transepts, are 
seen golden stags advancing between green-gold arabesques upon a blue 
ground towards a fountain — an emblem of the conversion of the heathen. 
In the lunette over the entrance of the nave we observe the Good Shep- 
herd, of a very youthful character, seated among his flock ; while in the 
chief lunette over the altar Christ appears full length with the flag of 
victory, burning the writings of the heretics (or of the philosophers) 
upon a grate. On the walls of the elevated portion before alluded to 
are seen the Apostles, two-and-two, without any particular attributes ; 
between, and below each, a pair of doves sipping out of basins ; and 
finally, in the cupola itseF, between large stars, a richly decorated cross 


and the sjrmbols of the Evangelists. Upon the whole, the combination 
of symbols and historical characters in these mosaics evinces no definite 
principle or consistently carried out thought ; and, with the exception 
of the Good Shepherd the figures are of inferior character. At the same 
time, in point of decorative harmony, the effect of the whole is incom- 
parable. On that account we may the more lament the loss of the very 
extensive mosaics of S. Giovanni Evangelista, also built by the Empress 
Galla Placidia." — Kiigler. 

" The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia presents by far the most inter- 
esting and perfect example of early Symbolism — its architecture, its 
mosaics, and its tombs thoroughly harmonizing. The mosaics are 
peculiarly beautiful ; in one of them the Good Shepherd is represented 
feeding one of his sheep with one hand, holding a small cross in the 
other. Another represents Our Saviour, the youthful head with a 
cross in his hand, standing beside a brazier of burning coals,* beyond 
which appears an open scrinium, or book-case, containing rolls of the 
Gospels, each marked with the Evangelist's name ; the cross glitters in 
a heaven of stars in the centre of the dome, and the emblematical 
animals of the Evangelists watch around it ; other symbols, also, are 
introduced, all most appropriate. But the tombs are still more interest- 
ing, as (with the exception, perhaps, of a few busts) the earliest speci- 
mens existing of Byzantine sculpture ; taken together with those of Galla 
Placidia's confession, S. Barbatian, and of the Archbishop Rinaldo, in 
the chapel of the south transept of the Uuomo, and those of the eight 
archbishops of Ravenna, who lived in the seventh and eighth centuries, 
now ranged in the aisles of S. Apollinare di fuori, they will enable you 
to form a satisfactory idea of its merits during these early ages. They 
are, for the most part, fairly executed for the time, especially those done 
by order of Placidia. Nothing can be more striking than the contrast 
they present in their simplicity to the tombs of the catacombs, so over- 
loaded with typical compositions. In these everything is symbolical. 
A cross, with two birds perched upon it — or supporting the monogram 
of Christ — between two lighted candles, or two sheep ; birds or stags 
drinking at a fountain, which springs up below the monogram enclosed 
in a wreath, — ^or a lamb carrying a cross and standing on the Mount of 
Paradise — are the most frequent subjects ; occasionally, but very rarely, 
the beardless figure of our Saviour occurs, seated on his throne. Of 
historical subjects, properly so called, none are to be met with in the 
whole series." — Lindsay's Christian Art. 

Passing (left) the Church of S. Maria Maggiore (built first 

* Probably ii; allusion to Is:iiah vi. 6. 


in 526, but entirely modernized, except its round campanile, 
in the i6th century, only 16 ancient columns remaining in 
the interior), we reach (right) the magnificent Church of S. 
Vitale. This masterpiece of Byzantine architecture, exter- 
nally a mass of rugged brick, was begun in 526, the year of 
the death of Theodoric, under the superintendence of the 
Archbishop S. Ecclesius and the Julia7ius Argentarius under 
whom S. ApoUinare in Classe was also built. Its resem- 
blance to the recently erected S. Sophia at Constantinople 
reveals its eastern origin. It was erected in honour of S. 
Vitale upon the place where he suffered martjTdom. 

"According to the Ambrosian legend, S. Vitalis, the famous patron 
saint of Ravenna, was the father of SS. Gervasius and Protasius, served 
in the army of the Emperor Nero, and was one of the converts of S. 
Peter. Seeing a Christian martyr led to death, whose courage appeared 
to be sinking, he exhorted him to endure bravely to the end, carried off 
his body, and buried it honourably ; for which crime, as it was then con- 
sidered, he was first tortured, and then burned alive. His wife Valeria, 
and his two sons Gervasius and Protasius, fled to Milan." — JamesotCs 
Sacred Art. 

The Church (which was consecrated in a.d. 547) is 
approached by a court, where there is a pretty portico with 
ornamented pillars. The interior is octagonal, and is sur- 
rounded by eight round-headed arches resting on wide piers, 
which each contain semi-circular recesses, one story above 
the other, with three small arches. Above is a semi-circular 
cupola, painted in the last century with coarse frescoes which 
greatly interfere with the harmony of this building, " where 
Justinian and Theodora still dimly blaze in the gold and 
purple of the mosaics."* 

" The chief architectural novelty and leading feature in this building, 

* Milman. 



is the dome. No vaulting of any kind had ever been hitherto em- 
ployed in the roofs of churches, much less that most skilful and admired 
of all vaulting, the cupola, or dome ; a mode of covering buildings per- 
fectly well understood by the Romans, but discontinued as art declined, 
and, for the first time, reproduced by the Greek architects of Con- 
stantinople, in the instance of S. Sophia. If it is difficult to support the 
downward pressure, and outward thrust, of ordinary vaulting, how much 
more is required when the pressure has to be resisted at every point, 
and the circle above has, as is frequently the case, to be connected with 
a square below J This was accomplished, in the construction of S. 
Sophia, by means of what are technically called pendentives ; brackets, 
on a large scale, projecting from the walls at the angles, and carried up 
to the base of the dome. At S. Vitale, which is not a square, but an 
octagon, a series of small arches is employed, instead of pendentives, 
but acting upon the same principle. By this expedient the dome is 
united to the body of the edifice. The thrust has, then, to be resisted 

At S. Vitale, Ravenna. 

by the thickness of the walls ; and the downward pressure to be sup- 
ported by arches and piers. In most cases the pendentives are exposed 
to view ; but at S. Vitale, the mechanical contrivances are concealed by 


a ceiling. It is always an object to diminish the weight of the dome ; 
and with this view materials of the lightest kind were employed in its 
construction. At S. Vitale the dome is composed of a spiral line of 
earthen vessels, inserted into each other ; and where the lateral thrust 
ceases, and the vertical pressure begins, larger jars are introduced in an 
upright position. The first re-appearance of a dome in Italy could not 
fail to excite admiration, and forms an epoch in the ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture of the country." — H. Gaily Kttight. 

The lower walls of the church are coated with great slabs 
of Greek marble. The red marble with which the piers are 
inlaid is quite splendid. The carving of the capitals is of the 
most exquisite beauty ; these blocks, sculptured in bas-relief, 
are a Byzantine feature, invented at Constantinople. Many of 
the sculptured fragments in different parts of the church are 
of great interest, especially reliefs (to the right of the high 
altar between the pillars of Verde Antico) representing some 
genii bearing a shell, and the throne of Neptune with a sea- 
monster beneath it ; and the reHef called the " Apotheosis of 
Augustus " near the entrance of the Sacristy. The statues 
and pictures here are unimportant ; the best of the latter 
are those by the native family of Longhi (father, son, and 
daughter) in the Sacristy. The pavement has been raised 
3 feet, and the adjoining street is 6 feet above the original 

But the great feature of all is the glorious Mosaics of the 
time of Justinian and Theodora, still almost as fresh as 
when they were erected. 

" Unfortunately, the decorations of the principal tribune, and those 
of the quadrangular arched space before it, are all that have been 
preserved. They refer in subject to the foundation and consecration of 
the church, with the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. Gold grounds 
and blue grounds alternate here, the former being confined to the apsis 
and to two of the four divisions of the arched space. In the semi-dome 



of the apsis appears a still very youthful Christ, seated upon the globe of 
the world ; on each side two angels, with S. Vitalis as patron of the 

At S. Vitale. 

church, and Bishop Ecclesius as founder, the latter carrying a model of 
the building. Below are the four rivers of Paradise, flowing through 
green meadows, while the golden ground is striped with purple clouds. 
The figures are all noble and dignified, especially the Christ, whose 
ideal youlhfulness scarcely recurs after that time. In the drapery there 
is much that is conventional, especially in the mode of shadowing, 
though a certain truthfulness still prevails. 

"Upon the perpendicular wall of the apsis appear two large cere- 
monial representations upon a gold ground, which, as the almost sole 
surviving specimens of the higher style of profane painting, are of great 
interest, and as examples of costume, quite invaluable. The picture on 
the right represents the relation in which the Emperor Justinian stood 
to the church — the figures as large as life. In splendid attire, laden 
with the diadem and with a purple and gold-embroidered mantle, 
fastened with a monstrous fibula, is seen the Emperor, advancing, his 
hands full of costly gifts ; his haughty, bloated, vulgar, yet regular 
countenance, with the eyebrows elevated towards the temple, is seen in 


front. To him sttcceed a number of courtiers, doubtless also portraits, 
ami next to them the easiJy recognizable, fair, Germanic body-guard, 
with sword and shield. Archbishop Maximian, with his clergy, is ad- 
vancing to meet the Emperor. He, also, with his bald head, and the 
pathetic half-closed slits of eyes, is a characteristic portrait of the time. 
Opposite, on the left, is the Empress Theodora, surrounded by the 
gorgeously attired ladies and eunuchs of the court, in the act of entering 
the church. Tlie Eiwpress is also clad in the dark iriolet (pnrple) 
imperial mantle, and from her grotesque diadem hangs a whole cascade 
of beads and jewels, enclosing a narrow, pale, highly significant face, in 
whose large, hollow eyes, aind small sensual roortth, the whole history 
of that clever, imperious, voluptuoas, and merciless woman is written. 
A chamberlain before her is drawing back a richly-embroidered caytain, 
so as to exhibit the entrance-court of a church, betokened as such by its 
cleansing foujitain. Justinian and Theodora are distingnished by bright 
nimbuses, a homage which the artist of that time eouM scarcely with- 
hold, since be evidently knew no other form of flatter}'. 

" Of somewhat inferior execution are tlie mosaics of the lofty quad- 
rangular sjDace before the apsis, representhig the Old Testament symbols 
of the sacrifice of the mass. On the vanltiing, between green and gold 
tendrils npon a blue ground, and green upon a gold ground, are four 
flying angels upon globes, resembling antique Victories ; below them, in 
the four corners, are four peacocks, as emblems of Eternity. On the 
upper Avail, above the apsis, two angels, gracefully hovering, are holding 
a shield with the sign of the Redeemer ; on each side, blazing with 
jewels, of which they are entirely constructed, are the cities of Jerusalem 
and Bethlehem, with vine-tendrils and biuls, on a blue ground, above 
them. On either side wall, in an architectural framework, which we 
are at a loss to describe, are the subjects we have already mentioned!. 
Two semicircles contain the principal subjects, viz., the bloody and 
bloodless sacrifice of the Old Covenant. We see Abraham carrying out 
provisions to the three young men in vfhite garments, who are seated at 
a table under a leafleSvS bat budding tree, while Sarah stands behind the 
door laughing. Then, again, we l>ehold the Patriarch on the point of 
offering up his son Isaac, who kneels naked before him. Then Abel (an 
excellent and perfectly antique shepherd figure) in the act of holding up 
his sacrifice of the firstling of the flock before a wooden hut, while Mel- 
chizedec (designated by a nimbus as the symbol of Christ), advancing 
from a temple in the form of a Basilica, pronounces a blessing over the 
bread and wine. The pictures then continue further the history of the 
Old Covenant, showing Moses, who, as the prefiguration of Christ, is 
here represented as a youth \ then again, as he first appears under the 

S. VI TALE. 313 

character of a shepherd ; and lastly, as he is receiving the tables of the 
Law upon the Mount, while the people are waiting below. Isaiah and 
Jeremiah, grey-headed men in white robes, appear to be vehemently 
agitated by the spirit of prophecy ; and further upward, in similar gestures 
of inspiration, are seen the Four Evangelists, seated with their emblems, 
S. Matthew looking up to the angel as if to a vision. Above, the 
subject is closed by fine arabesques, vine-tendrils, and birds. Finally, 
in the front archivolt next the dome are thirteen medallions between 
elegant arabesques upon a blue ground, containing the portraits of 
Christ and the Apostles ; individual, portrait-like heads, several of 
which have suffered a later restoration. The execution of the whole 
front space is partially rude and superficial, especially in the prophets 
and evangelists. In drawing, also, these portions are inferior to the 
works in the apsis, although, in that respect, they still excel those of the 
following century. In the delineation of animals, for example in the 
Lion of S. Mark, a sound feeling for nature is still evinced ; the same 
in the tree before Abraham's dwelling. In many parts the background 
landscape is elevated in a very remarkable manner, consisting of steep 
rocks covered with verdure, an evident attempt to imitate the forms of 
reality. Unfortunately nothing more is preserved of the mosaics of the 
cupola and the rest of the church." — Kiigler. 

To those who are unacquainted with their history, and 
whose interest in them is awakened by their portraits, the 
following character of Justinian and Theodora will not be 
unwelcome : — 

" Under Justinian, the nephew, colleague, and heir of Justin, the 
Roman Empire appears suddenly to resume her ancient majesty and 
power. The signs of a just, able, and vigorous administration, internal 
peace, prosperity, conquest, and splendour, surrounded the master of the 
Roman world. The greatest generals, since the days perhaps of Trajan, 
Belisarius and Narses, appear at the head of the Roman armies. 
Persia was kept at bay during several campaigns, if not continuously 
successful, yet honourable to the arms of Rome. The tide of barbarian 
conquerors rolled back. Africa, the lUyrian and Dalmatian provinces, 
Sicily, Italy, with the ancient capital, were again under the empire of 
Rome ; the Vandal kingdom, the Gothic kingdom, fell before the irresist- 
ible generals of the East. The frontiers of the empire were defended with 
fortifications constructed at an enormous cost. Justinian aspired to be 
the legislator of mankind ; a vast system of jurisprudence embodied the 


wisdom of ancient and of imperial statutes, mingled with some of the 
benign influences of Christianity, of which the author might almost have 
been warranted in the presumptuous vaticination, that it would exercise 
an unrepealed authority to the latest ages. The cities of the empire were 
adorned with buildings, civil as well as religious, of great magnificence 
and apparent durability, which, with the comprehensive legislation, 
might recall the peaceful days of the Antonines. The empire, at least 
at first, was restored to religious unity : Catholicism resumed its sway, 
and Arianism, so long its rival, died out in remote and neglected con- 

" The creator of this new epoch in Roman greatness, at least he who 
filled the throne during its creation, the Emperor Justinian, united in 
himself the most opposite vices— insatiable rapacity and lavish prodigal- 
ity, intense pride and contemptible weakness, unmeasured ambition 
and dastardly cowardice. He was the luxurious slave of his empress, 
whom, after she had ministered to the licentious pleasures of the popu- 
lace as a courtesan, and as an actress m the most immodest exhibitions, 
in defiance of decency, of honour, of the remonstrances of his friends, 
and of religion, he had made the partner of his throne. In the Chris- 
tian emperor seemed to meet the crimes of those, who won or secured 
their empire by the assassination of all whom they feared, the passion 
for public diversions, without the accomplishments of Nero, or the 
brute strength of Commodus, the dotage of Claudius. The imperious 
Theodora, even if from exhaustion or lassitude she discontinued, or at 
least condescended to disguise, those vices which dishonoured her hus- 
band, in her cruelties knew no restraint. And these cruelties were 
exercised in order to gratify her rapacity, if not in sheer caprice, as a 
substitute for that excitement which had lost its keenness and its zest. 
Theodora, a bigot without faith, a heretic, it might almost be presumed, 
without religious convictions, by the superior strength of her character, 
domineered in this as in other respects over the whole court, mingled in 
all religious intrigues, appointed to fhe highest ecclesiastical dignities, 
sold the Papacy itself. Her charities alone (if we except her masculine 
courage, and no doubt that great ability which mastered the inferior 
mind of her husband), if they sprung from lingering womanly tenderness, 
or that inextinguishable kindness which Christianity sometimes in- 
fuses into the hardest hearts, if they were not designed as a deliberate 
compromise with heaven for her vices and cruelties, may demand our 
admiration. The feeling which induced the degraded victim of the 
lusts of men to found, perhaps, the first penitentiaries for her sisters in 
that wretched class, as it shows her superior to the base fear of awaken- 
ing remembrances of her own former shame, may likewise be considered 



as an enforced homage to female virtue." — Milman, Hist, of Latin 

It lends an additional interest to S. Vitale, that it was so 
admired by Charlemagne, as to be adopted by hhu as the 
model for his famous church at Aix la Chapelle. 

In the passage, which leads from the basilica to the street 
towards S. Maria Maggiore, is the Tomb of the Exarch Isaac, 
who died here in 641 (8th Exarch of Ravenna), It is 
adorned with reliefs of Daniel in the Lions' Den, the Raising 
of Lazarus, and, on the front, the Adoration of the Magi, 
the last very curious — the Magi running as hard as they 
can with their gifts, their cloaks floating on the wind. 

Tomb of the Exarch Isaac. 

Following the Strada S. Vitale, and turning to the right, 
we reach the Church of S. Domenico, a basilica founded by 
one of the Exarchs, but quite modernized. It contains the 
grave of Luca Longhi the painter, and : — 


Ri°kt, yd Chapel. Luca Longhi (1507 — 1580). The Finding of 
the True Cross. 

Choir. Niccolb Rondinelli (one of the best pupils of Giov. Bellini). 
S. Domenico, S. Peter. 

Chapel Left of High Altar. A curious "miraculous" crucifix, of 
wood covered with linen, which is said to have sweated blood during 
the battle of Ravenna, 

Left, 2nd Chapel. Luca Longhi. The fifteen mysteries of the 

Close to this church is that of 6". Michde in Affrisco, 
built in 530, but modernized. 

In the Stradone della Stazione, which continues the 
Strada del Monte, is the Church of S. Giovanni Evangelista 
or delloc Sagra, built in 425 by Galla Placidia in fulfilment 
of a vow that she would build a church in honour of S. John 
the Evangelist, if she were saved from shipwreck with her 
children on a voyage from Constantinople to Ravenna. In 
front of the church is an Atrium approached by a very in- 
teresting Gothic portal of 1300. Its sculptures record the 
story of Galla Placidia longing for a relic of the Evangelist 
wherewith to enrich her church, and receiving one of his 
sandals in a vision. In the lower part of the relief she is 
represented embracing the feet of S. John as he appears to 
her ; in the upper she presents the sandal he has left to the 
Saviour and S. John, her confessor S. Barbatian and others 
standing by. The church has three aisles, and retains its 
24 ancient columns of grey marble. It contains : — 

Left, a/.h Chapel.' The frescoes of the vaulting are, with great 
uncertainty, attributed to Giotto. In the centre is a medallion, con- 
taining the Lamb with a cross ; in each of the four rectangular divisions 
a Doctor of the Church and an Evangelist, facing each other, and, above 
them, the emblems of the Evangelists. Those who follow Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle will maintain that "there can be no doubt of the authen- 
ticity of this fresco, in which Giotto exhibited all the qualities of which 



he was so complete a master in his prime." The frescoes have been 
ruined by " restoration." 

6M Chapel {left). Here are the only remains of the once magnificent 
mosaics of Galla Placidia in this church, a fraginent representing the 
storm and the vow of the empress. 

Apse. Beneath the high altar repose SS. Canzius, Canzanius, and 
Canzianilla. The confessional beneath is of the 5th century. 

In the Cat7ipanile are two bells cast by Robert of Saxony, 

At the end of the Strada del Monte is the Piazza Mag- 
gtore, representing the ancient Forum. It has (now adorned 
with figures of S. Apollinaris and S. Vitale) the columns 
which mark the towns which at some time have been under 
the Venetian rule. Between them is a seated statue of 
Clement XII. (1730 — 1740). Several palaces encircle the 
square, chiefly occupied for government or civic offices. 
The Palazzo Cojnmunale is adorned with busts of seven Car- 
dinal Legates, and part of the gates of Pavia, seized by the 
troops of Ravenna. The beautiful sculptured capitals of the 
columns in the colonnade deserve careful attention. They 
are supposed to be remains of a temple of Hercules. 

Beyond the Piazza Maggiore, is the little Piazza delF 
Aquila, containing a column in honour of Cardinal Gaetani, 
and surmounted by an eagle which was his badge. The 
name of the square will bring to mind an earlier connection 
of tlie eagle with Ravenna, as the arms of the Polentani, 
who ruled it in the latter part of the 13th century : — 

" Ravenna sta come e stata moiti anni : 
L'aquila da Polenta la si cova, 
Si che Cervia ricuopre co' suoi vanni." 

Dante, Ittf. xxvii. 


Hence, the Strada del Duomo leads to the cathedral 

On the left is the Baptistery or Church of S. Gioi>anni in 
Fonte* — the most interesting of all ancient baptisteries — built 
A.D. 451, by Archbishop Neo. It is octangular and sur- 
rounded by two tiers of arches, with columns of different 
sizes and orders, probably collected from pagan edifices. 
It is little altered since the 5th century, except by the 
raising of the pavement, which has buried the bases of the 
pillars. There is water beneath. In the midst is the eight- 
sided baptismal font made with slabs of porphyry and 
white marble, with an ambo for the officiating priest. In 
one of the recesses is a curious ciborium and altar, said to 
contain the head of the martyr S. Felix; in another is a 
font, said to have belonged to the Temple of Jupiter in (the 
suburb) Cesarea, and to have been afterwards used by S. 
ApoUinaris in the purification of Gentile converts. The 
cupola blazes with the ancient mosaics. 

"The earliest mosaics of the fifth century with which we are 
acquainted, namely, the internal decorations of the Baptistery at 
Ravenna, are, in respect of figures as well as ornament, among the 
most remarkable of their kind. A double row of arches occupies the 
walls : in the spandrils of the lower ones, between splendid gold 
arabesques on a blue ground, are seen the figures of the eight prophets, 
which, in general conception, especially in the motives of the draperies, 
are in no way distinguishable from the later antique works. Though the 
execution is light and bold, the chiaroscuro is throughout tolerably com- 
plete. In the upper tier of arches, between rich architectural decora- 
tions, a series of stucco reliefs occupy the place of the mosaics. The 
subjects of these are male and female saints, with rams, peacocks, sea- 
horses, stags, and griffins above ; chiefly white upon a red, yellow, or 
grey ground. At the base of the cupola is a rich circle of mosaics con- 
sisting of four altars, with the four open books of the Gospel, four 
thrones with crosses, eight Episcopal sedilia beneath the conch-niches, 

* Entered by a low door close by. 


and eight elegant tombs surmounted with garlands.* All these 
subjects are divided symmetrically, and set in a framework of 
architecture of beautiful and almost Pompeian character. Within this 
circle appear the chief representations — the twelve Apostles, colossal in 
size; and in the centre, as a circular picture, the Baptism of Christ. 
The apostles stand upon a green base, representing the earth, with a blue 
background, under a white gold -decorated drapery, which embraces 
the whole circle of the cupola, and is divided into compartments by 
gold acanthus plants. The robes of the apostles are of gold stuff ; and 
as they step along in easy, dignified measure, bearing crowns in their 
hands, they form a striking contrast to the stiff immobility of later 
mosaics. The heads, like most of those in the Catacomb pictures, are 
somewhat small, and, at the same time, by no means youthfully ideal or 
general, but rather livingly individual, and even of that late Roman 
character of ugliness which is so observable in portraits of the time. In 
spite of their walking action, the heads are not given in profile, but in 
front, which, in a work otherwise of such excellence, is decidedly not 
ascribable to any inability of drawing on the part of the artist, but to 
the desire of giving the spectator as much as possible of the holy 
countenances. In default of a definite type for the apostles — the first 
traces of which can at most be discerned in the figure of S. Peter, who 
appears with grey hair, though not as yet with a bald head — they are 
distinguished by inscriptions. Especially fine in conception and execu- 
tion are the draperies, which in their .gentle flow and grandeur of 
massing, recall the best Roman work. As in the antique representations 
of Victory, the folds appear to be agitated by a supernatural wind. In 
the centre picture — the Baptism of Christ — the character of the nude is 
still easy and unconstrained, the lower part of the Saviour's figure being 
seen through the water — a mode of treating this subject which continued 
late into the middle ages, probably on account of the artist's objection 
to give any incomplete representation of the Saviour's form. We are led 
to conclude this from the fact that in other figures, where no such 
scruples existed, that part of the person which is in the water is generally 
rendered invisible. The head of Christ, with the long divided hair, 
corresponds in great measure with the already described Catacomb type. 
The whole is still treated somewhat in the spirit of ancient fable, the 
figure being represented simply, without nimbus or glory, with a cross 
between the Saviour and the Baptist ; while the river Jordan, under the 
form of a river-god, rises out of the water on the left, in the act of pre- 
senting a cloth. The angels, which in later representations perform 
this office, occur but rarely at this time. The combined ornamental 

* Interesting as an early pictorial representation of the earliest memorial a'.tar- 


effect, the arrangement of the figures, and the delicate feeling for colour 
pervading the whole, enable us to form an idea of the genuine splendour 
and beauty which have been lost to the world in the destruction of the 
later decorated buildings of Imperial Rome. " — Kiigler. 

In the court close to the Baptistery are a number of 
ancient sarcophagi. 

The Cathedral, or Basilica Ursiana, was founded by 
Archbishop Ursus in a.d. 400, but was almost entirely 
rebuilt by Archbishop Guiccioli in 1734, only the round 
campanile and the ancient crypt remaining. The great 
door retains some fragments of the ancient door of vine- 
wood (whose planks measured 13 ft. by i^) brought from 
Constantinople. In the Interior of the Church we may 
observe : 

Right Transept (Cappella del Sudore). Two magnificent marble 
sarcophagi, containing the remains of S. Rinaldus, and of S. Barbatian 
the confessor of Galla Placidia. 

Sacristy. A curious Paschal Calendar on marble for a.d. 532 — 626, 
a silver crucifix of the 6th century, and the ivory throne of the Arch- 
bishop Maximian, 532—626, covered with bas-reliefs chiefly of the 
History of Joseph. 

Ambulatory behind the Choir. A bas-relief of S. Mark by Lombardi, 
and two sculptured marble slabs from an ancient ambo, shown by the 
inscription to have been erected by S. Agnellus. 

" The bas-reliefs of the ancient ambones, now incrested into the wall 
behind the choir, hardly deserve mention as works of art, but are curious 
as exhibiting in distinct rows, the fish, the dove, the lamb, the stag, 
peacock, &c. — 'the whole sacred menagerie,' as Mr Hope calls it, of 
Symbolism." — Lindsays Christian Art. 

Choir. The picture of the Consecration of the church by S. Ursus is 
by Camttccini, that of the Death of S. Peter Chrysologus by Benvenuti. 

Left Transept (Cappella del Sacramento). Guido Reni. The Fall of 
the Manna, with the Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek in a lunette 

Left Aisle. Tomb of Archbishop Guiccioli, who rebuilt the cathedral. 

Behind the Cathedral is the Bishofs Palace (Arcivesco- 
vado). It contains much of interest, but especially the 


Chapel, built by S. Peter Chrysologus, 439 — 450, and quite 
unaltered. Its walls are coated with great slabs of marble, 
and its ceiling is covered with the ancient mosaics. 

"The chapel consists of a dome upon four circular arches, on the 
soffits of which, upon a gold ground, are sets of seven medallions, with 
the pictures of the very youthful Christ, of the Apostles, and several 
saints, * upon a blue ground, a work which very nearly approaches the 
thirteen circular pictures in S. Vitale, but is lighter and inferior in execu- 
tion. The centre of the gold-grounded dome is occupied by a large 
medallion with the monogram of Christ, upheld by four simple and 
graceful angel figures rising from the four springings of the arch. In 
the four intermediate spaces are the winged emblems of the Evangelists, 
bearing the richly decorated books of the Gospel. The Lion of St. 
Mark is remarkable for an almost human form of head. A broad pas- 
sage leads into a space beyond, terminating in a waggon roof. This is 
decorated with birds and flowers upon a gold ground, which are very 
rudely and sketchily treated, and probably belong to a later period, " — 

On the right of the space near the altar is a full-length 
figure of Christ, clothed in the " chlamyde " typical of the 
Church Militant. This is of the 5th century, but the figure 
of the Virgin and the two medallions of saints over the altar, 
were brought from the (destroyed) Basilica Ursiana, and are 
not earlier than the nth. 

In the ante-chamber of the chapel are a beautiful Arian 
Cross and a number of mscriptions belonging to the ancient 
cathedral. The Archives contain much that is curious, 
especially a brief of Paschal 11. (1099 — 1118), confirming the 
privileges of the Archbishops of Ravenna. 

Behind the Arcivescovado, at the entrance of the Strada 
di Classe, is the Pinacoteca. It contains a small collection, 
chiefly by the native family of Longhi : — 

• Felicitas, Perpetua, Daria, Eufemia, Eugenia, Cecilia, Damian, Fabian, Sebas- 
tian, Crysantlius, Crysogonus, Cassianus. 

VOL. II. 21 



Luca Longhi. Crucifixion. 
Id. Virgin and Child throned, with saints. 
Id. The Deposition, 

Id. The Nativity — an excellent work of this master. 
Id. Portrait of his daughter Barbara, herself an artist. 
Fraiuesco Longhi. Nativity. 
Romanelli. S. Sebastian. 
Giorgio VasarL Tlie Deposition. 

Cotignola (Francesco Marchesi or Zaganelli). Virgin and Child, with 
S. J. Baptist and S. Catherine. 

In an ante-chamber are two fine busts — S. ApolHnare, by 
Thorwaldsen, and Cardinal Capponi, by Bernini. Other 
rooms contain the Model of a Dying Horse by Canova ; the 
Graces of Thorwaldsen ; the Endymion found in the studio 
of Canova after his death, and given by Cardinal Rivarola, 
and his models for the tomb of Volpato and Valerio. But 
the gem of the collection, alone worth a pilgrimage to 
Ravenna to see, is the exquisite Totnb of Guidarello 
Guidarelli, called Fortebraccio da Ravenna, removed 

Tomb of Guidarello Guidarelli. 

hither on the destruction of the Fortebraccio chapel near ?, 
Francesco. It is by Baldaldo Giovenaldo da Ravenna., and 

S. AG ATA. 323 

is one of the most perfect and beautiful representations of 
death ever given in sculpture. The young knight is dressed 
in armour, and lies on a simple couch, his head has fallen 
on one side, the teeth are locked, and the long lashes 
have fallen over the eyes. 

The adjoining Collegio, once the Carthusian Monastery of 
S. Romualdo, encloses the Museum, Public Library, &c. 

The Museo contains a fine collection of ancient Medals, 
remarkable among which is the bronze medal struck in 
honour of Cicero by the town of Magnesia in Lydia. 

The Biblioteca Comunale contains a celebrated MS. of 
Aristophanes of the loth century, an illuminated 14th-cen- 
tury MS, of Dante, a prayer-book of Mary Stuart with 
miniatures, and other treasures. Here also is the wooden 
coffin which contained the remains of Dante. 

In the former Refectory, is the masterpiece of the native 
painter Luia Longhi — the Marriage of Cana. 

The fine bronze statue of Alexander VII. (Fabio Chigi, 
1635 — 1667) was removed hither from the Piazza S. 

Below the Collegio stands the closed Church of S. Niccolh, 
built by Archbishop Sergius in 768. Outside it, is one of 
the largest of the mediaeval sarcophagi. The street oppo- 
site this leads to the dreadfully damp — 

Church of S. Agata, of the 5th century, retaining the 20 
ancient columns of granite and marble which divide its 
nave and aisles. It contains : — 

Hight, Chapel at end of aisle. Luc a Longhi. SS. Catherine, Agata, 
and Cecilia. The altar contains the bodies of the Archbishop S. 
Agnellus and the martyr S. Sergius, and is decorated with the mono- 
gram of " Sergius Diaconus." 

Choir. Francesco da Cotignola. Crucifixion. The 6th-century 
mosaics of the Tribune were destroyed by an earthquake in 1688. 


End of the Left aisle. Barbiani, The Madonna with S. Peter. 

By the Strada Girotto a little above S. Agata, we turn 
(right) to (left) the Piazza S. Francesco. 

In the house at the corner of the square Lord Byron 
lived in 1819. TJie Church of S. Francesco is modernized 
except the (square) Campanile, but was founded by Bishop 
Neo in 426, and dedicated to S. Peter. It was first called 
S. Francesco in 1261. The choir, and the bases and shafts 
of the 22 marble columns, remain from the ancient church. 

Right Aisle. Cappella dell Crocifisso. The capitals of the two beau- 
tiful columns of Greek marble are by Pietro Lombardo. 

4//^ Chapel. Sacchi da Imola. Madonna throned, with saints and 

End Chapel. Sarcophagus of the 5th century, of Archbishop 

Left Aisle. Tomb of Luffo Numai, Lord of Forii, by Tommaso Flam- 

Left of Entrance. Monument of Enrico Alfieri, General of the 
Franciscans, 1405. Of the same family as the poet. 

Right of Entrance. Monument of Ostasio de' Polentani, Lord of Ra- 
venna, dressed as a Franciscan monk, 1396. Near these are two mag- 
nificent sarcophagi. 

Close to the church is the miserable little round temple 
erected over the Tomb of Dante. 

' ' Dante a bien fait de mourir ^ Ravenne ; son tombeau est bien 
place dans cette triste cite, tombeau de I'empire romain en Occident, 
empire qui, ne dans un marais, est venu expirer dans les lagunes. 

*' Dante vint au moins deux fois a Ravenne chercher un refuge sous 
les ailes de I'aigle des Polentani, noble famille a laquelle appartenait 
cette jeune femme dont la touchante infortune est devenue un portion 
de la gloire du grand poete. Ravenne est doublement consacree par 
le berceau de Francesca et par le tombeau de Dante. 

" Non loin de ce tombeau s'eleve un pan de mur qui est peut-etre un 
teste du palais des Polentani. Dante vecut ses demieres annees dans 
ce palais, dont il reste seulement quelques debris incertains, et oil 
s'ecoul^rent les premiers jours de Francesca. C'est alors, dit-on, qu'il 


immortalisa les .malheurs de la fille des Polentani pour consoler son 
vieux pere. Mais il est peu vraisemblable qu'il ait attendu si long- 
temps pour raconter un evenement tragique arrive bien des annees aupara- 
vant, et qui se trouve dans I'un des premiers chants de sou poeme. 

" Le tombeau de Dante n'est pas de son temps ; ii est malheureusement 
beaucoup plus moderne. Les cendres du poete ont attendu longtemps 
ce tardif hommage. Quand il mourut ici, le 14 septembre, 1321, age 
seulement de cinquante-six ans, une urne de marbre recueillit ses cendres 
proscrites. Son hote Guido della Polenta fut lui-meme chasse de Ra- 
venne avant d'avoir pu elever une tombe a celui que les agitations de sa 
terre natale avaient prive d'une patrie, et que les troubles de sa terra 
d'exil privaient d'un tombeau. Ce fut seulement plus d'un siecle apres 
que Bernardo Bembo, podestat de Ravenne pour la republique de 
Venise, fit constiuire, par le calebre architect et sculpteur Lombardi, un 
monument qui, malheureusement, a ele restaure en 1692 par un Floren- 
tin, le Cardinal Domenico Corsi, legat pour la Romagne ; et, plus 
malheureusement encore, a ete entierement reconstruit en 1780 par un 
autre legat, le cardinal Gonzaga da Mantoue. Les inscriptions sont 
peu remarquables. Dans celle du xviii^ siecle, I'admiration pour Dante 
a cru faire beaucoup en I'appellant \e premier poete de son temps. L'eloge 
etait modeste. Le Cardinal Gonzaga pensait en dire assez, et probable- 
ment ne soup9onnait pas que celui auquel il accordait cette louage re- 
lative put etre mis en comparaison avec les poetes italiens d'un siecle 
plus eclaire, tel que Frugoni. II faut songer que vers ce temps Betinelli 
declarait qu'il y avait tout au plus cent cinquante bonnes terzaines dans 
la Divine Comedie. Une epitaphe plus ancienne, en mauvais latin, 
et qui a ete attribuee a Dante, ne me parait pas pouvoir etre de lui ; les 
vers sont trop barbares. Les deux derniers sont encore, au moins pour 
le sentiment, ce qu'il y a de mieux dans ce lieu funebre : 

Hie claudor Danthes, patriis extorris ab oris, 
Quera genuit parvi Florentia mater amoris. 

" lis respirent une melancolie amere que Dante n'eut point desavouee ; 
mais les quatre premiers sont detestables, et je ne puis me resoudre a 
Ten accuser, 

" Le monument, dans son etat actuel, porte I'empreinte funeste du siecle 
dans lequel il a ete reconstruit, comme tout ce que les arts produisaient 
alors. Cependant quand j 'arrival par la rue de Dante {strada di Dante) 
en presence de la mesquine coupole, quand le serviteur de la commune 
vint ouvrir la grille du mausolee, quand je fus en presence de la tombe 
ou repose depuis cinq siecles cet homme dont la vie fut si tourmentee, 
dont la memoire est si grande, je ne vis plus les defauts de I'edifice, je 


ne vis que la poussiere illustre qui I'habite, et mon ame fut absorbee 
tout entiere par un sentiment oil se confondaient I'emotion qu'on eprouve 
en contemplant le cercueil d'un ami malheureux, et rattendrissement 
qu'inspire I'autel sanctifie par les reliques d'un martyr." — Ampere. 

"The story of Dante's burial, and of the discovery of his real tomb, 
is fresh in the memory of every one. But the ' little cupola, more neat 
than solemn, ' of which Lord Byron speaks, will continue to be the goal 
of many a pilgrimage. For myself— though I remember Chateau- 
briand's bare-headed genuflexion on its threshold, Alfieri's passionate 
prostration at the altar-tomb, and Byron's offering of poems on the poet's 
shrine — I confess that a single canto of the Inferno, a single passage 
of the Vita Nuova, seems more full of soul-stirring associations than the 
place where, centuries ago, the mighty dust was laid. It is the spirit 
that lives and makes alive. And Dante's spirit seems more present with 
us under the pine-branches of the Bosco than beside his real or fancied 
tomb. 'He is risen,' — 'Behold, I am with you always' — these are 
words that ought to haunt us in a burying-ground. There is something 
affected and self-conscious in overpowering grief or enthusiasm or 
humiliation at a tomb." — J. A. Symonds. 

" Ungrateful Florence ! Dante sleeps afar, 

Like Scipio, buried by the upbraiding shore ; 

Thy factions, in their worse than civil war. 

Proscribed the bard whose name for evermore 

Their children's children would in vain adore 

With the remorse of ages ; and the crown 

Which Petrarch's laureate brow supremely wore, 

Upon a far and foreign soil had grown, 
His life, his fame, his grave, though rifled — not thine own. " 

Byt'on, Childe Harold. 

When Pope Pius IX. was here in 1857, he wrote in the 
visitor's book, from Purgatorio xi. 100 — 

"Non e il mondan rumore altro che un fiato 
Di vento ch'or vien quinci ed or vien quindi, 
E muta nome, perche muta lato. " 

" Cast k Ravenne que Dante publia son poeme tout entier. Deux 
milles copies en furent faites a la plume, et envoyees par toute I'ltalie. 
On douta qu'un homme vivant encore eut pu ecrire de telles choses, et 
plus d'une fois il arriva, lorsque Dante se promenait lent et severe, dans 
les rues de Ravenne et de Rimini, avec sa longue robe rouge et sa 
couronne de laurier sur sa tete, que la mere, saintement effrayee, le 



montra du doigt k son enfant, en lui disant : ' Vois-tu cet homme, il 
est descendu dans I'enfer ! ' " — Dumas. 

The Strada Girotto leads into the Corso Garibaldi, on the 
opposite side of which is the grand Basilica of S. Apollinare 
Nuovo, built by Theodoric in 500, as the Arian Cathedral, 
under the name of ' S. Martino in Ccelo Aureo.' When the 
Gothic kingdom fell, it was consecrated for Catholic worship 
by the Archbishop S. Agnellus. In the 9th century, when 
the relics of S. ApoUinaris were transferred hither, it was 
called by his name. The 24 cippollino columns were brought 
from Constantinople, and have Byzantine capitals. The roof 
is of wood. In the nave is the ancient pulpit, covered with 
curious sculpture. The last chapel on the left, which has 

In S. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna. 

an exquisitely wrought marble screen, sustained by four 
porphyry pillars, contains the sarcophagus which encloses 


the relics of S. ApoUinaris, a bishop's throne of the loth 
century, and a mosaic portrait of the Emperor Justinian, 
which once, with that of S. Agnellus, stood over the entrance 
of the church. The mosaics of the nave are, as a whole, 
more impressive than any other mosaics in the world. 

"These mosaics, executed chiefly between the years 553 and 566 are 
perfectly unique in their way, though the principal portions, apsis and 
arch of triumph, have been restored. But the upper walls of the central 
aisle are still sparkling, from the arches up the roof, with their original 
and very rich mosaic decorations. Two prodigious friezes, next above 
the arches, contain long processions upon a gold ground, which, be 
longing as they do to the very last days of ancient art, remind us curi- 
ously of that Panathenaic procession upon the Parthenon at Athenf. 
On the right are the martyrs and the confessors ; they are advancing 
solemnly out of the city of Ravenna, which is here signified by a mag- 
nificent representation of the palace of the Ostrogothic kings, with its 
upper and lower arcade and comer towers and domes. Through the 
entrance-gate a gold ground shines forth, as symbol of dominion. On 
the walls are the female forms of Victory in gay garments ; and white 
hangings, richly decorated with flowers and fringes, omament the lower 
arcade. The procession is advancing in slow but well-expressed move- 
ment through an avenue of palm-trees, which divide the single figures. 
All are clad in light-coloured garments, with crowns in their hands. 
Their countenances are all greatly similar, and are reduced to a few 
spirited lines, though still tolerably true to nature. The execution is 
careful, as is also the gradation of the tints. At the end of the proces- 
sion, and as the goal of it, appears Christ upon a throne, the four arch- 
angels around him — noble, solemn figures, in no respect inferior either 
in style or execution to those in the apsis of S. Vitale. On the left side 
of the church (that which was occupied by the women) we perceive a 
similarly arranged procession of female martyrs and confessors advancing 
from the suburb of Classis, recognized by its harbours and fortifications. 
At the head of the procession is the Adoration of the Three Kings. 
Upon a throne, surmounted by four beautiful angels, appears the Ma- 
donna, — here perhaps first represented as an object of reverence. She 
is depicted as a matron of middle age, with her right hand raised in the 
act of benediction ; a veil upon her head, which is encircled by the 
nimbus. Upon her lap is seated the already well-grown and fully- 
clothed child, also in act of benediction. Of the subject of the Three 
Kings the greater part has been restored, but a spiritedly expressed and 



active action is still discernible, as well as the splendid barbaric costume, 
with its richly bordered doublet, short silken mantle, and nether gar- 
ments of tiger-skin. Here, as in the opposite frieze, the last portion of 
the subject is best treated. Further up, between the windows, are 
single figures of the apostles and saints standing in niches, with birds 
and vases between them. The dark and heavy shadowing of their white 
garments, and the stiff and unrefined conception of the whole, certainly 
indicate a somewhat later period, probably the seventh century. Quite 
above, and over the windows, on a very small scale, and now scarcely 
distinguishable, are the Miracles of our Lord." — Kugler. 

" On the right hand as we enter, and immediately above the arches of 
the nave, we behold a long procession of twenty-one martyrs, carrying 
their crowns in their hands ; they appear advancing towards a figure of 
our Saviour, who stands with an angel on each side, ready to receive 
them. On the wall 10 the left is a like procession of virgin martyrs, 
also bearing their crowns, and advancing to a figure of the throned 
Madonna, who, with an angel on each side, appears to be seated there 
to receive their homage. These processions extend to the entrance of 
the choir, and the figures are colossal, — I suppose about seven or eight 
feet high — they are arranged in the following order : — 


S. Eupheraia 

S. Ursinus 

S. Eulalia 

























John and 










Gervasius & 




"This list of martyrs is of very great importance, as being, I believe, 
the earliest in the history of Art. It shows us what martyrs were most 
honoured in the sixth century. It shows us that many names, then held 
most in honour, have since fallen into comparative neglect ; and that 
others, then unknown or unacknowledged, have since become most 
celebrated. It will be remarked, that the virgins are led by S. 
Euphemia, and not by S. Catherine : that there is no S. Barbara, no S. 
Margaret, no S. George, no S. Christopher ; all of whom figure con- 
spicuously in the mosaics of Monreale at Palermo, executed five cen- 



tunes later. In fact, of these forty-two figures executed at Ravenna by 
Greek artists in the service of Justinian, only five — Euphemia, Cj-prian 
and Justina, Polycarp and Demetrius — are properly Greek saints ; all 
the rest are Latin saints, whose worship originated with the Western and 
not with the Eastern Church." — yamesons Sacred Art, ii. 527. 

Close to S. ApoUinare, between it and the Strada di Porta 
Alberoni, is the fragment called the Palace of Theodoric, the 
only remnant of the famous palace of the Gothic kings, 
which was after^vards inhabited by the Exarchs and the 
Lx)mbard sovereigns. It is a high wall adorned with arches 
and columns. Against the lower story stands a sarcophagus, 
which an inscription, of 1564, states to have once contained 
the ashes of Theodoric, and to have stood on the top of his 
mausoleum. This is, however, very uncertain. The palace 
was ruined by Charlemagne,' who, with the permission of 
Pope Adrian I., carried off" its mosaics and other treasures for 

Palace of Theodoric. 

the decoration of his palace at Ingelheira and his church at 
Aix la Chapelle. 


"The fragment which remains enables us to judge of the style of the 
palace, and it is impossible not to believe that the architect who built it, 
had the palace of Diocletian at Spalatro in his view, so great is the 
resemblance between the fragment that remains and the Porta Aurea of 
that building. But it was the first time that small pillars, supported by 
brackets, had been used in Italy as external decoi-ations ; and the first 
time that small pillars had been introduced as divisions of windows. 
The great change, however, is in the doorway — which, in classical 
buildings, had always been square-headed — and which, in this building, 
is round." — H. Gaily Knight. 

To the history-lover this wall will have a special interest 
as part of the palace where the great Ostrogoth lived, where 
" he used to amuse himself by cultivating an orchard with 
his own hands," and where he died in a.d. 482. 

The barbarian (Herulian) Odoacer was ruling the Empire of the West, 
when Theodoric king of the Ostrogoths entered Italy, his invasion being 
the migration of a people, not the inroad of an army. After two great 
battles and a three years' siege in Ravenna, Odoacer agreed to a joint 
sovereignty, but was soon after murdered at a banquet. Then Theodoric 
"commenced a reign of thirty-three years, in which Italy reposed in 
peace under his just and vigorous and parental administration." 

The serene impartiality of Theodoric's government in religious affairs 
extorts the praise of the most zealous Catholic. Himself an Arian, he 
attempted nothing against the Catholic faith. He kept aloof from 
religious dissensions, devoting himself to maintaining the peace, securing 
the welfare, promoting the civilization, and lightening the financial 
burthens of his people. But in the last year of his reign the bigotry of 
his Catholic subjects (chiefly shown in their persecution of the Jews) 
"drove the most tolerant of princes to the brink of persecution." He 
was persuaded to listen to accusations of treason against the philosopher 
Boethius, whom he caused to be imprisoned at Pavia, and eventually 
murdered in his cell. The execution of Boethius was followed by that 
of his father-in-law, the venerable Symmachus, head of the Senate, 
whose only crime was his grief for the death of his friend. "After a 
life of virtue and glory, Theodoric descended with shame and guilt to 
the grave." One evening, it is related, when the head of a large fish was 
served on the royal table, he suddenly exclaimed that he beheld the 
angry countenance of Symmachus, his eyes glaring fury and revenge 
and menacing his murderer. He retired to his chamber, expressed to 



his physician his contrition for his crimes, and died three days after in 
the palace at Ravenna, bequeathing Italy to Athalaric and Spain to 
Amalaric — his two grandsons, children of his daughter Amalasontha. 

A little further down the Corso Garibaldi is the Church 
of S. Maria in Porto, still much frequented, and formerly 
celebrated on account of a miracle-working image of 
the Virgin (praying) transferred hither from S. Maria 
in Porto Fuori in the i6th century. The church was 
built in 1553 from the ruins of the ancient Basilica of S. 
Lorenzo in Cesarea, It contains : — 

Right, ^h Chapel. Palma Giovane. Martyrdom of S. Mark. 
Left, ^th Chapel. Luca Longhi. The Virgin with Saints. 
Sacristy. A beautifully wrought sepulchral urn of porphyry. 

About two miles beyond the gate called Porta Alberoni 
(built 1793, in honour of Clement XII., as an approach 

S. Maria in Porto Fuori. 

to the Port of Ravenna) is the desolate Church of S. Maria 
in Porto Fuori, built at the end of the nth century, 


consequence of a vow made at sea by one Pietro Onesti, 
called // Peccatore. The name in Porto is derived from the 
belief that the huge basement of the four-sided (here un- 
usual !) campanile is that of the ancient Pharos,, or lighthouse 
of the Port. The original pavement is now far below the 
surface, but Time has buried all the ancient buildings in Ra- 
venna as in Rome. Many of the Princesses of the Polentani 
family were interred here in mediaeval times. The interior 
contains : — 

Left- Aisle. A sarcophagus in which the body of the founder was laid 
in 1 1 19. 

Choir. This and several other portions of the church are covered 
with frescoes attributed to Giotto. 

"According to tradition, the whole church was painted by Giotto, 
but time and white-wash have been busily at work, and the frescoes of the 
presbytery and of the Chapel of S. Matthew at the extremity of the 
southern nave, are the only ones that repay a minute examination. In the 
former series, the history of the Virgin is abridged into six compartments, 
of which the Massacre of the Innocents,* and her own Death are the most 
remarkable, the former for much invention and merit in the composition, 
the latter for the characteristic attitudes of the Apostles and the beauty 
of the Virgin's face, and for the singularity, that the Saviour receiving 
his mother's soul in his arms is represented with the youthful face of the 
Catacombs and the ancient mosaics. Other Byzantine reminiscences 
also occur here. The Massacre is broken by a pointed-arched niche, 
within which our Saviour is represented administering the Eucharist, 
presenting the wafer to S. Peter with his right hand, and the cup to S. 
Paul with the left, a composition strongly resembling that on the 'Dal- 
matica di S. Leone,' and a Martyrdom, in a chapel at the extremity of 
the northern nave, is completely the traditional composition of the 
Menologion. But the frescoes in the Chapel of S. Matthew, f though 
much injured, are the most interesting. The first represents his call to 
the apostolaie, — he is seated, a young man of pleasing countenance, and 
wearing the same red falling cap worn by Dante in the chapel of the 
Bargello ; he appears about to rise up and follow our Saviour — an 
admirable figure, full of dignity, who turns away, signing to him most 

* Herod's daughter, introduced in this fresco, is shown asa portrait of Francesca da 
t Shown as the Chapel of S. John the Evangelist. 


expressively. In the second compartment, he is seen healing a multitude 
of sick and infirm people at the capital of Ethiopia, where, according to 
the legend, he preached the gospel after the dispersion of the Apostles ; 
the attitudes and expression of the decrepit band are excellent. In the 
third, almost destroyed, a large dragon is still visible, crouching before 
him, — two magicians, we are told, then tyrannized over the country, 
and came to interrupt his preaching, each accompanied by his dragon, 
spitting fire from its mouth and nostrils ; S. Matthew went forth to meet 
them, and making the sign of the cross, the monsters sank into slumber 
at his feet. Of the remaining compartments, the best preserved is the 
sixth, representing the baptism of the young King and Queen, the crown 
of his ministry ; both are in white, the King in front, the Queen, with 
braided hair and her hands meekly crossed, behind him. The two last 
compartments, the seventh and eighth, probably represented the 
Apostle's martyrdom thirty-five years afterw^ards, during which interval 
he had acted as bishop of the Church of Ethiopia ; the lower compart- 
ment is quite effaced,— in the lunette above it, angels are seen wafting 
the soul to heaven." — Lindsay'' s Christian Art. 

The whole discovery and uncovering of the frescoes is due 
to the personal diligence of the poor priest attached (1875) 
to the church. If the notion of making this the Campo 
Santo of Ravenna is carried out, we may hope that much 
more will be disclosed. 

Half a mile (right) from the Porta Serrata (the gate at the 
end of the Corso Garibaldi beyond S. Spirit©), is the Tomb 
of J7ieodoric,' Qxtcitd in his life-time. After the fall of the 
Gothic kingdom, when the ashes of Theodoric were dis- 
persed, the building itself was preserved from destruction 
by being consecrated for Catholic worship under the name 
of S. Maria della Rotonda. The dome was surmounted by 
a porphyry vase as late as 1509, when it was thrown down 
during the siege of Ravenna by the papal army under Fran- 
cesco Maria della Rovere. 

" A quelque distance de Ravenne, au milieu d'une plaine immense, 



entrecoupee 9k et la de niines, de marecages, et dont I'aspect severe, la 
nudite morne rappellent les solitudes grandioses de la campagne romaine, 
on voit s'elever de loin le tombeau de Theodoric, que ce Barbare de 
genie fit construire de son vivant. Tout depouille qu'il soit des orne- 
ments qui le d^coraient, cet edifice, bati de blocs de marbre et de pierres 
carrees, frappe encore par sa masse imposante, et peut etre regarde 
comme I'un des plus curieux monuments de I'architecture du siecle. Sa 
forme circulaire, la disposition des fendtres qui en eclairent I'interieur, 
le deme solide recouvrant la voute, I'enorme coupole dont il est 
couronne, tout donne a ce mausolee un cachet essentiellement original, 
rappellant le caractere demi-byzantin, demi-barbare, qui distinguait le 
roi des Goths. Mais ce qui imprime k ce tombeau quelque chose le 
plus saisissant encore, c'est que le sarcophage renfermant le corps de 
Theodoric a ete enleve, et depuis tant de siecles qu'une persecution 
intolerante a fait jeter au vent les cendres de ce prince, parce qu'il etait 
arien, le sepulchre est demeure vide des restes du puissant souverain 
qui avait voulu s'y assurer un repos etemel. Tel qu'il est aujour- 
d'hui, I'aspect de I'edifice, transforme en une chapelle tout a fait nue et 
abandonnee, inspire une tristesse profonde. Les bases massives de ses 
piliers baignent dans la fange I'un marecage. Ses portes sont verdies 
par I'humidite ; la coupole qui le surmonte a ete fendue par la foudre, 
et dans la crypte, pleine d'une eau moisie, s'agitent des animaux 
immondes. " — Dantier, ' ' Vltalk. " 

Tomb of Theodoric. 

" I know few monuments so interesting as the Tomb of Theodoric, 
and it is highly picturesque externally. The body of the stmcture is 


round, and elevated high in the air on a decagonal basement supported by 
circular arches, now filled nearly to the suffit with water ; the interior 
is lighted by ten small loop-holes only ; the sarcophagus is gone ; the 
roof is of one solid stone, or rather rock, hollowed into the shape of a 
cupola, and dropped as it were from heaven — three feet thick, more 
than thirty in diameter, and weighing two hundred tons — the broad 
loops or rings, by which it was lowered, jutting out, externally, like 
ragged battlements, having never been smoothed away. The whole 
building, though not large, has a nigged, craggy, eternal character 
about it, — weeds tuft themselves among the masonry, and the breeze 
dallies with them as on the mountain-side, and the scene is nearly as 
lonely. This monument, although unquestionably of Roman masonry, 
is the sole relic of what alone can pretend to the title of Gothic archi- 
tecture — and most eminently characteristic it is of the indomitable race 
of the north ; one would think they feared that neither Alaric nor 
Theodoric could be held down in their gi-aves except by a river rolling 
over the one, and a mountain covering the other." — Lindsay's Christian 

" T*he dome is 36 ft. in diameter, and consists of a single stone. This 
stone was brought from the quarries of Istria. It is excavated within, 
and worked to the proper convexity without ; but how so enormous a 
mass was raised to its present position, it is difficult to conjecture. The 
achievement would seem to be beyond the scope of mechanical power ; 
and we are left to the supposition that an inclined plane was employed, 
rising from the ground at some distance from the building, and ter- 
minating at the level of the walls. The singular handles, car\'ed in the 
outer circumference, are believed to have assisted in moving the 

" From an examination of the upper story of the mausoleum, it appears 
that it was once encircled by a decagonal arcade ; upon which, probably, 
stood the statues of the Twelve Apostles, which Louis XII. carried off 
into France. The construction of the arch of the original entrance is 
peculiar. The stones are dove-tailed into each other, in a manner which 
was, afterwards, much employed by the architects of the Middle Ages." 
— H. Gaily Kjiight. 

" The spirit of Theodoric, after some previous expiation, might have 
been permitted to mingle with the benefactors of mankind, if an Italian 
hermit had not been witness in a vision to his damnation, when his soul 
was plunged, by the ministers of divine vengeance, into the volcano 
of Lipari, one of the flaming mouths of the infernal world." — 



'^ About 3 miles beyond the Porta Nuova, at the other end 
of the Corso Garibaldi, is the wonderful Basilica of S. 
Apollinare in Classe. 

"There is little enough in the country to delight the eye. The fields 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the city are cultivated and not devoid 
of trees. But the cheerfulness thence arising does not last long. Very 
soon the trees cease, and there are no more hedge-rows. Large flat 
fields, imperfectly covered with coarse rank grass, and divided by the 
numerous branches of streams, all more or less dyked to save the land 
from complete inundation, succeed. The road is a causeway raised 
above the level of the surrounding district ; and presently a huge lofty 
bank is seen traversing the desolate scene for miles, and stretching away 
towards the shore of the neighbouring Adriatic. This is the dyke which 
contains the sulkily torpid but yet dangerous Montone. 

" Gradually, as the traveller proceeds, the scene grows worse and 
worse. Soon the only kind of cultivation to be seen from the road 
consists of rice-grounds, looking like — what in truth they are — poisonous 
swamps. Then come swamps pure and simple, too bad perhaps to be 
turned into rice-grounds, — or rather simply swamps impure ; for a stench 
at most times of the year comes from them, like a warning of their 
pestilential nature, and their unfitness for the sojourn of man. A few 
shaggy, wild-looking cattle may be seen wandering over the flat waste, 
muddy to the shoulders from wading in the soft swamps. A scene of 
more utter desolation it is hardly possible to meet with in such close 
neighbourhood to a living city. 

"The raised causeway, however, keeps on its course amid the low- 
lying marshes on either side of it ; and presently the peculiar form of 
outline belonging to a forest composed entirely of the mountain-pine is 
distinguishable on the horizon to the left. The road quickly draws 
nearer to it ; and the large heavy, velvet-like masses of dark verdure 
become visible. In a forest such as the famous Pineta, the lines, 
especially when seen at a distance, have more of horizontal and less of 
perpendicular direction than in any other assemblage of trees. And the 
eff"ect produced by the continuity of spreading umbrella-like tops is 

"Then, soon after the forest has become visible, the road brings the 
wayfarer within sight of a vast lonely structure, bearing its huge long 
back against the low horizon, like some monster antediluvian saurian, 
the fit denizen of this marsh world. It is the venerable Basilica of S. 
Apollinare in Classe." — T. Adolphus Trollope. 
VOL. II. 22 


The Cross, which we pass about yi mile from the city, sur- 
mounting a httle marble column, and called La Crocetta, 
marks the site of the great Basilica of S. Lorenzo in Cesarea, 
built A.D. 396, by Lauritius, Chamberlain of the Emperor 
Honorius, and destroyed by the barbarism of 1553. This 
church was the last reUc of the ancient city of Cesarea, 
though the whole soil is full of marbles, and scarcely a sod 
is turned up without what in other places would be con- 
sidered a precious fragment being discovered. 

• The grand Basilica of S. Apollinare was begun in 534 by 
" Julianus Argentarius," and consecrated in 549 by Arch- 
bishop Maximianus. It is supposed to occupy the site of a 
temple of Apollo, and to have been built on the spot where 
S. ApoUinaris suffered martyrdom 455 years before. 

"It is related of ApoUinaris that he accompanied the Apostle Peter 
from Antioch, and was for some time his companion and assistant at 
Rome ; but, after a while, S. Peter sent him to preach the Gospel on 
the eastern coast of Italy, having first laid his hands on him and com- 
municated to him those gifts of the Holy Spirit which were vouchsafed 
to the apostles. 

" ApoUinaris, therefore, came to the city of Ravenna, where he preach- 
ed the faith of Christ with so much success that he collected around him 
a large congregation, and performed miracles, silencing, wherever he 
came, the voice of the false oracles, and overcoming the demons ; but the 
heathens, being filled with rage, threw him into prison, whence escaping 
by the favour of his jailer, he fled from the city (July 23, 79) by the 
gate which leads to Rimini. His enemies pursued him, and having 
overtaken him about three miles from the gate, they fell upon him and 
beat him, and pierced him with many wounds, so that when his dis- 
ciples found him soon afterwards he died in their arms, and his spirit 
fled to heaven." — Jameson^ s Sacred Art. 

The vast church rises, like S. Paolo fuori le Mura, in the 
solemn silence of the Campagna, and its utter desolation 
gives it an indescribable interest, which is enhanced by its 




ancient associations, combined with the truth conveyed in 
its own inscription — " Sanguis martyris semen fidei." 

S. ApolUnare in Classe. 

"Between the Bosco, as the people of Ravenna call the pine-wood, 
and the city, the marsh stretches for a distance of about three miles. It 
is a plain intersected by dykes and ditches, and mapped out into innu- 
merable rice-fields. For more than half a year it lies under water, and 
during the other months exhales a pestilential vapour, which renders it 
as uninhabitable as the Roman Campagna ; yet in spring-time this dreary 
flat is even beautiful. The young blades of the rice shoot up above the 
water, delicately green and tender. The ditches are lined with flower- 
ing rush and golden flags, while white and yellow lilies sleep in myriads 
upon the silent pools. Tamarisks wave their pink and silver tresses by 
the road, and wherever a plot of mossy earth emerges from the marsh, 
it gleams with purple orchises and flaming marigolds ; but the soil 
beneath is so treacherous and spongy, 'that these splendid blossoms grow 
like flowers in dreams or fairy-stories. You try in vain to pick them ; 
they elude your grasp, and flourish in security beyond the reach of arm 
or stick. 

" Such is the site of the old town of Classis. Not a vestige of the 
Roman city remains, not a dwelling or a ruined tower, nothing but the 
ancient church of St. Apollinare in Classe. Of all desolate buildings this is 
the most desolate. Not even the deserted grandeur of San Paolo 
beyond the walls of Rome can equal it. Its huge round campanile 
gazes at the sky, which here vaults only sea and plain, — a perfect dome, 
star-spangled, like the roof of Galla Placidia's tomb. Ravenna lies low 
to west, the pine-wood, immeasuraljly the same, to east- There is 
nothing else to be seen except the spreading marsh, bounded by dim 
snowy Alps and purple Apennines, so very far away that the level rack 


of summer clouds seem more attainable and real. What sunsets and 
sunrises that tower must see ; what glaring lurid after-glows in August, 
when the red light scowls upon the pestilential fen ; what sheets of 
sullen vapour rolling over it in autumn ; what breathless heats, and 
rain-clouds big with thunder ; what silences ; what unimpeded blasts of 
winter winds ! One old monk tends this deserted spot. He has the 
huge church with its echoing aisles, and marble columns, and giddy bell- 
tower, and cloistered corridors, all to himself. At rare intervals, priests I 
from Ravenna come to sing some special mass at these cold altars ; I 
pious folks make vows to pray upon their mouldy steps, and kiss the 
relics which are shown on great occasions. But no one stays ; they 
hurry, after muttering their prayers, from the fever-stricken spot, re- 
serving their domestic pieties and customary devotions for the brighter 
and newer chapels of the fashionable churches in Ravenna. So the old 
monk is left alone to sweep the marsh water from his church floor, and 
to keep the green moss from growing too thickly on the monuments. 
A clammy conserva covers everything except the mosaics upon tribune, 
roof, and clerestory, which defy the course of age. Christ on his throne 
sedet, eternumque sedebit, the saints around him glitter with their pitiless 
uncompromising eyes and wooden gestures, as if twelve centuries had 
not passed over them, and they were nightmares only dreamed last night, 
and rooted in a sick man's memory. For those gaunt and solemn forms 
there is no change of life or end of days. No fever touches them ; no 
dampness of the wind and rain loosens their firm cement. They stare 
with senseless faces in bitter ifiockery of men who live, and die, and 
moulder away beneath. Their poor old guardian told us it was a weary 
life. He has had the fever three times, and does not hope to survive 
many more Septembers. The very water that he drinks is brought to 
him from Ravenna, for the vast fen, though it pours its overflow upon 
the church floor, and spreads like a lake around, is death to drink. The 
monk had a gentle woman's voice, and mild brown eyes. What terrible 
crime had consigned him to this living tomb ? For what past sorrow is 
he weary of his life ? What anguish of remorse has driven him to such 
a solitude ? Yet he looked placid and simple ; his melancholy was 
subdued and calm, as if life were over for him, and he were waiting for 
death to come with a friend's greeting upon noiseless wings some sum- 
mer night across the fen-lands in a cloud of soft destructive fever-mist." 
— J. A. Symonds. 

" The appearance of S. Apollinare di Fuori is injured by a large mass 
of modem workmanship, added in front, but the interior is spacious and 
beautiful, and was still more so before the poverty of the chapter * occa- 

• As far back as the isth century. 


sioned its being despoiled of- the rich marbles which originally incased 
the walls. You will especially admire the broad and airy aisles, and 
their freedom from chapels or interruption of any sort, except the 
characteristic ornament of a line of (moveable) sarcophagi, containing 
the bones of the early archbishops. This church, like a rock deserted 
by the tide, is the solitary vestige of the suburb formerly designated 
' Classis, ' from the fleet that anchored under its walls — the spot is now 
four miles distant from the sea, and most dreary and desolate, and the 
tide of population ebbed for ever. But the church is not the less interest- 
ing, both on account of its architecture and its mosaics, and an hour's 
ride to the north of it will carry you into the depths of the Pineta, which 
supplied the ships that wafted Augustus to Actium, and the Crusaders 
to Palestine, and where, if you watch in vain for the spectre Theodore 
and the scornful Honoria, you may at least hear the birds singing as 
sweetly to the accompaniment of breeze and bough as they did in Dante's 
ear when he wrote those lovely lines in the Purgatorio, introductory of 
Matilda ; the whole description indeed, and not one simile only, 
breathes of the Pineta." — Lindsay's Christian Art. 

The Interior is 172 feet long by 93 wide. The nave is 
divided from its aisles by 24 columns of cippollino with 
Corinthian capitals — the columns probably taken from 
Pagan edifices. The roof is of wood. At the east end a 
flight of steps leads to the tribune, beneath which is the 
crypt containing the sarcophagus of S. ApoUinaris. On 
either side the entrance are two huge sarcophagi richly 
sculptured with early Christian emblems, and four more 
stand in each of the aisles, containing the remains of Arch- 
bishops of the 7 th and 8 th centuries. In the left aisle is an 
inscription (modern) stating that the emperor Otho III., 
having walked barefoot from Rome to Monte Gargano, 
passed forty days in penance of sackcloth and scourging in 
this church — " ob patrata crimina" — i. e, for the murder of 
Crescentius. At the end of this aisle, in the chapel of the 
Holy Cross, is a tabernacle of the 9th century, over the altar 
of S. Felicola. In the centre of the nave is a little altar. 


■ "The little low altar, of an antiquity coeval with that of the church, 
which stands in the centre of the nave, is the sole exception to the entire 
and utter emptiness of the place. There are, indeed, ranged along the 
walls of the side aisles, several ancient marble coffins, curiously carved, 
and with semi-circular covers, which contain the bodies of the earliest 
Bishops of the See. But the little altar is the sole object that breaks the 
continuity of the open floor. The body of S. ApoUinare was originally 
laid beneath it, but was in a subsequent age removed to a more specially 
honourable position under the high altar at the eastern end of the church. 
There is still, however, the slab deeply carved with letters of ancient 
form, which tells how S. Romuald, the founder of the Order of Camal- 
doli, praying by night at that altar, saw in a vision S. ApoUinare, 
who bade him leave the world and become the founder of an order of 
hermits." — A. Trollope. 

Most of the walls of the nave are occupied by the (chiefly 
imaginary) portraits of the unbroken succession of 130 Arch- 
bishops of Ravenna. But the tribune, and the triumphal 
arch in front of it, still retain their precious mosaics of the 
6th century, when they were erected by Archbishop S. 
Agnellus — being " the first picture of the Transfiguration 
which Italy knew, and that eight centuries before Raphael." 

" From 671 to 677 were probably erected these last mosaic decora- 
tions of importance at Ravenna, which, now that the history of art has 
sustained an irreparable injury in the destruction of St. Paul's at Rome, 
by fire, alone give us any idea of the manner in which whole rows of 
pictures and symbols in mosaic were employed to ornament the interior 
of churches. In the spandrils, between the arches of the centre aisle, we 
observe an almost perfect collection of those earliest symbols of Chris- 
tian art, from the simple monogram to the Good Shepherd and the 
Fisherman, while above the arch in a row of medallions are the por^ 
traits of the Archbishops of Ravenna; of course not the original works 
— which, owing to the destruction of the surface of these walls by that 
enemy of art Sigismund Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, were entirely lost — 
but apparently correct copies. The heads here, as formerly in the pic- 
tures of the Popes in S. Paul's, are given full in front, the profile being 
totally unknown to that art. 

" The mosaics, however, in and above the apsis, are old and genuine — 
remarkable relics of that time when the church of Ravenna, in league 
with Byzantium, once more declared itself Jupon an equality with the 


Roman Church, and sought by paying honour to its own patron saint, 
S. Apolhnaris (the scholar of S. Peter), to place him upon a level with 
that apostle. The order and arrangement of these mosaics declare this 
intention in the clearest way. They exemplify, namely, the glorification 
of the Church of Ravenna. In the semi-dome of the apsis, upon a blue 
ground, with light pink and light blue clouds, appears a blue circle 
studded with gold stars and set in jewels, and, within this, a splendidly 
decorated cross with a half-length figure of Christ in the centre. On 
each side of the circle are the half-length figures of Moses and Elijah 
emerging from the clouds, both, on account of their transfiguration, very 
youthfully depicted. Far below, upon a meadow with trees, in the 
centre of the whole, stands S. Apollinaris, his arms raised in benedic- 
tion, surrounded by fifteen sheep. On the lower walls appear four 
Ravenna bishops, on a blue ground, under canopies with draperies and 
chandeliers, and on each side are two larger pictures of the sacrifices of 
Abel, Melchizedek, and Abraham, and, but little in character with the 
foregoing, the granting of the Privileges to the Church of Ravenna. In 
all these works the drawing is in every way inferior to those of the sixth 
century ; the execution, however, very careful, with more middle tones 
than usual ; the four bishops excepted, who are rudely and sketchily 
treated, and are only distinguished by more powerful and less conven- 
tional heads. 

"The two side pictures of the lower wall merit a close examination, 
especially the three sacrifices, which are here combined in one really 
spirited composition, and in point of execution are decidedly the best. 
Beneath an open curtain, behind a covered table, sits the venerable 
white-haired Melchizedek, in diadem and crimson mantle, in act of 
breaking the bread. On the left, Abel is seen advancing, in figure of a 
half-naked youth in linen chlamys, carrying a lamb. On the right, 
Abraham, an old man in white robes, is seen leading his son, who is not 
represented naked (as in S. Vitale), but wears a yellow robe. The cor- 
responding picture, the granting of the Privileges, is slighter, and inferior 
in drawing and execution, so that, for example, the outlines of the heads 
are rudely conspicuous. Three imperial youths, with nimbuses, are 
advancing from a curtained door of the palace — Constantinus, who is 
clad in the crimson mantle, Heraclius, and Tiberius. On the right, 
quietly looking on, stands the Archbishop of Ravenna, surrounded by 
four ecclesiastics, one of whom is receiving from Constantine a roll with 
a red inscription, Privilegia. Here an obvious Byzantine stiffness is 
apparent, as compared with the two ceremonial pictures in S. Vitale. 
Upon the wall above the tribune, upon a strip of blue ground, may be 
seen, glimmering through the dust of a thousand years, a half-length of 


Christ with the signs of the Evangelists. These are succeeded by the 
twelve sheep, which are advancing up both sides of the arch of the tri- 
bune ; two palm-trees are placed lower down. Neither animals nor 
trees are superior to those within the tribune. On the other hand, in 
the figures of the Archangels Michael and Gabriel, which are introduced 
lower down at the side of the tribune, we find traces of a good antique 
taste. Each is holding in his right hand the flag of victory (the Laba- 
rum\ while the left so grasps the crimson mantle, which is faced with 
embroidered cloth of gold, that a part of the white tunic is visible. The 
heads are of youthful beauty." — Kiigler. 

It will be observed in this mosaic that the figure of S. 
Apollinare occupies the central space, hitherto assigned only 
to Christ. 

" He is in the habit of a Greek bishop, that is, in white, the pallium 
embroidered with black crosses, no mitre, and with grey hair and beard. 
He stands, with hands outspread, preaching to his congregation of con- 
verts, who are represented by several sheep — the common symbol." — 
jfdmesotis Sacred Art. 

Nothing remains of the ancient town of Classis, destroyed 
by Luitprand, king of the Lombards, in 728. The name 
Classis remained in that of Chiassi, which was applied to the 
part of the Pineta near this. 

Those who only pay a hurried visit to Eavenna may form 
some idea of the Pineta by entering it near S. Apollinare. 
Of this most ancient forest no mere verbal descrip- 
tion can give an idea. Yet how many have been written, 
beginning with that of Dante, who must constantly have 
walked here while the guest of the Polentani. 

" Vago gia di cercar dentro e dintomo 

La divina foresta spessa e viva, 

Ch'agli occhi temperava il nuovo giomo, 

Senza piu aspettar lasciai la riva, 
Prendendo la campagna lento lento, 
Su per lo suol che d'ogni parte oliva. 

Un' aura dolce, senza mutamento 
Avere in se, mi feria per la fronte 




Non di pill colpo che soave vento ; 

Per cui le fronde, tremolando pronte, 
Tutte quante piegavano alia parte 
U' la prim' ombra gitta il santo monte ; 

Non pero dal lor esser dritto sparte 
Tanto, che gli augelletti per le cime 
Lasciasser d'operare ogni lor arte ; 

Ma con plena letizia Tore prime, 
Cantando, ricevean intra le foglie, 
Che tenevan bordone alle sue rime, 

Tal, qual di ramo in ramo si raccoglie 
Per la pineta, in sul lito di Chiassi, 
Quand' Eolo Scirocco fuor discioglie. 

Gia m'avean trasportato i lenti passi 
Dentro all' antica selva, tanto ch'io 
Non poter rivedere ond 'io m'entrassi. 

Ed ecco piu andar mi tolse un rio, 
Che'nver sinistra con sue picciole onde 
Piegava I'erba che'n sua ripa uscio. 

Tutte I'acque che son di qua piCi monde, 
Parrieno avere in se mistura alcuna. 
Verso di quella che nulla nasconde ; 

Avvegna che si muov'a bruna bruna 
Sotto I'ombra perpetua, che mai 
Raggiar non lascia Sole ivi, ne Luna." 

Purgatoiio, xxviii. 

Boccaccio chose the Pineta as the scene of his tale of the 
Nastagio degli Onesti, versified by Dryden in his Theodore 
and Honoria. Byron, who lived at Ravenna for two years, 
made it his constant ride. The inscription on his house 
speaks of it as one of the attractions which drew him to 
Ravenna — " Impaziente di visitare I'antica selva, che 
inspiro gia il Divino et Giovanni Boccaccio." He has 
himself bequeathed us his impression of it : — 

•' Sweet hour of twilight, — in the solitude 
Of the pine-forest, and the silent shore 
Which bounds Ravenna's immemorial wood. 
Rooted where once the Adrian wave flow'd o'er, 



To where the last Cesarean fortress stood, 

Evergreen forest ! which Boccaccio's lore 
And Dryden's lay made haunted ground to me, 
How have I loved the twilight hour and thee ! , 

The shrill cicalas, people of the pine, 

Making their summer lives one ceaseless song. 

Were the sole echoes, save my steed's and mine, 
And vesper bells that rose the boughs along : 

The spectre huntsman of Onesti's line. 

His hell-dogs, and their chase, and the fair throng 

Which learn'd from his example not to fly 

From a true lover, — shadow'd my mind's eye." 

Don yuan, do. iii. 

Pineta, Ravenna. 

" As early as the sixth century the sea had already retreated to such 
a distance from Ravenna that orchards and gardens were cultivated on 
the spot where once the galleys of the Caesars rode at anchor. Groves 
of pine sprung up along the shore, and in their lofty tops the music of 
the wind moved like the ghost of waves and breakers plunging upon 
distant sands. This Pinetum stretches along the shore of the Adriatic 
for about forty miles, forming a belt of variable width between the great 

THE PI NET A. 347 

marsh and the tumbling sea. From a distance the bare stems and 
velvet crowns of the pine-trees stand up like palms that cover an oasis 
on Arabian sands ; but at a nearer view the trunks detach themselves 
from an inferior forest-growth of juniper, and thorn, and ash, and oak, the 
tall roofs of the stately firs shooting their breadth of sheltering greenery- 
above the lower and less sturdy brushwood. It is hardly possible to 
imagine a more beautiful and impressive scene than that presented by. 
these long alleys of imperial pines. They grow so thickly one behind 
another, that we might compare them to the pipes of a great organ, or 
the pillars of a Gothic church, or the basaltic columns of the Giant's 
Causeway. Their tops are evergreen and laden with heavy cones, 
from which Ravenna draws considerable wealth. Scores of peasants are 
quartered on the outskirts of the forest, whose business it is to scale the 
pines, and rob them of their fruit at certain seasons of the year. After- 
wards they dry the fir-cones in the sun, until the nuts which they contain 
fall out. The empty husks are sold for fire-wood, and the kernels in 
their stony cells reserved for exportation. You may see the peasants, 
men, women, and boys, sorting them by millions, drying and sifting 
them upon the open spaces of the wood, and packing them in sacks to 
send abroad through Italy. The pinocchi or kernels of the stone-pine 
are used largely in cookery, and those of Ravenna are prized for their 
good quality and aromatic flavour. When roasted or pounded they 
taste like a softer and more mealy kind of almonds. The task of 
gathering this harvest is not a little dangerous. They have to cut 
notches in the straight shafts, and- having climbed, often to the height of 
eighty feet, to lean upon the branches, and detach the fir-cones with a 
pole, — and this for every tree. Some lives, they say, are yearly lost in 
the business. 

' ' As may be imagined, the spaces of this great forest form the haunt of 
innumerable living creatures. Lizards run about by myriads in the 
grass. Doves coo among the branches of the pines, and nightingales 
pour their full-throated music all day and night from thickets of white- 
thorn and acacia. The air is sweet with aromatic scents ; the resin of 
the pine and juniper, the may-flowers and acacia-blossoms, the violets 
that spring by thousands in the moss, the wild roses and faint honey- 
suckles which throw fragrant arms from bough to bough of ash or maple, 
join to make one most delicious perfume. And, though the air upon the 
neighbouring marsh is poisonous, here it is dry, and spreads a genial 
health. The sea-wind, murmuring through these thickets at night-fall 
or misty sunrise, conveys no fever to the peasants stretched among their 
flowers. They watch the red rays of sunset streaming through the 
columns of the leafy hall, and glaring on its fretted rafters of entangled 


boughs ; they see the stars come out, and Hesper gleam, an eye of bright- 
ness, among dewy branches ; the moon walks silver-footed on the velvet 
tree-tops, while they sleep beside the camp-fires ; fresh morning wakes 
them to the sound of birds and scent of thyme and twinkling of dew- 
drops upon the grass around. Meanwhile ague, fever, and death have 
been stalking all night long about the plain, within a few yards of their 
couch, and not one pestilential breath has reached the charmed precincts 
of the forest. 

" You may ride or drive for miles along green aisles between the pines 
in perfect solitude ; and yet the creatures of the wood, the sunlight, the 
birds, the flowers, and tall majestic columns at your side, prevent all sense 
of loneliness or fear. Huge oxen haunt the wilderness, — grey creatures, 
with wild eyes and branching horns and stealthy tread. Some are 
patriarchs of the forest, the fathers and mothers of many generations 
who have been carried from their sides to serve in ploughs or waggons 
on the Lombard plain. Others are yearling calves, intractable and 
ignorant of labour. In order to subdue them to the yoke, it is necessary 
to take them very early from their native glades, or else they chafe and 
pine away with weariness. Then there is a sullen canal, which flows 
through the forest from the marshes to the sea ; it is alive with frogs and 
newts and interminable snakes. You may see these serpents basking 
on the surface amid thickets of the flowering rush, or coiled about the 
lily-leaves and flowers, — huge monsters, slippery and speckled, the 
tyrants of the fen." — J, A. Symonds. 

From S. Apollinare one may return to the tovm by the 
Porta Sisi, passing the Colonna dei Francest, on the banks of 
the river Ronco, erected in 1557 to commemorate the great 
battle gained April 11, 15 12, by the troops of Louis XII. 
and the Duke of Ferrara over those of Julius II. The 
victory was marred by the death of Gaston de Foix, who 
fell in the moment of victory. 20,000 dead were left upon 
the field. 

" I canter by the spot each afternoon 

Where perish'd in his fame the hero-boy 
Who lived too long for men, but died too soon 

For human vanity, the young De Foix ! 
A broken pillar, not uncouthly hewn. 

But which neglect is hastening to destroy, 


Records Ravenna's carnage on its face, 

While weeds and verdure rankle round the base. 

I pass each day where Dante's bones are laid ; 

A little cupola, more neat than solemn. 
Protects his dust, but reverence here is paid 

To the bard's tomb, and not the warrior's column ; 
The time must come when both, alike decay'd 

The chieftain's trophy and the poet's volume, 
Will sink where lie the songs and wars of earth, 
Before Pelides' death, or Homer's birth. 

With human blood that column was cemented, 

With human filth that column is defiled, 
As if the peasant's coarse contempt were vented 

To show his loathing of the spot he soil'd : 
Thus is the trophy used, and thus lamented 

Should ever be those bloodhounds from whose wild 
Instinct of gore and glory earth has known 
Those sufferings Dante saw in hell alone." 

Byron, Don yuan. 

In the Strada di Porta Sisi (No. 225) Lord Byron lived 
in 18 1 9, as is commemorated by an inscription. He moved 
hence to the Palazzo GuiccioU, 328 Via di Porta Adriana, 
where many of his poems were written. 

The present harbour of Ravenna, only used by small 
coasting vessels, is about four miles distant, and connected 
with the port at Porta Alberoni by a canal. Near it is a 
hut where the visionary but disinterested patriot Garibaldi 
concealed himself from the Austrians during his flight from 
Rome in 1849, and here his noble-minded wife Anita died 
from the privations to which she had been exposed, and was 

"The least 
Dead for Italia not in vain has died. 

. . . Forlorn 
Of thanks be, therefore, no one of these graves. 
Not hers,— who, at her husband's side, in scorn, 


Outfaced the whistling shot and hissing waves, 

Until she felt her little babe unborn 
Recoil, within her, from the violent slaves 

And bloodhounds of this world, — at which, her life 
Dropt inwards from her eyes, and followed it 

Beyond the hunters. Garibaldi's .wife 
And child died so. And now, the sea-weeds fit 

Her body, like a proper shroud and coif, 
And murmurously the ebbing waters quit 

The little pebbles while she lies interred 
In the sea-sand." 

E. Barrett-Brmmiing. 

It is strongly to be recommended that those who proceed 
from Ravenna to Rimini should drive thither in a carriage 
(about five hours, and for a party not nearly so expensive as 
the railway). The road skirts the Pineta, passes through 
the picturesque little town of Cesenatico, and, about nine 
miles before entering Rimini, crosses (near Sant'. Archangelo, 
the birth-place of Clement XIV.) the stream of the Uso. 
This is generally considered to be the Rubicon* which, 
though a small river, had once a great importance, as from 
forming the boundary between Umbria and Cisalpine Gaul, 
it came, when the limits of Italy were considered to extend 
only to the frontiers of Cisalpine Gaul, to be regarded as 
the northern boundary of Italy. This it was which caused 
the passage of the Rubicon by Caesar to be regarded as so 
momentous an event. Here the Genius of Rome arose to 
restrain her son. 

" Ut ventum est parvi Rubiconis ad undas 
Ingens visa duci patriae trepidantis imago, 

• For a long time the identification of the Rubicon was a matter of controversy, and 
the Pisatello, two miles from Cesena, was regarded as having the principal claim to 
the name. An action which involved the inquiry was instituted at Rome, and in 
1756 the decision of the " Rota" was given in favour of the Uso. 



Clara per obscuram vultu mcestissima noctem 
Turrigero canos effundere vertice crines." 

Lucan, i. 185.* 

The smallness of this and other historic streams in Italy 
will produce almost a shock — 

S. Maria Pomposa. 

• " Now near the banks of Rubicon he stood ; 
When lo ! as he survey'd the narrow flood. 
Amidst the dusky horrors of the night, 
A wondrous vision stood confest to sight. 
Her awful head Rome's rev'rend image rear'd. 
Trembling and sad the matron form appear'd ; 
A tow'ry crown her hoary temples bound. 
And her torn tresses rudely hung around." — Ro-we. 


"Sometimes misguided by the tuneful throng, 
I look for streams immortalized in song, 
That lost in silence and oblivion lie 
(Dumb are their fountains, and their channels dry). 
Yet run for ever by the muses' skill, 
And in the smooth description murmur still." 


Equally distant from Ravenna and Ferrara, but a long 
day's journey from either place, and most difficult to visit, as 
there is no sleeping accommodation possible in the dismal 
marshes of Comacchio, is the strangely grand and utterly 
desolate Church of S. Maria Pomposd. It is of the same 
class with the noblest of the Ravenna churches, and has 
sculptured capitals which rival those of S. Vitale in their 
richness and delicacy. 


l/i hr, by rail (7 frs. 25 c. ; 5 frs. 10 c.) from Bologna brings travel- 
lers through the ugly, marshy Emilia to Forli, 20 min. before reaching 
which, we pass — 


AENZA {Inn. Corona), which by tradition derives its 
name from Phaeton. 

"Ecco I'eccelsa 
Cittci che prese nome da colui 
Che si mal careggio la via del sole, 
E cadde in Val di Po." — Carlo PepoU, VEretno, c. ii. 

Faenza occupies the site of the ancient Faventia, where 
Carbo and Norbanus were defeated by Metellus, the general 
of Sylla, B.C. 82. In 1376 the medigeval town was pillaged 
with a horrible massacre of 4000 inhabitants by the papal 
troops under the English condottiere Sir John Hawkwood. 
Dante alludes to the signory of the Pagani at Faenza, who 
bore as their arms a lion on a silver field. 

" La citta di Lamone e di Santemo 
Conduce il leoncel dal nido bianco, 
Che muta parte della state al verno." — Inf. xxvii. 

From the Station a straight street leads into the heart of 
the town, passing (left) the Piazza S. Francesco, containing 
VOL. II. 23 


a modern statue of Evangelista Torricelli, a native of Faenza, 
by whom the barometer was invented. 

The once picturesque Piazza Grande was completely 
ijiodernized in 1873. ^^ has a pretty fountain with bronze 
ornaments. There is little in front to mark (right) the old 
Palace of the Manfredi, sovereign lords of Faenza, but a 
curious window may be seen in the court behind. This 
palace was the scene of the famous tragedy of Vincenzo 
Monti — " Galeotto Manfredi " — but the facts were not as he 
recounts them. A monk, who was an astrologer, had told 
Galeotto that he would be supplanted by his brother, 
and one day his wife, who was Francesca Bentivoglio, 
daughter of the Lord of Bologna, taunted him with this. In 
his irritation he gave her a blow, which she never forgave. 
Some time after, she feigned to be ill, and sent for her hus- 
band, and an assassin concealed in the curtains fell upon him. 
Being a strong man, Galeotto was getting the better of his 
murderer and throttling him, when Francesca, springing from 
the bed, stabbed him in the stomach and he fell. Francesca 
was afterwards imprisoned by the people of Faenza, but was 
released at the instance of Lorenzo de' Medici. 

Left of the piazza rises the rugged brick front of the 
Cathedral, dedicated to S. Constantius, 1st bishop of 
Faenza, 313. It contains : — 

Right, i^h Chapel. Innocenzo da Imola, 1526. Holy Family and 
saints — one of the best pictures of the master. 

Left of High Altar. Tomb of S. Sabinus, Bishop of Faenza, with 
reliefs relating to the story of his life by Benedetto da Majano. 

Left, yd Chapel. Tomb of S. Pietro Damiano of Ravenna, who 
died at Faenza. 

A Street leads left to the Archiginasto, containing the 


Pinacoteca, a small gallery, but interesting as illustrating the 
once numerous and remarkable school of Faenza. 
The best pictures are : — 

1st Hall. — 

C. I. Gianbattista Beyhicci, 1516. Virgin and Child, with S. John 

and angels. 
C. 6. Id. God the Father. 
C. 4. Id. S. Lorenzo and .S. Romualdo. 

C. 5. Id. S. Ippolito and S. Bene^tto (1506). 

These five pictures are most beautiful works of a very rare master, on 
no account to be confused with another and very inferior Gianbattista 
Bertucci, his grandson. 

D. 2. Marco Palmezzani. The Bearing of the Cross. 

D. 10. S. Bernardino da Feltre with the little Astorgio III. Manfredi, 

last sovereign of Faenza. A very interesting picture. 
Astorgio, son of the murdered Galeotto by Francesca 
Bentivoglio, was taken to Rome by Csesar Borgia, and 
drowned by him in the Tiber at the age of 16. 

2nd Hall. — 

E. 32. Innocenzo da Imola. Holy Family. 

E. 34. Id. Holy Family, with SS. John and Catherine. 

F. I. Giacomo Bertucci, son of Gianbattista, signed 1565. Corona- 

tion of the Virgin, with saints beneath. 
F. 2. Guido Reni (from the Cappuccini). Virgin and Child, with 
SS. Francis and Christina — a very fine picture. 

F. 3. Giacomo Bertucci, 1552. The Deposition. 

G. XT). Antonio di Mazzone, i<)00. Virgin and Child, with SS. Peter, 

Paul, Domenic, Mark, and Luke. 
G. 24, Michele Manzoni, 1066. The Martyrdom of S. Eutropius. 
H. 3. Marco Manchetti. Christ in the Pharisee's House. 

In a street some distance on the other side of the piazza, 
is the Church of S, Maglorio (a bishop of Faenza), which 
contains : — 

*LeJt, 2nd Altar. Girolamo da Treviso (sometimes attributed to Gior- 


gione). A most lovely Holy Family, with SS. Severe and Gregorio. 
The Holy Child holds a bird. 

At the further end of the town, in the Church of the 
Commenda in Borgo is another fresco by the same master, 
1533. In the adjoining priest's house a bust of the Baptist 
hy JDonatello, 1420 — " singularly refined, as well as simple, 
true, and natural in expression." 

A quarter of an hour more of railway brings us to Forli 
{Inn. Posta, on the Corso). 

Forli occupies the site of the ancient Forum Livii founded by the 
Consul'Livius Salinator after the defeat of Hasdrubal on the Metaurus. 
Here Galla Placidia married Ataulpus, King of the Visigoths, in 410. 
Forli was an independent Guelphic city till 131S) when the sovereignty 
was usurped by the Ordelaffi. 

In 1438 Forli was the birth-place of the great painter Melozzo : in 
1682 of Morgagni, the founder of Pathologic Anatomy. 

The town is prosperous and busy, and the Corso a very 
handsome street. It ends in the Piazza. Here stood the 
palace in which Girolamo Riario, nephew of Sixtus IV., was 

" On the evening of the 14th of April, 1488, Checco d'Orsi (to whom 
he had long refused to pay his debts, presented himself at the prince's 
usual hour of granting audiences. It was after supper, and the Duchess 
Caterina Sforza had retired to her secret bower, a point of much im- 
portance to Checco and his friends. Entering the palace they made quite 
sure that the business in hand should not be interrupted by any inter- 
ference of hers, by placing a couple of their number at the foot of the 
stair which led to her private apartments. The others passing on to the 
great hall— Sala dei Ninfi — found Girolamo leaning with one elbow on 
the sill of the great window looking on to the Piazza Grande, and talk- 
ing with his Chancellor. There was one servant also in the further part 
of the hall. 

*' ' How goes it, Checco mio?' said he, putting out his hand kindly, 
" ' That way goes it ! ' replied his murderer, stabbing him mortally as 
he uttered the words. 



"So Catherine became a widow with six children, at twenty-six years 
of age." — T. A. Trollope. 

In the piazza itself, a month afterwards, the minor con- 
spirators were publicly torn to pieces, and Count Orsi, in his 
85th year, after being forced to witness the total destruction 
of his family palace — the greatest indignity an Italian noble 
could suffer — was dragged to death at a horse's tail, after 
which his side was opened and his heart torn out before 
the people. Some arches and a Gothic colonnade are 
probably remains of the palace of Riario Sforza. 

Facing upon the piazza, stands the Church of S. Menuri- 
ale, with a grand brick campanile. Over the entrance is 
a curious group of the Adoration of the MagL First, the 
Three Kings are seen in bed and the angel appears to them ; 
afterwards they are portrayed again, taking off their crowns 
before the Virgin. In the interior are : — 

Right, ^tk Chapel. Marco Palmezzani. Virgin and Child, with SS. 
John and Catherine. 

Left, j\ih Chapel. Id. A group of saints kneehng, to whom God the 
Father appears with a multitude of angels. A very grand picture. In 
the lunette is the Resurrection. 

From S. Mercuriale a street leads direct to 
The Cathedral of Santa Croce, which has a good brick 
campanile. In the left transept is the famous chapel of 
La Madotifia del Fuoco, of which the cupola is the master- 
piece of Carlo Cignani. 

" He spent the closing years of a long life at Forli, where he estab- 
lished his family, and left the proudest monument of his genius in that 
grand cupola, perhaps the most remarkable of all the pictorial produc- 
tions of the eighteenth century. The subject is the Assumption of our 
Lady, the same as in the cathedral at Parma ; and here, too, as there, 
it exhibits such a real paradise, that the more we contemplate it, the 
more it delights us. Near twenty years were devoted to its production. 


from time to time ; the artist, occasionally, during that period, visiting 
Ravenna, to consult the cupola by Guido, from whom he took his fine 
figure of S. Michael, and some other ideas. It is reported that the scaf- 
folds were, against his wish, removed, as he appeared never to be satis- 
fied with retouching and bringing the work to his usual degree of 
finish." — Lanzi. 

Cignani and Torricelli are buried in this church. It con- 
tains a ciborium from a design of Michael Angela, an altar- 
piece (last chapel right) by Marco Palmezzani, 1506, and 
(under glass) " La Madonna delle Grazie," by Gugliehno 
degli Orga?ii, a disciple of Giotto. 

The street which faces the west end of the Duomo will 
lead, right, to the Church of S. Girolamo, which contains : — 

Right, 1st Chapel, covered with much injured but beautiful frescoes by 
Melozzo da Forli, who painted 1472 — 1475, and his pupil Marco Pal- 
mezzani. The kneeling figures of pilgrims in the lunette are portraits 
of Girolamo Riario and Caterina Sforza. 

zmi Chapel. The exquisitely beautiful tomb of Barbara OrdelaflS, 
wife of Piero, lord of Faenza, ob. 1466. 

"The histor}' of this ambitious and wicked woman is singularly at vari- 
ance with the lovely and beautiful image upon the sarcophagus in which 
she is buried ; and with the epithet ' ottima,' which is applied to her in 
the epitaph upon it. 

"The daughter of Astorgio Manfredi, she was betrothed when seven 
years old to Piero Ordelaffi, and became his wife in 1462. Thirsting 
for power, she, with her father's connivance, persuaded her husband to 
seize and imprison his elder brother Cecco, lord of Forli, and thus make 
himself master of the city ; but feeling their position insecure while the 
prisoner lived, she mixed poison with the food which she sent him in 
the Torre del Orologio. He escaped this danger, thanks to his wife 
Elisabeth, who shared his prison, and who bore about her person a ring 
which had the virtue of detecting poisons, but was soon after killed by a 
band of assassins, employed by Barbara. The plague having broken out 
at Forli, she removed to Forlimpopoli with her husband, who left her 
there and went to Florence. She would have followed him, had she 
not shortly been taken ill, and died, as it is supposed, from the effects of 
poison, which he, 'for reasons unknown,' caused to be administered to 
her." — Perkins. 


*3ri/ Chapel. Guido Reni. The Conception. One of the best works 
of the master. Right, the tomb of Morgagni, the Anatomist. 

^h Chapel. Injured cupola, with angels attributed to Palmezzani. 

Left, 1st Pillar. A recently discovered fresco of the Virgin and Child 
throned between SS. Jerome and Francis. 

The other churches of Forli are little worth visiting. All 
their good pictures have been removed to the Pinacoteca, 
and many of them are now turned into barracks. 

A street on the right of the Corso, opposite the Hotel La 
Posta, leads to the Piazza San Pellegrino. Here is the 
Church oft/ie Servi, which contains (right of entrance) a tomb 
with a relief of the Adoration of the Shepherds, executed in 
his life-time by Luffo Numai, as his own monument and that 
of his wife Caterina Paolucci. 

Opposite this, in the former convent of the Frati della 
Missione, are the Public Library, and the Finacoteca, which 
is deeply interesting as deriving all its wealth from native 
art. Here alone can be studied the grand works of Melozzo 
da Forli and his pupil Marco Palmezzani — the latter of 
whom founded a numerous school. Indeed, except the 
fresco in the Vatican and a fragment on the staircase of the 
Quirinal, there are no important works of Melozzo out of 
Forli. It is a peculiarity of the masters of this school that 
they always signed their works in full, on a parchment 
brought by some means into the picture. In their sacred 
subjects they also always endeavoured to introduce the 
patron saints of the city, the Bishop Mercuriale and the 
warrior Valeriano. It is remarkable that Melozzo and his 
followers associate themselves entirely with the school of 
Mantegna, and have nothing whatever in common with the 
neighbouring school of Bologna. We may notice in the 
gallery : — 


79. Damiano da Zotto da Forli. S. Sebastian. 

80. Francesco Alenzocchi da Forli, a pupil of Palmezzani, 1502 — 1574. 

Portrait of Cesarina, daughter of the famous Francesco Her- 

86. Gttercino. A beautiful picture from the Church of S. Filippo 

Neri. Above, Gabriel receives the Message of the Annunci- 
ation from the Almighty ; below, the Vii^n, a sweet country- 
girl, kneels, reading. 

87. Livio Agresti da Forli, c. is8a The Presentation in the Temple. 
89. Id. The Crucifixion. 

9a Niccolb Rondinelli. Virgin and Child. 
92. F. Fraftcia. The Nativity. 
94. Bagnacavallo. Holy Family. 
*96. Marco Palmezzani, 1456 — 1540. Portrait of Caterina Sforza. 
98. Baldassare Carrari da Forli. Coronationof the Virgin. Beneath, 
on the left, S. Benedict and S. Mercuriale with the town of 
- Forli ; on the right, S. Giovanni Gualberto and S. Bernardo. 
104. Francesco Menzocchi, Crucifixion, with S. Bernardino and 

S. Roch. 
1 10. Pier Paolo Menzocchi da Forli. The Donation of the Rosary. 
*H2. A/arco Palmezzani. A most interesting triptych. In the 
centre, the Madonna and Child, with Girolamo and Caterina 
Sforza kneeling at their feet ; at the sides, saints ; in the 
predella, Christ and the Apostles. 
113. Marco Valeria Morolini da Forli, a pupil of Palmezzani. The 

113. bis. Bartolommeo da Fctrli. The Deposition. 

115. Marco Palmezzani. The Crucifixion — a fresco. 

116. Carlo Cignani. The Madonna crowning S. Rosa. 

*II7. Fratuesco Zaganelli (II Cotignola), 1471 — 1540. God the 
Father, with kneeling saints. A very beautiful picture. 
124. Bagnacavallo. Holy Family and donor. 

*I26. Marco Melozzo da Forli. S. Antonio throned between S. 
Sebastian and S. John the Baptist. The pig appears beneath. 
On the throne are the arms of the Austoli family, for whom 
the picture was painted. God the Father is in a lunette 
above. This was formerly in the Church of the Carmine. 
The colouring is quite magnificent. 

♦128. Marco Palmezzani. The Annunciation. The Angel with his 
lily kneels before the Virgin, who is seated under an arch. 
Behind, is a lovely Umbrian landscape, with figures hawk- 
ing and fishing : the Dove of the Holy Spirit appears on a 


130. Giuseppe Galeppini da Forli (1625 — 1650). Marriage of S. 


131. Livio Agresti. The Deposition. 

132. Paolo Cignani (1709 — 1764). The Miracle of S. Domenico. 
136. Barbara Longhi (of Ravenna). Virgin and Child, with SS. 

Mercuriale and Valeriano. 
141. Fr. Albani. S. Sebastian. 

*I44. Saiola di Melozzo. Virgin and Child throned, with SS. Biagio 
and Valeriano. A grand picture, the face of the young 
warrior Valeriano quite beautiful. 

♦145. Marco Palmezzani. The Bearing of the Cross. The heads are 
full of expression and grandeur. Were it not signed, this 
picture would be taken for a Bellini. The rich ornamentation 
on the robe of the Saviour is quite his. This is the favourite 
subject of the Master : it is repeated in the gallery at Faenza. 
146. Fr. Menzocchi. Virgin and Child, with SS. Mercuriale and 

♦147. Marco Palmezzani. The Last Supper, represented as a Sacra- 
ment. A most noble picture. The scene is a rich portico, 
backed by wild Umbrian mountains. The Saviour, in a 
long blue robe, with an expression of awful solemnity and 
sympathy, administers the wafer to S. Peter, S. John stands 
by as a deacon with the chalice. The other disciples kneel 
behind rapt in devotion, except Judas, who kneels behind 
Christ with an expression careless and pre-occupied. Behind, 
like a vision, is seen the rejection of the Temptation. 

*I48. Marco Palmezzani. A grand portrait of the artist painted (like 
all his pictures on wood) in his 80th year for his tomb in 
S. Domenico, where it long remained. It was withdrawn by 
his family and sold to the Commune. Florence and other 
galleries have offered immense sums for this picture. 
150. Guercino. S. John Baptist. 

*15I. Giorgione (sometimes attributed to Raphael). Portrait of Caesar 
Borgia, Duke of Valentinois. His other portraits are in the 
Borghese gallery at Rome and in the Castelbarco Gallery 
at Milan. This is a simple and beautiful picture. 

154. Marco Palmezzani. Presentation in the Temple. 

155. Id. The Flight into Egypt. These two pictures are very small, 

but full of character and beauty. 
*l6o. Francesco Menzocchi. Portrait of Cesare Hercolani, warrior of 
Forli, one of those who took Francis 1st prisoner at Pavia. 
The saddle-cloth of the king was always preser\'ed in this 
family, lately extinct. 


i6l. Damiano di Zotto. S. Roch. 

162. Guido Reni. Head of the Madonna. A study for the picture 
of the Conception in S. Girolamo. 

{Over the Entrance) Guido Cagnacci. Two pictures of saints of 
local interest, as having been carried as standards at the translation 
of La Madonna del Fuoco. 

The Citadel, begun by Cardinal Albomoz in 1359, was 
enlarged under the Ordelaffi and the Riarii. 

Forli is the residence of the disinterested patriot Aurelio 
Saffi, one ofthe Roman triumvirate of 1849. He is remark- 
able for the heroism with which he has endured many vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, not the least that of his arrest at Rimini in 
1874 (to prevent his possible influence in the elections), with 
23 of his friends, when, after a month's incarceration in the 
malefactors' prison at Spoleto, and two months of solitary 
confinement at Perugia, they were released (hurried from 
their cells secretly at night for fear of a demonstration), the 
Government sirjiply saying that they had " made a mistake, 
and that there was no longer any occasion to proceed against 




IT is a little more than an hour by rail (5 frs. 30 c. 3 3 frs. 
70c.) from Forli to Rimini, passmg : — 
Forlimpoli (Stat.). The ancient Forum Popilii. 
Cesenai^izX..). Cesenawas the last town of Cisalpine Gaul 
on the Via Emilia. Its situation on the Savio is described 
by Dante : — 

"E quelle, a mi il Savio bagiia il fiatico, 

Cosi com ' ella sic ' tra il piano e il monte 
Tra tirannia si vive e stato franco." — Inf. xxxii. 

It is very picturesque from a distance, surmounted by its 
rock-built castle. The bishopric of Cesena is one of the 
oldest in Italy, and is said to have been founded by S. 
Philemon, a.d. 92. The town was pillaged and its inhabit- 
ants cruelly massacred to the number of 3000 persons by the 
Legate, Cardinal Robert of Geneva, afterwards the Anti-pope 
Clement VII. Pius VI. (Giov. Angelo Braschi) and Pius 
VII. (Gregorio Barnabe Chiaramonte) were both natives of 
this town, and there is a statue of the former in the Palazzo 
Pubblico, which contains a fine fresco of Francesco Francia — 
a Madonna and Saints. In front of the Palazzo is a hand- 
some fountain. The Library, founded by Malatesta Novello, 
1452, contains much that is interesting. 


The Cathedral contains : — 

Right Aisle, "^rd Altar. The Risen Saviour between the Baptist 
and S. John the Evangelist. 

" Behind the Baptist there kneels an elderly man with an expression 
of mild piety, according to the inscription described as Camillus 
Verardus, eques Pontificius. The hands of the kneeling figure are 
designed with admirable life. The style of the entire work is, it is true, 
affected by the naturalism which marked the entire fifteenth century, 
but it is softened by a decided sense of the beautiful. The drapery, 
with its delicate folds, is treated as a thin material which clings to the 
body almost transparently, as though it had been put on wet. Altogether 
all the figures display in their attitude and action, and in their type of 
countenance and expression, the general character common to the 
Lombardic School, but the execution is unusually tender and perfect in 
the smallest detail ; the hands are full of life, the hair displays masterly 
freedom,^ and S. John the Evangelist especially is among the most 
beautiful inspirations of the period." — Liibke, History of Sculpture. 

Left Aisle, 1st Altar. A relief by Alfonso Lombardi da Ferrara, 

"In the centre is S. Leonardo in a monk's cowl, which falls down in 
large simply arranged masses, and holding a chain with which he is 
raising his right hand. A thick curling beard encircles the beautiful 
head. To the left is S. Christopher, with the lovely Infant Christ, who 
is playing with his full beard. He is represented in an advancing 
attitude, the short light garment leaving the powerful and beautifully 
formed thigh almost free ; his hand is resting on the rude stem of a tree. 
On the right is S. Eustachius in the attire of a Roman warrior, rather 
indicated than fully detailed ; the upper part of the figure is bare and 
the arras are naked, and the mantle has fallen down over the shoulders 
in rather elegant than grand folds. The head is charming in its youth- 
ful splendour, and is surrounded with long curls ; in fonii and expres- 
sion it calls to mind the splendid heads of Sodoma, and is one of the 
most exquisite creations of this golden age. The artist of these three 
figures still adheres in the fine and careful treatment of the drapery, 
which affords an effective contrast to the simple monkish habit of S. 
Leonardo, to the tradition of the fifteenth century ; but the figures in 
their vigorous organization, mature and beautiful forms, and perfect 
understanding of structure, give the impression of an art which had 
arrived at the height of perfection. The head of S. Eustachius is equal 
to the finest works of Andrea Sansovino." — Lubke. 

On a hill a short distance from the town are the Benedic- 

RIMINI. 365 

tine Church and Convent of the Madonnd del Monte^ where 
Pius VII. (" Padre Chiaramonte ") was a monk. 

Savigtiano (Stat.). The birth-place of the Archaologist 
Borghese, 1781. Soon after leaving this, the blue over- 
hanging mountain of San Marino comes in sight upon the 
right. It is just such a mountain as we see in the back- 
grounds of Palmezzani and other painters. 

Sanf Angela in Vado (Stat.). The birth-place of Pope 
Clement XIV. (Lorenzo Ganganelli), 1705. 

Rimini (Stat). Itms. Tre Re, close to the station, a most 
comfortable small Italian Inn ; Aquila d'Oro, in the town, 
very inferior. 

By those who are not in a hurry, or wish to rest, Rimini is 
a most pleasant place to stay at for a few days, and the air 
is delicious and invigorating. 

"The name of Rimini will to most minds first suggest the most 
pathetic passage in the whole range of the Inferno of Dante ; but, 
whether as classic Ariminum or as mediaeval Rimini, the city has far 
higher historic claims to notice than to have been the birth-place of the 
erring Francesca. The first strictly Italian city where Csesar appeared 
in arms after crossing the borders of his own province, the city which 
was the scene of the Council after which the world was said to have 
mourned and wondered to find itself Arian, certainly stands out in 
historic importance above its neighbours. Its later tyrants, too, of the 
House of Malatesta bear a more famous name than most of their neigh- 
bours, whom we chiefly remember, if we remember them at all, as fall- 
ing into the common gulf of ecclesiastical dominion, either in the days 
of Borgia or in the earlier days when Robert of Geneva, the future 
anti-pope, wrought the great slaughter of Cesena. In the Forum of 
Ariminum we may see the stone which marks the spot where, according 
to local belief, Ceesar addressed his soldiers ; but the inscription speaks 
of the oration as having been made 'superato Rubicone,' — a phrase 
which savours rather of the rhetoric of Lucan than of the simple narra- 
tive of the great rebel himself, who did not think the crossing of a border 
streamlet worth recording. The momentary triumph of Arianism at 
Ariminum has left its memory in the name of the neighbouring La 


Cattolica, a spot which legend points out as the place of dwelling or 
shelter of the Orthodox minority in the famous Synod. In the general 
course of events there may seem to be a certain kind of propriety in the 
formal promulgation of the heretical faith in this particular district, as a 
kind of foreshadowing of the coming rule of the Arian Goth in not far 
distant Ravenna. As for the tyrants, one at least among them has 
taken care that neither himself nor his wife shall be forgotten by any 
visitor to Rimini. Sigismund and Isotta appear on church and fortress 
as the chief late adorners of the city ; and in the nomenclature of the 
modem streets, while the Dictator himself claims the great square of 
the modem Forum, many and earlier portions of the city bear the names 
of the most famous of the House of Malatesta." — Freeman. 

"No one with any tincture of literary knowledge is ignorant of the 
fame at least of the great Malatesta family — the house of the Wrong- 
heads, as they were rightly called by some prevision of their future part 
in Lombard history. The readers of the twenty-seventh and twenty- 
eighth cantos of the 'Inferno' have all heard of 

' E il mastin vecchio e il nuovo da Vemcchio 
Che fecer di Montagna il mal govemo,' 

while the story of Francesca da Polenta, who was wedded to the hunch- 
back Giovanni Malatesta and murdered by him with her lover Paolo, is 
known not merely to students of Dante, but to readers of Byron and 
Leigh Hunt, to admirers of Flaxman, Ary Scheffer, Dore — to all, in 
fact, who have of art and letters any love. 

"The history of these Malatesti, from their first establishment under 
Otho III. as lieutenant for the Empire in the Marches of Ancona, down 
to their final subjugation by the Papacy in the age of the Renaissance, 
is made up of all the vicissitudes which could befall a mediaeval Italian 
despotism. Acquiring an unlawful right over the towns of Rimini, 
Cesena, Sogliano, Ghiacciuolo, they mled their petty principalities like 
tyrants by the help of the Guelf and Ghibelline factions, inclining to 
the one or the other as it suitetl their humour or their interest ; wrang- 
ling among themselves, transmitting the succession of their dynasty 
through bastards or by deeds of force, quarrelling with their neighbours 
the Counts of Urbino, alternately defying and submitting to the Papal 
legates in Romagna, serving as condottiere in the wars of the Visconti 
and the State of Venice, and by their restlessness and genius for military 
intrigues contributing in no slight measure to the general disturbance of 
Italy. The Malatesti were a race of strongly-marked character : more, 
perhaps, than any other house of Italian tyrants, they combined for 
generations those qualities of the fox and the lion, which Machiavelli 


thought indispensable to a successful despot. Their power, based on 
force, was maintained by craft and crime, and transmitted through 
tortuous channels by intrigue, and while false in their dealings with the 
world at large, they were diabolical in the perfidy with which they 
treated one another. 

"As far as Rimini is concerned, the house of Malatesta culminated in 
Sigismondo Pandolfo, son of Gian Galeazzo Visconti's general, the 
perfidious Pandolfo. It was he who built the Rocca and re-modelled 
the Cathedral. He was one of the strangest products of the earlier 
Renaissance. To enumerate the crimes which he committed within the 
sphere of his own family, would violate the decencies of literature. It 
is enough to mention that he murdered three wives in succession, 
Bussoni di Carmagnuola, Guinipera d'Este, and Polixena Sforza." — 
y. A. Symonds. 

The broad road from the station leads to the gate of the 
town, beyond which it becomes Via Principe Umberto. 
Hence, on the left, the Via al Tempio Malatestiano leads 
to the famous Church of S. Francesco, generally called 
Teynpio dei Malatesti, a Gothic church entirely transmogrified 
by Alberti. 

" By introducing the joint initials of Sigismund Pandolfo and his mis- 
tress Isotta degli Atti into the ornamentation of the building, by inscrib- 
ing Sigismund's name upon the fa9ade, and by placing sarcophagi in 
which the eminent men of the court of Rimini were buried, under the 
arches upon the side of the building, Alberti made it a great mausoleum 
to the memory of Sigismund and his friends, and much more like a 
Pagan temple than a Christian church. Nor is this illusion dispelled by 
the interior, which with its heathen emblems, its deification of Sigismund 
and Isotta in the statues of SS. Sigismund and Michael, its medallions, 
bas-reliefs, and inscriptions in Latin and Greek, has so heathen an aspect 
that we involuntarily look towards the altar for a train of chaplet-crowned 
priests and augurs, about to offer a milk-white heifer in sacrifice to the 
god and goddess of Rimini. 

" The woman who shares this homage with Sigismund, as she shared 
his life, was the daughter of Francesco di Atto of the noble family of the 
Atti ; her ' liaison ' with Sigismund Pandolfo commenced during the life- 
time of his second wife Polixena, daughter of Francesco Sforza, whom 
he is said to have strangled. The Neapolitan poet Porcellio, who lived 
at the court of Rimini, states that Isotta's father strongly condemned her 


conduct, and makes this the argument of three Elegiac Epistles, one o f 
which (feignedly written by Isotta), pleads the irresistible power of love as 
an excuse for her fault, and the other (put into her father's mouth) re- 
plies, that the love which has subdued her is a false god, and that duty 
demands of her to leave her lover, and conduct herself henceforth like a 
virtuous woman. 

"This account conflicts with Tito Strozzi's statement that Francesco di 
Atto, Isotta's father, was Sigismund's faithful friend and councillor, and 
can only be made to agree with it if we believe, that the lovers were 
married after the death of Polixena Sforza, and that Isotta's father was 
reconciled to her. Besides these two elegies, other ' Isottaei ' are to be 
found in a rare book of poems, treating of the imaginary love of Jupiter 
for Isotta, which she repulses on account of her passion for Sigismund, 
and exalting her as more beautiful than Tyndaris, a better poetess than 
Sappho, and more constant than Penelope. 

"She was really but moderately handsome, judging from models, busts, 
and pictures, was clever as a writer of Latin verses, learned in physics 
and moral philosophy, and, as far as we know, constant to one lover. 
Through her influence, Sigismund was led to repent of his sins and to 
expiate by benefits and kind actions the injuries which he had formerly 
inflicted upon so many of his subjects ; and so great was his confidence 
in her judgment and experience, that at his death he left her joint ruler 
of Rimini with his natural son Sallustio. Fearful, however, that the 
Romish Church would seize upon her dominions on the plea of Sallus- 
tio's never having been legitimatized, she called Roberto, another illegi- 
timate son of her husband, to a share in the government, who, being am- 
bitious and wicked, caused Sallustio to be assassinated, and is said to 
have assisted by poison the progress of a slow fever, which attacked 
Isotta in 1470, and quickly carried her to the grave." — Perkins' Tuscan 

The incompleteness of the Interior, and its barn-like roof, 
prevent S. Francesco from being beautiful, but the rich 
adornment of its chapels is deserving of careful examination. 
On the right of the entrance is the tomb of Sigismondo him- 
self, ob. 1468, the simplest in the family Mausoleum. 

Right. The 1st Chapel, of S. Sigismund, has his statue over the altar. 
The beautiful pillars of the arch are supported by elephants, the Male- 
testa crest. The statues are by Ciuffagni. The low reliefs of angels on 
the inner wall are by Simone da Firenze, whose works resemble those of 


Donatello. The altar-piece, of the Holy Family, is by Luca Longhi da 
*The 2nd Chapel (of the Relics) contains a most beautiful fresco by 
Piero della Francesca, representing Sigismondo kneeling at the feet of 
his patron saint, S. Sigismund, king of Hungary. Behind him, are his 
favourite grey-hounds, and the castle which he built at Rimini is intro- 
duced. The fresco is signed " Pietri de Burgo opus, 1481." 

The ird Chapel is especially devoted to Isotta. Here, raised high 
against the wall, supported by elephants, is her sarcophagus, and over 
the altar is her statue as S. Michael vanquishing the Devil ! One of 
the shields which are held by the angels on the screen, bears the por- 
traits of the three Malatesta brothers, Sigismondo, Paolo, and Lanciano. 
The low reliefs by Simone in this and the opposite chapel on a blue 
ground, look like works of Luca della Robbia, but are certainly not by 

Left. The \st Chapel (spoilt by modem gilding) has a magnificent 
sarcophagus containing the remains of the " Famiglia Malatesta." It is 
adorned with reliefs by Ghiberti. The beautiful statuettes of the Sibyls 
on the pillars are by Simone. 

"This church is the chief monument of Sigismondo's fame. It is 
here that all the Malatesti lie. Here too is the chapel dedicated to 
Isotta, — ' Divae Isotta; Sacrum ; ' and the tomb of the Malatesta ladies, 
' Malatestorum domus heroidum sepulchrum;' and Sigismondo's own 
grave with the cuckold's horns and the scornful epitaph — 

* Porto le coma ch' ognuno le vede, 
E tal le porta che non se le crede.' 

Nothing but the fact that the church is duly dedicated to S. Francis, and 
that its outer shell of classic marble encases an old Gothic edifice, remains 
to remind us that it is a Christian place of worship. * It has no sanctity, 
no spirit of piety. The pride of the tyrant whose legend — ' Sigismundus 
Pandulphus Malatesta Pan F. Fecit Anno Gratise mcccl ' — occupies 
every arch and string-course of the architecture and whose coat-of-arms 
and portrait in medallion, with his cipher and his emblems of an elephant 
and a rose, are wrought in every piece of sculptured work throughout 
the building, seems so to fill this house of prayer that there is no room 
left for God. Yet the cathedral of Rimini remains a monument of 
first-rate importance for all students who seek to penetrate the revived 
Paganism of the fifteenth century. It serves also to bring a far more 

• The account of this church given by iEneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pii Secundi Com- 
ment, ii. 92) deserves quotation : " TEdificavit tamen nobile templum Arimini in hono- 
rem divi Francisci, verum ita gentilibus operibus implevit, ut non tarn Christianorum 
quam infidelium daemones adorantium templum esse videatur." 
VOL. II. 24 


interesting Italian of that penod than the tyrant of Rimini himself, before 
our notice. For in the execution of his design, Sigismondo received the 
assistance of one of the most remarkable men of this or any other age, 

Leo Battista Alberti All that Alberti could do was to- alter 

the whole exterior of the church, by affixing a screen-work of Roman 
arches and Corinthian pilasters, so as to hide the old design and yet 
leave the main features of the fabric, the windows and doors especially, 
in statu quo. With the interior he dealt upon the same general prin- 
ciple, by not disturbing its structure, while he covered every availalile 
square inch of surface with decorations alien to the Gothic manner. 
Externally, San Francesco is perhaps the most original and grace- 
ful of the many attempts made by classic builders to fuse the medi- 
aeval and the classic styles. For Alberti attempted nothing less. 
Internally, the beauty of the church is wholly due to its exquisite 
wall-ornaments. They consist for the most part of low reliefs 
in a soft white stone, many of them thrown out by a blue ground 
in the style of Delia Robbia. Allegorical figures designed with the 
purity of outline we admire in Botticelli, draperies that Bume Jones 
might copy, troops of singing boys in the manner of Donatello, great 
angels traced upon the stone so delicately that they seem to be rather 
drawn than sculptured, statuettes in niches, personifications of all arts 
and sciences alternately with half-bestial shapes of satyrs and sea-chil- 
dren : — such are the forms that fill the spaces of the chapel walls, and 
climb the pilasters, and fret the arches, in such abundance that had the 
whole church been finished as it was designed, it would have pre- 
sented one splendid though bizarre effect of incrustration. Heavy 
screens of Verona marble, emblazoned in open arabesques with the 
ciphers of Sigismondo and Isotta, with coats-of-arms, emblems, and 
medallion-portraits, shut the chapels from the nave. Whatever be 
the merits of the reliefs, tliere is no doubt that they fairly repre- 
sent one of the most interesting moments in the history of modem art. 
Gothic inspiration had failed ; the early Tuscan school of the Pisani 
had been worked out ; Michael Angelo was yet far distant, and the 
abundance of classic models had not overwhelmed originality. The 
sculptors of the school of Ghiberti and Donatello, who are represented 
in this church, were essentially pictorial, preferring low to high relief, 
and relief in general to detached figures. Their style, like the style of 
Boiardo in poetry, of Botticelli in painting, is specific to Italy in the 
middle of the fifteenth century. Mediaeval standards of taste were giving 
way to classical. Christian sentiment to Pagan ; yet the imitation of the 
antique had not lieen carried so far as to efface the spontaneity of the 
artist, and enough remained of Christian feeling to tinge the fancy with 
a grave and sweet romance. The sculptor had the skill and mastery to 


express his slightest shade of thought with freedom, spirit, and precision. 
Yet his work showed no sign of conventionality, no adherence to pre- 
scribed rules. Every outline, every fold of drapery, every attitude, was 
pregnant, to the artist's own mind at any rate, with meaning. In spite 
of its symbolism, what he wrought was never mechanically figurative, 
but gifted with the independence of its own beauty, vital with an in- 
breathed spirit of life. Tt was a happy moment, when art had reached 
consciousness, and the artist had not yet become self-conscious. The 
hand and the brain then really worked together for the procreation of 
new forms of grace, not for the repetition of old models, or for the in- 
vention of the strange and startling. ' Delicate, sweet, and captivating ' 
are good adjectives to express the effect produced upon the mind 
by the contemplation even of the average work of this period. To 
study the flowing lines of the great angels traced upon the walls 
of the Chapel of Saint Sigismund in the Cathedral of Rimini, to 
follow the undulations of their drapery that seems to float, to feel the 
dignified urbanity of all their gestures, is like listening to one of those 
clear early compositions for the voice, which surpasses in suavity of tone 
and grace of movement all that Music in her full-grown vigour has pro- 
duced. There is indeed something infinitely charming in the crepuscu- 
lar movements of the human mind. Whether it be the rath loveliness 
of an art still immature, or the wan beauty of art upon the wane — 
whether, in fact, the twilight be of morning or of evening, we find in the 
masterpieces of such periods a placid calm and chastened pathos, as of 
a spirit self-withdrawn from vulgar cares, which in the full light of 
meridian splendour is lacking. In the Church of San Francesco al 
Rimini the tempered clearness of the dawn is just about to broaden into 
day." — y. A. Symonds. 

From the piazza in front of S. Francesco, the Via Patara 
leads to the Piazza Giulio Cesare, which was the ancient 
forum. Here is a stone on which an inscription of 1855 tells 
that from thence Caesar harangued his troops after the pas- 
sage of the Rubicon — 

" Constitit ut capto jussus deponere miles 

Signa foro, stridor lituum, clangorque tubarum 
Non pia concinuit cum rauco classica cornu. 
Rupta quies populis, stratisque excita juventus 
Diripiunt sacris afiixa penatibus arma. 
Ut notK fulsere aquilae, Romanaque signa, 


Et celsus medio conspectus in agmine Caesar, 
Diriguere metu, gelidos pavor occupat artus." 

Lucan, i. 236. 

Near this is a Chapel on the spot where S. Anthony of 
Padua preached to the inattentive inhabitants of Rimini. 
Another Chapel, on the canal, commemorates his sermon to 
a more deserving congregation. 

" S. Anthony being come to the city of Rimini, where there were many 
heretics and unbelievers, preached to them repentance and a new life ; 
but they stopped their ears, and refused to listen to him. Whereupon he 
repaired to the shore and stretching forth his hand, he said, ' Hear mc, 
ye fishes, for these unbelievers refuse to listen ! ' and, truly, it was a 
marvellous thing to see how an infinite number of fishes, great and little, 
lifted their heads above water, and listened attentively to the sermon of 
the saint." — Legend of S. Anthony. 

Addison gives a translation of the Sermon of S, Anthony 
to the Fishes, as sold at Rimini and Padua. It is perhaps 
worth extracting : — 

"Do you think that, without a mystery, the first present that 
God Almighty made to man was of you, O ye fishes ? Do you think 
that, without a mystery, among all creatures and animals which were 
appointed for sacrifices, you only were excepted, O ye fishes ? Do you 
think there was nothing meant by our Saviour Christ, that next to the 
paschal lamb he took so much pleasure in the food of you, O ye fishes ? 
Do you think it was by mere chance, that, when the Redeemer of the 
world was to pay a tribute to Caesar, he thought fit to find it in the 
mouth of a fish ? These are all of them so many mysteries and sacra- 
ments, that oblige you in a more particular manner to the praises of your 

"In what dreadful majesty, in what wonderful power, in what amaz- 
ing providence, did God Almighty distinguish you among all the species 
of creatures that perished in the universal deluge ! you only were in- 
sensible of the mischief that laid waste the whole world. 

' ' All this as I have already told you, ought to inspire you with gratitude 
and praise towards the Divine Majesty, that has done so great things for 
you, granted you such particular graces and privileges, and heaped upon 
you so many distinguished favours. And since for all this you cannot em- 


ploy your tongues in the praises of your Benefactor, and are not provided 
with words to express your gratitude ; make at least some sign of rever- 
ence ; bow yourselves at His name ; give some sign of gratitude, accord- 
ing to the best of your capacities ; express your thanks in the most be- 
coming manner you are able, and be not unmindful of all the benefits 
He has bestowed upon you." 

And, says the authorized Life of the Saint : — 

" He had no sooner done speaking, but, behold a miracle ! the fish, 
as though they had been endued with reason, bowed down their heads 
with all the marks of a profound humility and devotion, moving their 
bodies up and down with a kind of fondness, as approving w^hat had 
been spoken by the blessed father, Antonio. " 

The Corso d'Aiigusto which runs through the Piazza 
Giulio Cesare, leads to the fine old Arch of Augustus, called 
the Porta Rotnana. 

' ' Spanning the street as it now does, it needs a slight effort to keep 
in mind that it is not the gate of the city, but simply a commemorative 
arch, which, like all others of its class, was in its original object simply 
commemorative, which served no practical purpose, and never fulfilled 
the purpose of a gateway by being furnished with a gate. Later ages, 
however, turned the arch of Rimini, as they turned the arches of Rome, 
to their own purpose, and a mass of brickwork on each side and above 
the arch, crowned with a double row of the so-called Scala battlement, 
shows that the arch raised in the seventh consulship of Augustus to 
commemorate no warlike triumph, but the peaceful work of mending 
the roads, was found convenient for the purposes of a fortress. The 
arch itself takes up nearly the whole width of the building, leaving room 
only for a single Corinthian column on each side. It exhibits the usual 
faults of Roman architecture in columns which support nothing except 
the projecting bits of entablature upon them, and in a sham pediment 
which not only ends no real roof, but does not even pretend to rest upon 
the columns. . . . Still the arch of Rimini is a simple, stately, and noble 
structure, all the better for standing out boldly in the simple dignity of 
its main architectural features, the arch itself and its attendant columns, 
and not being overloaded with sculpture or with exaggerated detail of 
any kind." — Freeman. 

The Fortifications of Paul V. are still very complete, and 



there is a delightful walk along them to the left with charm- 
ing views of mountains and sea. Here (reached from the 
Corso by the Via del Anfiteatro) are some obscure and 
quite indefinable remains of a Roman Amphitheatre. 


Arch of Augustus, Rimini. 

In returning from the Porta Romana, the first street on 
the left leads to the Church of S. Chiara, which contains a 
modern picture of the Virgin, greatly esteemed here as 
miraculous, and liable to wink its eyes. It is a beautiful 
picture, delicately and softly painted. It may be examined 
all round, yet, when the candles beneath it are lighted, its 
eyes certainly do seem to move. It is an illusion of paint- 
ing, like that of many old family-pictures in England, whose 
eyes, without any intention of the artist, follow you round 
the room. 
' On the left of the Corso is the Piazza Cavour, ornamented 


with a bronze statue of Paul V. Here is the Palazzo del 
Cotnune, containing : — 

Doni. Ghirlandajo. A most beautiful altar-piece, representing S. 
Domenic between S. Sebastian and other saints, with a very 
interesting predella of events in the life of the saint. 

Giov. Bellini, 1470. A Pieta. 

" Early and severe." — Burckhardt. 

From hence opens the Via Gambalunga, where there is a 
fine Library of 30,000 vols., founded by the Jurist Count 
Gambalunga in 1617. Behind the Theatre is the quaint, 
but much-altered, Castle of the Malatesti, now used as a 
prison. The Palazzo Ruffo (now Cisterna) is pointed out as 
the home of the ill-fated Francesca da Rimini, whose story, 
as narrated by herself in the Inferno, is told by Dante, and 
translated by Byron — 

" We read one day for pastime seated nigh. 

Of Lancilot, how love enchain'd him too. 

We were alone, quite unsuspiciously. 
But oft our eyes met, and our cheeks in hue 

All o'er discolour'd by that reading were ; 

Bat one point only wholly us o'erthrew ; 
When we read the long-sigh'd for smile of her, 

To be thus kiss'd by such devoted lover. 

He who from me can be divided ne'er 
Kiss'd my mouth, trembling in the act all over. 

Accursed was the book and he who wrote ! 

That day no farther leaf we did uncover. " 

At the lower end of the Corso is the five-arched Bridge 
of Augustus. 

" The bridge of Rimini is striking in its grand simplicity ; in a 
structure of that kind there was hardly any scope for the ever-recurring 
fault of Roman architecture, the masking of a body built according to 
the native Italian arched construction with a veil borrowed from the 
entablature system of the Greeks. The stream is spanned by bold and 
simple arches of the best Roman masonry, but with little attempt at 



ornament, and to more than one of the piers it has been thought need- 
ful at some later time to add buttresses of brickwork, to which a mediaeval 
architect might perhaps point with some triumph as a sign that his 
system of construction was after all better than that of the ancient 
engineers. The inscription on the bridge is not quite perfect ; but it is 
striking, when crossing a thickly-crowded thoroughfare between two 
parts of a modern city, to light on letters still plainly commemorating 
the name and offices of Augustus and his stepsons." — Freeman. 

Bridge of RiniinL 

Outside the town is the Church of S. Giuliano, the patron 
of Rimini,* a Greek martyr, whose cruel martyrdom is 
described at length by S. Chrysostom. In the church are 
pictures by Bettino, 1408, representing him as thrown into 
the sea in a sack full of serpents, and his body guided to 
the shore of Rimini by angels. There is a picture of his 
martyrdom by Paul Veronese. 

There are excellent Sea-baths at Rimini. The "Stabili- 
mento" opens June 28, after which the place is crowded 
with visitors from Rome and Bologna ; but at all times the 
shore is delightful, and the little port is very picturesque 
from the brilliant sails of its fishing-boats. It is reached by 

* United with S. Giuliano as patron is S. Gaudenzio, an early bishop of Rimini, 
scourged and stoned to death by the Arians, Oct. 14, 359. His effigy is on the early 


a walk of 6 min. down an avenue, from the Inn of the 
Tre Re. 

On the right bank of the river Manecchia, some 6 m. 
from the town, is Verruchio, a fortress of the Malatestas, 
which has perhaps witnessed more dreadful crimes than the 
stronghold of any other dynasty. 


No one should leave Rimini without making an excursion 
to San Marino, about 13 miles distant. A carriage thither 
(i. e. to Borgo), with i horse, costs 20 frs. for the day ; to 
S. Marino and S. Leo, 35 frs. A baroccino may be had for 
30 frs. Both places may be visited in a day by setting out 
not later than 6| a.m. 

S. Marino is in some points one of the most curious places 
in Italy — indeed, in Europe — having maintained itself as a 
Republic ever since the earliest times of Christianity. Its 
foundation is ascribed to S. Marinus, a converted stone- 
mason, who, after working for thirty years at his trade at 
Rimini, fled to a mountain solitude to escape the persecution 
under Diocletian. Numbers of other Christians collected 
around him, and, on the owner of the rock on which they dwelt 
giving it up to Marinus, he founded a Republic there. " So 
that," says Addi.son, "the commonwealth of Marino may 
boast at least of a nobler origin than that of Rome, the one 
having been at first an asylum for robbers and murderers, the 
other of persons eminent for piety and devotion." In spite 
of the neighbourhood of the Malatestas, San Marino main- 
tained its independence through the Middle Ages. It was 
threatened by Cardinal Alberoni, Legate of the Roniagna, 
but successfully appealed to Clement XII., and in the 
presence of Napoleon and at the Congress of Vienna it was 


defended by the simple patriotism of one of its citizens — 
Antonio Onofri. The RepubHc contains about 8000 souls, 
and extends over three villages — Serravalle, Faetano, and 
Monte Giardino, besides the upper and lower towns of 
S. Marino itself. Napoleon wished to increase it, but S. 
Marino wisely answered that it was much obliged, but that 
it had always been small and wished to remain small. 

It is a pleasant drive from Rimini through a fruitful plain. 
On crossing a rivulet about 10 miles from Rimini, we enter 
the Republic. The malefactor who crosses the bridge over 
this stream cannot be pursued and is free for three days ; 
after that, if he remains, he is given up to justice. The first 
village is Serravalle, with its Caffe Republicano. Here 
oxen must be taken, for the steep winding road, with 
fine views over the sea, which ascends to Borgj {Ijin. Osteria 
Mlnghetti), the aristocratic and commercial centre of San 

S. Marino. 

Marino, where all the richer inhabitants reside. Here we 
find the money coined in the Republic (with its arms) in cir- 
culation. Borgo stands just under the perpendicular cliflfs 
upon which the upper town is built, and, in looking at their 



Strange forms, we learn that the extraordinary mountains 
and rocks introduced in the backgrounds of Raffaelle, Peru- 
gino, Melozzo, and many other early painters, were taken 
from Nature and were not night-mares. Any one who is un- 
able to walk may see all that is most worth while by driving 
to Borgo. Hence, a very steep winding path leads to the 
rock-built Citta {Lin. Albergo Bigi), which has its piazza, 
five churches, a theatre, and a council-chamber contain- 
ing a Holy Family by Giulio Romano. From the castle on 
the highest point of the crags, there is a magnificent view 
over sea and land, and even the coast of Dalmatia is visible 
in the sunrise. The town contains about looo inhabitants. 
Count Bartolommeo Borghesi, the well-known archaeologist 

Cistle of S. Marino. 

and numismatist, resided here for some years. It is symbolic 
of the primitive state of affairs still existing in S. Marino, that 


the post never ascends the rock ; when it arrives a great bell 
rings in Borgo, and any one who wants his letters may come 
down and be present at the opening of the bag ; if he fails 
to do so, he must wait till the next day. 

"This petty Republic has lasted thirteen (now fourteen) hundred 
years, while all the other states of Italy have several times changed their 
masters and forms of government. Their whole history is comprised in 
two purchases, which they made of a neighbouring prince, and in a war 
in which they asssisted the Pope against a Lord of Rimini. In the year 
I loo they bought a castle in the neighbourhood, as they did another in the 
year 1 170. The papers of the conditions are preserved in their archives, 
where it is very remarkable that the name of the agent for the common- 
wealth, of the seller, of the notary, and" the witnesses, are the same in 
both the- instruments, though drawn up at seventy years distance from 
each other. Nor can it be any mistake in the date, because the Popes' 
and Emperors' names, with the years of their respective reigns, are both 
punctually set down. About two hundred and ninety years after this, 
they assisted Pope Pius II. against one of the Malatestas, and when 
they had helped to conquer him, received from the Pope, as a reward 
for their assistance, four little castles. This they represent as the 
flourishing time of the commonwealth, when their dominions reached 
half-way up a neighbouring hill ; but at present they are reduced to 
to their old extent. They would probably sell their liberty as dear as 
they could to any that attacked them ; for there is but one road by which 
to climb up to them, and they have a very severe law against any of 
their own body that enters the town by another path, lest any new one 
should be worn on the sides of their mountain. All that are capable of 
bearing arms are exercised, and ready at a moment's call. 

"The sovereign power of the Republic was lodged originally in what 
they call the Arengo, a great council in which every house had its re- 
presentative. But because they found too much confusion in such a 
multitude of statesmen, they devolved their whole authority into the 
hands of a council of sixty. The Arengo however is still called together 
in cases of extraordinary importance ; and if, after due summons, any 
member absents himself, he is to be fined to the value of about a penny 
English, which the statute says he shall pay, Sine aliqua diminutiotie aut 
gratia. In the ordinary course of government, the council of sixty 
(which, notwithstanding the name, consists but of forty persons) has in 
its hands the administration of affairs, and is made up half out of the 
noble families, and half out of the plebeian. They decide all by balloting, 


are not admitted until five-and-twenty years old, and choose the officers 
of the commonwealth. 

"Thus far they agree with the great council of Venice; but their 
power is much more extended ; for no sentence can stand that is not 
confirmed by two-thirds of this council. Besides that, no son can be 
admitted into it during the life-time of his father, nor two be in it of the 
same family, nor any enter but by election. The chief officers of the 
commonwealth are the two Capitaneos, who have such a power as the 
old Roman consuls had, but are chosen every six months. Some have 
been Capitaneos six or seven times, though the office is never to be 
continued to the same person twice successively. The third officer 
is the commissary, who judges in all civil and criminal matters. But 
because the many alliances, friendships, and intermarriages, as well 
as the personal feuds and animosities, that happen among so small a 
people, might obstruct the course of justice, if one of their own number 
had the distribution of it, they have always a foreigner for this em- 
ploy, whom they choose for three years, and maintain out of the public 
stock. He must be a doctor of law and a man of known integrity. 
He is joined in commission with the Capitaneos, and acts something 
like the Recorder of London under the Lord Mayor. The fourth 
man in the State is the physician, who must likewise be a stranger, 
and is maintained by a public salary. He is obliged to keep a horse, 
to visit the sick, and to inspect all the drugs that are imported. He 
must be at least thirty-five years old, a doctor of the faculty, and 
eminent for his religion and honesty, that his rashness or ignor- 
ance may not unpeople the commonwealth. That they may not suffer 
long under any bad choice, he is elected only for three years. Another 
person, who makes no ordinary figure in the Republic, is the school- 
master. I had the perusal of a Latin book in folio, entitled, Statuta 
Illustrissima Reipublicce Sancti Marini, printed at Rimini by order of the 
commonwealth. The chapter on the public ministers says, that when 
an Ambassador is despatched from the Republic to any foreign state, 
he shall be allowed, out of the treasury, to the value of a shilling 
a day. The people are esteemed very honest and rigorous in the 
execution of justice, and seem to live more happy and contented 
among their rocks and snows, than others of the Italians do in the 
pleasantest valleys in the world. Nothing indeed can be a greater in- 
stance of the natural love that mankind has for liberty, and of their aver- 
sion to arbitrary government, than such a savage mountain covered with 
people, and the Campagna of Rome almost destitute of inhabitants." — 

" A I'ombre du nom de son saint patron, protegee par son peu d'im- 
portance, San Marino a subsiste jusqu'k nous, et nous montre cette alii- 



ance de la religion et de la liberie qui fut le caractere des communes 
italiennes au xiii® siecle. Rien ne saurait exprimer plus vivement une 
telle alliance que la nouvelle cathedrale de Saint Marin. Les sept 
mille habitants qui forment la population de ce petit Etat, et qui payent 
un impot annuel de quatre sous par tete, sont parvenus a batir de leurs 
economies une fort belle eglise qui a coute cent cinquante mille francs, 
lis ont place debout sur le maitre-autel la statue du saint national, et 
dans ses mains un livre ouvert ou est ecrit ce seul mot : libertas." — 

From S. Marino a most interesting extension of the 
excursion may be made to — ? 

San Leo, i8 m. from Rimini, about 3 hours drive from 
S. Marino, on account of the constant ascents. Two rivers 
have to be forded, one of which is dangerous when the 

S. Leo. 

snow is melting on the Apennines. The whole scenery is 
the burnt landscape of Umbria, with the oddly-shaped 
valleys, the strange knobs and pinnacles of lime-stone rock, 
and the hill-set villages, of which the early painters made 

S. LEO. 383 

SO much use. Quite unexpectedly, on crossing a mountain 
ledge, one comes in sight of S. Leo, a tremendous rock with 
utterly perpendicular sides, forming the most impregnable 
fortress. The town is entered by a ledge in the rock and 
a tunnelled way. Its Castle — " La Rocca " — is a prison con- 
taining 300 prisoners. Its compartments, from their charac- 
teristics, are called Llnfertio, and // Paradiso. In the end 
room of the latter the famous Cagliostro died, in 1795. 
Facing the other side of the rock, standing close together, 
are the two Cathedrals, both of exceeding antiquity. In 
classical times San Leo bore the name of Mons Feretrus 
and was celebrated for a magnificent temple of Jupiter. In 
the persecution under Diocletian, S. Leone fled hither, a 
band of disciples gathered around him, and the name was 
changed. The place was the seat of a bishopric in 882, 
and at this date the earlier cathedral was in existence, for an 
inscription on a marble tabernacle in the nave, which serves 
as a canopy for the font, says that it was presented to the 
church in 882 by Ursus, Duke of Monteferetro. Several 
pillars with beautifully sculptured capitals in both cathe- 
drals are supposed to be relics of the Temple of Jupiter. 
The second cathedral stands very finely on the edge of 
the rocks. It has three aisles ; from the centre a staircase 
descends into a noble crypt ; from the sides, staircases ascend 
into the choir. Two of the pillars in the nave are sup- 
ported by a basement of animals. 

S. Leo was the most important fortress of the Dukes of 
Urbino, and was three times besieged while in their hands, 
the last time in 15 16, when, in the reign of Duke Guido- 
baldo, it was captured by the papal troops under Lorenzo 
de' Medici. 


"The garrison consisted of a hundred and twenty men, one-tenth of 
whom had fallen in its defence. After three months spent in hopeless 
assaults, a Florentine carpenter, named Antonio, observing from the 
opposite height the absence of sentinels over one of the most precipitous 
parts of the rock, attempted to make his way up the face of it, sometimes 
aided by plants and bushes in the clefts, but generally driving iron spikes 
into their crevices, and fastening ropes, ladders, or beams, as he ad- 
vanced. After four nights of this perilous toil he reached the wall, 
which he found, as he expected, without defenders. Having reported the 
way accessible, a number of light infantry were entrusted to his guidance, 
whom he ordered to strap upon their backs their shields, swords, and 
hatchets. On the 30th of September, under cover of a wet and foggy 
night, he conducted these safely to the summit, accompanied by a 
drummer and four pairs of colours. At day-break, an alarm was given 
from the watch-tower of an assault upon the gate, towards which the be- 
siegers had sent a party ; and, whilst the defenders hurried in that 
direction, Antonio, with some fifty men, displayed their colours, and 
beat to arms. Ere the garrison had recovered their presence of mind, 
the gate was opened by the escalading party to their comrades, and the 
place was carried." — Dennistouti s Memoirs of the Duke of Urbino. 


IT is I ^ hr, by rail (3 frs. 95 c. ; 2 frs. 70 c.) from Rimini 
to Pesaro. The line runs within sight of the sea, and 
passes : — 

La Cattolica (Stat.). The place which gave shelter to the 
twenty orthodox bishops who fled from the Arian Council 
of Rimini. 

Pesaro {Inn. Leone d'Oro) was the ancient Pisaurum, 
so called from its foundation upon the Pisaurus, now the 
Fogha. In the Middle Ages it was in turn ruled by the 
Popes, the Malatestas, and Sforzas; then it passed to the 
Delia Rovere, Dukes of Urbino, when it became the 
residence of a distinguished and intellectual court. It is 
described by Castiglione in the Cortegiano. The residence 
of Bembo here is mentioned by Ariosto : — 

" La feltresca corte 
Ove col formator del Cortigiano '' 

Col Bembo e gli altri sacri al divo Apollo 
Facea I'esilio suo men duro e strano." — Sat. iii. 

Bernardo Tasso was induced to settle at Pesaro by the 
Duchess Lucrezia d'Este, with his famous son Torquato, who 
here wrote VAmadigi. In later times Giovacchino Rossini 
the composer was born here, Feb. 29, 1792, to whom a 
bronze statue was erected near the station in 1864. 
VOL. II 25 


Pesaro is beautifully situated in a rich country, and is a 
very charming and prosperous place. The old Palace of 
the Delia Rovere, which Ariosto called the " Asylum of the 
Muses," is now the Palazzo Prefettizio. It is a noble work 
of Girolamo Genga and his son Bartolommeo, c. 1500. The 
great hall is magnificent. A Casino in the garden is shown 
as that in which Tasso lived with his father. 

The Biblioteca Oltvieri contains some Manuscripts of 
Tasso. The Cathedral is of little interest, but almost all 
the minor churches are worth visiting for some one object. 

S. Francesco, which has a splendid portal with sculpture 
in low relief, contains — 
Left, 1st Altar. Giovanni Bellini. The Coronation of the Vii^n. 

" A grand important work of the Master, against which has arisen 
many a storm from outside." — Burckhardt. 

"One of the largest and most important works of the Master out of 
Venice. The pilasters of the frame and the predella are also adorned 
with charming little pictures." — Kiigler. 

At the end of the right aisle are the shrine and tomb of 
the Beata Michelina da Pesaro, of the 3rd Order of S. 
Francis, who died June 19, 1356. She is now the patroness 
of the town, but is far more celebrated from the famous 
picture in the Vatican of her ecstasy, by Baroccio. Her 
monument is curious, with projecting lions and watching 

S. Domenico (with lions at its entrance) contains : — 

Giovanni Sanzio. Marriage of S . Catherine. 
In the Sacristy. Luca delta Roblfia. Madonna. 

S. Giovanni Battista contains : — 

Choir. Niccolb di Pietro Gerini de Florentia,l6po. Madonna between 
S. Francis and S. Michael, who is weighing souls. 
Sacristy. Zoppo. Christ between two Angels. 

FAXO. 387 

5. Agostino has a beautiful Gothic portal. In front of its 
pillars are lions ridden by old men. In a chapel on the 
right, is the extraordinary tomb of Julius Jordanus, 1633, 
with a huge dancing figure of Death. 

Two miles from Pesaro, near the summit of Monte S. 
Bartolo, is the Villa Imperiale, a favourite residence of the 
Dukes of Urbino, built by the Duchess Leonora Gonzaga 
as a surprise for her husband Francesco Maria I. It was 
decorated with frescoes, now much ruined, by Dosso Dossi 
and Raffaellhio del Colle. It has a noble marble staircase. 
The views are lovely. Bembo and Tasso sung the delights 
of the place. 

It is \ hr. by rail (i fr. 35 c. ; 95 c ) from Pesaro to Fano 
{In?i. II Moro), the ancient Fanum Fortunse. 

It is an interesting towTi, standing near the sea-shore, and 
completely surrounded by its ancient walls. Its most 
remarkable features are the Arch of Augustus, the tombs of 
the Malatestas at S. Francesco, and the pictures at S. Maria 
Nuova, but there are other objects which deserve notice, 
and in a walk from the station through the rather compli- 
cated streets they may be best visited in the following 
order : — 

Soon after entering the town the Strada of S. Francesco 
leads (right) to the Church of S. Francesco, which has a 
splendid round-headed western portal. On the right, in 
the open portico, is the fine tomb raised by the famous 
Sigismondo of Rimini to his father Pandolfo Malatesta, in 
1460; on the left is the tomb of the wife of Pandolfo of 
1398. Her beautiful figure rests, slightly turned towards 
the spectator, on a splendid red marble sarcophagus, with 


half-figures of saints in high relief in its quatrefoils. Above, 
under a Gothic canopy, is a crucifix, and around, on brackets 
and pillars, are figures of the Virgin and saints, all forming 
part of the monument, which is in good preservation. High 
up, on the adjoining wall, is a fine bracketted tomb of 
another member of the Malatesta family. 

The neighbouring Church of S. Pietro contains : — 

Left, 1st Chapel. Guido Reni. The Annunciation. 

S. Agostino contains : — 

Right, End Chapel. Guercino. The Guardian Angel. 

S. Croce (the Hospital Church) contains : — 
High Altar. Giovanni Sanzio. Madonna enthroned, with four saints. 

S. Maria Nuova contains : — 

Right, -^rd Altar. Pietro Perugino, 1497. Madonna and Child, 
with six saints. In the lunette, the Resurrection. In the predella, 
scenes from the life of the Virgin. It is a beautiful picture in a shame- 
ful state of neglect . 

Le/i, 1st Altar. Giovanni Sanzio, The Salutation. 

"Les figures sont un peu trop elancees, les mains et les pieds trop 
effiles ; mais le dessin, quoique un peu roide, ne manque cependant pas 
de correction. En somme, I'execution de cette peinture annonce en- 
core le tatonnement et la recherche." — Passavant. 

Left, 2nd Altar. Pietro Perit«ino, 1498. The Annunciation — God 
the Father appears above. Exceedingly neglected and uncared for. 

S. Paterniano (dedicated to the ist bishop of Fano) 
contains : — 

Right, 1st Altar. Guercino. Marriage of the Virgin. 

Left, 1st Altar. Cav. dArpino. The Death of S. Joseph. A 
curious picture ; the wholly naked figure of the aged saint is supported 
by the Virgin, while Christ points to heaven. 

The Corso runs through the Piazza Maggiore, which 
contains a pretty fountain and the picturesque Gothic 
Palazzo Communale. Behind, is a court-yard with a loggia, 



and some rich Gothic windows. In one of the rooms is the 
famous picture by Domenichino, of David with the head of 
Goliath. Most people will think it very ugly, but it has 
been much injured by thieves who cut it out of its frame 
and stole it from the CoUegio Folfi, where it was formerly 

"The David of Domenichino is a first-rate object of inquiry to all 
strangers visiting the college at Fano, who have the least pretensions to 
taste ; the figure of the king, as large as life, being of itself sufficient to 
render an artist's name immortal." — Lanzi. 

Turning to the left from the Corso, down the Via dell' 

Arco d'Augusto, Fano. 

Arco d'Augusto, we reach (left) the CatJiedral of S. Fortunato, 
a poor church with no external characteristic but the four 
recumbent beasts which once supported a lost portico. It 
contains : — 


Left, 2nd Chapel. Tombs of the Rainalducci family, with portraits. 

Right, i^k Chapel. (Hopelessly faded and injured) sixteen frescoes 
by Domenkhino. 

Chapel of Sacristy. Loci, Caracci. Madonna and Saints. 

Just beyond this, spanning the street, is the beautiful and 
simple Triumphal Arch of Augustus. The attic story was 
added in the fourth century, when it was re-dedicated to 
Constantine. Artists will find it a charming subject in 
colour and detail. 

Clement VIII. (Ippolito Aldobrandini) was bom at Fano. 
Julius II. established here, in 1514, the first printing-press 
known in Europe with Arabic types. 




IT is I hr. by rail (5 frs. 35 c. ; 3 frs. 75c.) from Fano to 
Soon after leaving Fano the railway crosses the Metaurus, 
the *' Velox Metaurus " of Lucan (now called the Metro) — 

** Caris venientes montibus Umbri, 
Hos ^sis, Sapisque lavant, rapidasque sonanti 
Vertice contorquens undas per saxa Metaurus." 

Sil. Ital. viii. 447. 

It was on the banks of this river that Hasdrubal, the 
brother of Hannibal, was killed in battle, fighting bravely 
when his army was defeated by the Roman Consul C. Claud- 
ius Nero, B.C. 207. The battle of the Metaurus was cele- 
brated by Horace and received a canzone of Tasso, when 
the great poet sought a refuge in the Duchy of Urban o — 

" Quid debeas, O Roma, Neronibus, 

Testis Metaurum flumen et Hasdrubal 
Devictus . . , . " 

Crossing the Cesano (Suasanum) the line reaches — 
Sinigaglia (Stat.) (/««. Locanda della Formica), the ancient 

Seno Gallica, a very flourishing sea-port and bathing-place. 

It was an episcopal see in the 4th century. Its great Fair, 


held between July 20 and August 8, was established 600 years 
ago. Hither, Dec. 31, 1502, Cesare Borgia* beguiled the 
most famous condottieri of his time — Vitellozzo Vitelli and 
Oliverotto of Fermo — under pretence of entertaining them at 
a banquet, and, disappearing himself, caused them to be 
strangled by his attendants. The town is the residence of 
the ancient family of Mastai-Ferretti, and Pope Pius IX. — 
Count Giovanni-Maria Mastai-Ferretti — was bom here in 
1790. The singer Angelica Catalan! was also born at Sini- 
gaglia in 1784. 

After passing Casebruciate, the line comes in sight of 
Ancona, most beautiful, and not unlike Naples, rising up the 
sides of a hill, crowned by the cathedral. 

Inns. La Pace, near the harbour; Vittoria, Strada Calamo. 

Carriages from the station to the to7un, I fr. (i piece of luggage in- 
cluded). Two horses l\ to 2 frs. For I hr. i| to 2 frs., each Yz hr- 
after 60 to 80 c. Beyond the town, 2 frs. 50 c. or 3 frs. 60 c. for I hr., 
and I fr. 15 c. or i fr. 70 c. for each half-hour after. 

Post Office (open from 8 — 6 o'clock). Strada Calamo. 

Telegraph Office. Via del Porto. 

Ancona, founded by Doric Greeks from Syracuse, takes its 
name from the Greek word Ancon, or an elbow. It under- 
went more troubles than even most Italian cities in the 
Middle Ages. In 592 it was plundered by the Lombards, in 
839 by the Saracens. In 11 73 it was besieged for Frederick 
Barbarossa by Archbishop Christian of Mayence. It was 
during the horrible famine endured in this siege that the 
famous Stamura rushed with a burning torch through the 
darts of the enemy, and set fire to the battering-rams and 
scaling towers with which the imperialists were assaulting 
the walls, and that "the heroine of Ancona," a young 

. • " Omnis humani divinique juris contemptor et perturbator."— 5*»«&>. 


woman of noble birth with an infant in her arms, finding 
that a soldier had deserted his post through hunger, offered 
him the sustenance of her breast and bade him there recover 
strength for the defence of her country. 

The town then had a constitution of its own till 1532, 
when it was occupied by the troops of Clement VII., and 
continued to be ruled by the Papal See till 1799, when it 
was taken by the French. In the following year it was be- 
sieged for the Allies by General Meunier. It was restored 
to the Pope by the Treaty of Vienna. In 1832 it was again 
occupied by the French. In 1849 it was bombarded by the 
Austrians. In i860 it gave itself up to the Piedmontese. 

The characteristic feature of Ancona appears in the 
adage — 

" Unus Petrus est in Roma, 
Una turris in Cremona, 
Unus portus in Ancona." 

On leaving the station, we pass the Lazaretto (now a ware- 
house) built by Vanvitelli in 1733 for Clement XII., in 
whose honour the same architect was employed in 1765 to 
raise the handsome gateway called the Arco Clemeiiiino, by 
which we enter the town. The view is charming over the 
harbour, on the north side of which is the old mole, pro- 
jecting from the foot of the hill called Monte Cirtaco, or 
Guasco, on which the town is built. This mole is adorned 
by the beautiful Triw?iphal Arch of Trajan, erected to his 
honour, a.d. 112, by his wife Plotina and his sister 

*' Let us stand on the quay of Ancona, and turn away our eyes from 
the noble bay, with the long line of its coast dotted with towers and 
castles, and with the mountains rising behind them. Let us turn our 
eyes inland, and from several happily-chosen spots the view immediately 



before us seems a worthier symbol of the great change that has come 
over the world than the half-spiteful device of surmounting the monu- 
ments of Trajan and Antoninus with objects of Christian reverence. 
Close before us rises the arch of Trajan, where the prince to whom his 
own and later ages decreed the title of the Best is celebrated, not for any 
of his warlike exploits, not for adding provinces beyond the Danube and 
the Tigris, but for the more useful task of finishing the work on which 
we are now standing, the great mole of the harbour of Ancona. Through 
the narrow arch, from a well-chosen spot — soaring above the arch and all 

Arch of Trajan, Ancona. 

that it supports, from a spot still better chosen — we see the peninsular 
hill which rises above the port and city, itseW crowned by the stately 
Duomo of Ancona, the church of the martyr Cyriacus. The Christian 
temple seated on its lordly height seems to look down with an eye of 
silent rebuke upon the monument of the prince who condemned Ignatius 
to the lions. The moral of the group is perhaps disturbed rather than 
heightened when we carry our inquiries further, when we learn that the 
church of S. Cyriacus is itself an example of the less noble form of 
Christian triumph — that it has taken the place and grown out of the 
materials of the chief temple of the city in heathen times. We could 
perhaps rather have wished that the triumph of the new faith on such a 
site had been embodied in some building wholly the design of Christian 
skill and the work of Christian hands, a building which owed nothing to 
the despoiling of the holy places of the fallen creed. But from the point 


of which we speak thoughts of this kind cannot suggest themselves. 
The Duomo of Ancona, as seen from the mole, as seen anywhere from 
the outside, is a building whose forms are purely and eloquently Chris- 
tian. Unlike the earlier basilicas of Ravenna and Rome, it is not satis- 
fied to be all-glorious within ; it has its external outline, the outline of the 
now triumphant cross, the four arms joining to support the cupola as the 
crown of the whole, as distinctly marked as any minster of England or 
Normandy. The cupola, instead of the massive towers, the detached 
campanile, unworthy as it is of the building to which it belongs, tells us 
that we are not in Normandy or England, but in Italy. But another 
feature of the building tells us that we are in one of those spots of Italy 
on which influences from the other side of the Adriatic have left a 
lasting impress. The city which had once been the Dorian Ankon, 
the city which was to be the last fortress in Italy to be held by the troops 
of a Byzantine Emperor, not unfittingly shows the sign of kindred with 
the East in the form of the chief monument of its intermediate days. 
The Duomo of Ancona follows neither the oblong type of the basilicas, 
nor the Latin cross of Pisa. The church which contains the columns 
of the temple of Dorian Aphrodite is still so far Greek as to follow in 
its general plan the same Greek cross as St. Mark's, though without that 
further accumulation of many cupolas which makes the ducal church of 
Venice one of the many reminders that in the city of the lagoons we are 
in the Eastern, and not in the Western world." — Freeman. 

The streets of Ancona are narrow and steep, running up 
the sides of the hills and, for the most part, ending below in 
the handsome Piazza del Teatro. The chief object of in- 
terest is the 

Cathedral of S. Ciriaco, which stands so conspicuously 
at the top of Monte Guasco, occupying the site of the 
ancient temple of Venus. In examining this church, 
which is Greek in all its parts, it will be remembered that 
Ancona was one of the Italian cities which remained longest 
with the Emperor of the East, under whose dominion the 
church was built. Muratori says that " the Emperor Fred- 
erick saw with impatience Ancona, that remnant of Oriental 
power, in the heart of the Western Empire." 

" The church which has supplanted the ancient temple on the penin- 


sular height is not wholly unworthy either of the lordly position on 
which it stands, or of the long train of associations which is called up 
by the prospect on which it looks down so proudly. The Greek cross 
perhaps makes us ask for the four subordinate cupolas gathering round 
the great centre, as in the three examples which form as it were the 
family tree of domical architecture, St. Sophia, St. Mark, and St. Front 
at Perigieux. Our first feeling perhaps is one of puzzledom at the 
seemingly amazing length of the transepts and shortness of the nave. 
The south transept indeed, furnished as both of them are with aisles and 
finished with apses, might for an instant pass for the eastern limb. In 
fact, the western limb is internally the shortest of the four. Each con- 
sists of three bays, the eastern, northern, and southern being originally 
furnished with an apse. But the eastern apse has unluckily given way 
to a square-ended addition of a somewhat later time, which greatly mars 
the general proportion of the building. It is easy to see that, in more 
than one point, changes have taken place in the details of the orna- 
mental pilasters and arcades ; but, except the outward addition at the 
east end, there is nothing to interfere with the general character of the 
building as a pure but not very rich specimen of the Italian Romanesque 
at its best point, when it had shaken itself quite free from classical 
trammels and was not yet corrupted by hopeless imitations of Northern 
forms. The chief ornamental feature outside, the only feature where 
there is any great degree of enrichment, is the magnificent western 
porch, with its many receding orders, and its columns resting in true 
Italian fashion on the backs of lions, lions among the most life-like of 
their kind. We fancy that in some of the orders the beginnings of 
pointed arches may be detected, but they do not thrust themselves into 
such prominence as seriously to interfere with the Romanesque purity of 
the building. The rest of the front is plain ; there is no trace of the 
arcades of Pisa and Lucca, and Saint Zeno's wheel of fortune is, both 
here and in the transept, represented only by a single circle. But when 
we have once taken in the peculiar arrangements of the church, the 
whole fits in well together, and the octagonal cupola on its square base 
rises well with its four supporting arms, far better than it could have 
done if the nave had attempted anything of basilican length. Within, 
an ingenious arrangement of pendentives supports it well over the four 
arches which bear it up, though we might have wished that they and 
the piers on which they rest had been made more prominent objects in 
the interior. The arches of the four limbs rest on monolith columns, 
the spoils of the ancient temple, and they are crowned by capitals of 
various forms, classical and quasi-classical, some almost barbaric in 
their foliage, but still all confining themselves to foliage, and not seeking 


for richness in the shape of human or animal forms. Those in the 
south transept are worthy of special study as showing some of the 
curious ways in which the volute and the other classical details might 
be used in the various attempts to avoid exposing the delicate work of 
the capital to the full weight of the arch which it had to bear. But the 
study of the columns and capitals in the Duomo at Ancona is a case of 
the pursuit of knowledge under difficulties. Anconitan taste seemingly 
looks on a marble shaft and a Corinthian capital as something which is 
less a thing of beauty than certain fragments of red rags with which the 
greater part of column and capital are carefully covered. Yet, after all, 
this display of Anconitan taste is not more wonderful than that which 
condemned the north transept and the crypt below it to be mercilessly 
Jesuited. The crypt under the southern transept has escaped ; it keeps 
its natural columns, and it is rich in tombs and inscriptions of various 
dates and burials, one of them in the Greek language, recording the 
burial-place of the martyr Dacios. " — Freeman. 

The chief features of the Interior are the curious wooden 
roof; the marble screen of the left transept, with figures of 
saints on one side, and, on the other, peacocks, eagles, and 
storks in low relief; and the crypt. Here, in the right tran- 
sept, is the beautiful Sarcophagus of Titus Gorgonius, Praetor 
of Ancona. 

"This work displays no great delicacy of execution, but has rich 
sculptures on all four sides and in excellent preservation. On the front 
side, in the centre, is the enthroned figure of Christ, and at His feet are 
the two deceased persons, in a humble attitude, and ten of the Apostles. 
One side contains Moses receiving the Tables of the Law and the 
Offering of Isaac, the other side Christ before Pilate. The back 
shows the husband and wife, full-length figures, embracing each other, 
and in the corners the two Apostles omitted on the front. On the edge 
of the lid, which is here likewise decorated, two angels are holding the 
mscription-lablet ; beside this, there "are the Three Kings, the Birth of 
Christ, and the Healing of the Blind Man ; on one of the narrow sides 
Christ appears as a teacher, on the other making his Entry into Jeru- 
salem. " — Liibke. 

In the left transept of the Crypt are the tombs of SS. 
Ciriacus, Marcellinus, and Liberius. 

The Strada della Loggia leads (left) from the Piazza del 


Teatro. On the left of this street is the handsome Loggia 
del Menanti, with a very richly ornamented front. It was 
begun in 1443, by Giov. Sodo da Ancona, and finished in 
1459, by Giorgio da Sebenico. The hall is a magnificent 
room, with ceilings painted in the manner of Peregrino 

Further, on the right, almost opposite the Hotel della 
Pace, is the Church of S. Maria della Piazza, with a glorious 
fa9ade of 12 10. 

" Disfigured without mercy within, hemmed in among mean buildings 
without, furnished with an unworthy campanile, this church still retains 
its west front of the very richest form of the more barbaric variety of the 
Italian Romanesque, that which departs most widely from classical and 
approaches most nearly to Northern forms. It is covered with arcades, 
with a magnificent doorway in the centre, and almost every arch of the 
design is living with figures, human, animal, and vegetable. The door- 
way is utterly unlike its equally splendid neighbour in the Duomo. It 
has, in fact, not only a Northern, but, one might almost say, an Irish 
or North Welsh character, in its utter rejection of the column in favour 
of a system of members, square and round, continued round both jamb 
and arch, the round members being repeatedly banded in a way which, 
to the few who have made their way to so wild a spot, will at once 
suggest the grand doorway of Strata Florida in Cardiganshire." — Free- 

Continuing to follow the same street, we pass on the right 
the humble Church of La Madonna della Misertcordta, which 
might easily pass unnoticed, but has an interesting portal by 


" All traces of the Gothic style are here effaced, and the work appears 
as rich early Renaissance. Heavy garlands of fruit, admirably executed 
in marble, hang down on both sides from the cornice of the door. 
Below stand two putti, with basons for holy water on their heads. In 
the tympanum appears the Madonna spreading her mantle over several 
figures. " — L iibke. 

Several other churches deserve notice. That of S. Agos- 


tino, close to the Piazza del Teatro on the right, was rebuilt 
by Vanvitelli, but retains its Gothic portal, into which some 
Renaissance columns have been introduced. 

" The treatment of the portal walls, with their small columns, is still 
mediaeval. The pilasters also, with their niches and statues, are Gothic 
in style ; but they rest on Corinthian columns with fluted shafts, and the 
outermost framework of the whole is formed by slender pilasters with 
graceful Renaissance decoration. Vasari, m his Life of Duccio, is 
inclined to ascribe this portal to a master, otherwise little kno>vn, of the 
name of Moccio, who was employed in 1340 in the enlargement of the 
Cathedral of Siena. It is however certain that Master Giorgio da 
Sebenico began this portal, though he left it unfinished at his death. 
It agrees, moreover, with the other works of Giorgio. The Gothic 
design and decoration of the portal evidently proceed from him. After 
his death, no doubt, the work was finished by a master who had become 
acquainted with the new style, and who added ornament of a similar 
character. The same hand probably executed the sculptures, which, in 
their vigorous life, seem attributable to a Florentine artist. In the 
pilaster niches there are four saints, which in position, drapery, and 
expression, betray an able artist hand ; in the arched compartment above 
the tympanum there is an Annunciation, which recalls the charming 
figures of Robbia. In the upper arched compartment there appears the 
figure of S. Augustine, sitting in almost passionate excitement, with his 
book upraised, as if imploringly ; while two bold advancing angels (one 
of them seen from behind and in masterly foreshortening) are separat- 
ing the folds of the curtain. It is a work which evidences a most skilful 
sculptor and one who commands all the resources of his art." — Liibke. 

This Church contains a number of works by LillOy 
generally known as Andrea da Ancona. 

The Church of S. Francesco deir Ospedale (north of the 
Piazza del Teatro, on the ascent of the hill) has a splendid 
Gothic doorway of 145 5, by Giorgio da Sebenico. It is now 
turned into a barrack, and its pictures have been removed. 
The corridor of the adjoining hospital has a beautiful door- 
way with sculptures of birds and flowers in Ioav relief Also 
on the hill-side, in a back street, is the fine Romanesque 
front of S. Pietro. 


The Palazzo del Comune in the Piazza del Gesli was built 
in 1270, from designs oi Margaritone. 

A pleasant excursion (9I miles) may be made from 
Ancona to the Camaldolensian Monastery on Monte Conero 
(1763 ft), which commands a magnificent view. A carriage 
may be taken for the first 7^ m., but the mountain must be 
ascended on foot. 



AN excursion can easily be made by rail to Loreto (2 frs. 
70 c. ; I fr, 90 c.) in the day from Ancona, returning 
at night. The Railway passes : — 

Osimo (stat), the ancient Auximum, a Roman colony, 
which, from its strength, was one of the principal places in 

" Admotae pulsarunt Auximon alse." — Lucan, ii. 466. 

The city is on the top of a high hill (omnibus 60 c.) 
whence there is a beautiful view. A number of Roman in- 
scriptions and broken statues are preserved in the Palazzo 
Pubblico. The Cathedral, dedicated to the Greek saint 
Thecla who suffered martyrdom at Seleucia, has some local 
celebrity as enshrining the body of S. Giuseppe di Coper- 
lino. It contains a series of portraits of all the bishops of 
Osimo. A great part of the Town Wall is that of Auximum, 
and dates from 200 b.c. 

On the right of the railway is Castelfidardo, where the 
papal troops were defeated by the Sardinians under Cial- 
dino, Sept. 18, i860. 

The country is rich and very fertile. In April the fields 
are covered with scarlet tulips ; the contadini here do their 
work in garments which look exactly like night-gowns. 

VOL. II. 26 


Loreto is 2 m. from the railway, at the top of a high hill, 

(Omnibus for the ascent, 60 c. 

Inns. Pace, at the Porta Romana, good. Posta, in the principal 

Loreto, " the European Nazareth," next to Rome, is the 
most popular place of Christian pilgrimage in the world. 

" Hie sane locus Italiae decus, orbis miraculum, nationum celebritas, 
gentium gaudium, asylum, expiatio peccatorum, peregrinantum requies, 
piorum desiderium iteratum et amor." — Ughelli, Italia Sacra. 


The Holy House of Nazareth, which witnessed the Annun- 
ciation, the Incarnation, and which was the home of the Holy 
Family after their return from Egypt, long continued an ob- 
ject of pilgrimage on its native site. The Empress Helena 
Went to worship there, and erected a church over it, with 
the inscription — " Haec est ara, in qua primo jactum est 
humange salutis fundamentum." S. Louis was among its 
later pilgrims. But in the 13th century, when threatened 
with desecration by the Saracens, the angels are said to 
liave taken it up (a.d. 1291) and to have deposited it 
iti a place of safety on the coast of Dalmatia, between 
Fiume and Tersato. Here it remained undisturbed for 


three years, but being again in danger, the angels again took 
it up, and bore it over the sea to this hill, up to that time 
called Villa di S. Maria, where they deposited it in 1295 in the 
garden of a devout widow called Laureta. The happy event 
was announced in a vision to S. Nicholas of Tolentino, 
The Holy House soon became an object of pilgrimage, 
and such offerings were made to the shrine 9.S to excite the 
cupidity of the Saracens, against whom Sixtus V. surrounded 
the place with walls in 1586, when Loreto became a city. 
Tasso was amongst the innumerable pilgrims of the Holy 
House, and alludes to this in the Canzone : — 

" Ecco fra le tempeste, e i fieri venti 
Di questo grande a spazioso mare, 
O santa Stella, il tuo splendor m'ha scorto, 
Ch' illustra e scilda pur Tumane menti." 

"Every one knows the story of the House of Loreto. The devotion 
of one-half the world, and the ridicule of the other half, has made us 
familiar with the strange story, written in all the languages of Europe 
round the walls of that remarkable sanctuary. But the ' wondrous 
flitting ' of the Holy House is not the feature in its history which is most 
present to the pilgrims who frequent it. It is regarded by them simply as 
an actual fragment of the Holy Land sacred as the very spot on which the 
mystery of the Incarnation was announced and begun. In proportion to 
the sincerity and extent of this belief is the veneration which attaches to 
what is undoubtedly the most frequented sanctuary in Christendom. 

" No one who has ever witnessed the devotion of the Italian people on 
this singular spot, can wish to speak liglitly of the feelings which it in- 
spires. But a dispassionate statement of the real facts of the case may 
not be without use. It has been ably proved, first, that of all the pil- 
grims who record their visit to Nazareth from the fourth to the six- 
teenth century, not one alludes to any house of Joseph as standing there, 
or as having stood there, within human memory or record ; secondly, 
that the records of Italy contain no mention of the house till the fifteenth 
century ; thirdly, that the representation of the story as it now stands, 
with the double or triple transplantation of the sanctuary, occurs first in 
a bull of Leo X. in the year 1518. The House of Loreto and the 
House of Nazareth each profess to contain the exact spot of the angelic 


visitation, yet no one can visit both sanctuaries without perceiving that 
by no possibility can one be amalgamated with the other. The House 
at Loreto is an edifice of thirty-six feet by seventeen ; its walls, though 
externally cased in marble, can be seen in their original state from the 
inside, and there appear to be of dark red polished stone. The west 
wall has one square window, through which it is said the angel flew ; the 
east wall contains a rude chimney, in front of wliich is a mass of 
cemented stone, said to be the altar on which S. Peter said mass, when 
the apostles, after the Ascension, turned the house into a church. On 
the north side is (or rather was) a door, now walled up. The monks of 
Loreto and Nazareth have but a dim knowledge of the sacred localities 
of each other. Still the monks of Nazareth could not be altogether 
ignorant of the mighty sanctuary which, under the highest authorities of 
their Church, professes to have once rested on the ground they now oc- 
cupy. They show, therefore, to any traveller, who takes the pains to 
inquire, the space on which the Holy House stood before its flight. 
That space is a vestibule immediately in front of the sacred grotto ; and 
an attempt is made to unite the two localities by supposing that there 
were openings from the house into the grotto. Without laying any 
stress on the obvious variation of measurements, the position of the 
grotto is, and must always have been, absolutely incompatible with any 
such adjacent building as that at Loreto. Whichever way the house is 
supposed to abut on the rock, it is obvious that such a house as has 
been described, would have closed up, with blank walls, the very pas- 
sages by which alone the communication could be effected. And it may 
be added, that although there is no traditional masonry of the Santa 
Casa left at Nazareth, there is the traditional masonry close by of the 
so-called workshop of Joseph of an entirely different character. Whilst 
the former is of a kind wholly unlike anything in Palestine, the latter is, 
as might be expected, of the natural grey limestone of the country, of 
which in all times, no doubt, the houses of Nazareth were built. 

"The legend is curious as an illustration ofthehistory of 'Holy Places' 
generally. It is difficult to say how it originated — or what led to the 
special selection of the Adriatic Gulf as the scene of such a fable ; yet, 
generally speaking, the explanation is easy and instructive. Nazareth 
was taken by Sultan Khalil in 1291, when he stormed the last refuge 
of the Crusaders in the neighbouring city of Acre. From that time, not 
Nazareth only, but the whole of Palestine, was closed to the devotions 
of Europe. The Crusaders were expelled from Asia, and in Europe the 
spirit of the Crusades was extinct. But the natural longing to see the 
scenes of the events of the Sacred History — the superstitious craving to 
win for prayers the favour of consecrated localities— did not expire with 


the Crusades. Can we wonder that, under such circumstances, there 
should have arisen tlie feeling, the desire, the belief, that if Mahomet 
could not go to the mountain, the mountain must come to Mahomet ? 
The house of Loreto is the petrifaction, so to speak, of the ' Last sigh of 
the Crusades ; ' suggested possibly by the Holy House of S. Francis of 
Assisi, then first acquiring its European celebrity." — A. P. Stanley, 
" Sinai and Palestine. " 

Like all shrines of the Madonna, the town teems with 
beggars, exhibiting horrible maimed limbs, and demanding 
charity in her name. 

From the Porta Romana, by which we enter the town, 
the street called Via dei Coronari (from the rosary-makers) 
is lined with booths filled with rosaries, reliquaries, scapu- 
laries, crucifixes, rings, pictures, and photographs, for the 
benefit of the pilgrims. Through these we reach the 
Piazza della Madonna, at the end of which is the great 
church, and round the sides the Palazzo Apostolico. In the 
centre of the square is a beautiful fountain by Giacometti. 
Before the fagade is a grand seated bronze statue of Sixtus 
V. by Calcagni, 1588. 

The Church is called Chiesa della Santa Casa. The 
campanile is by Vanvitelli. The facade was erected by 
Sixtus V. Over the principal door are the Virgin and Child 
in bronze by Girolamo Lombardo. The three doors are of 
bronze. The reliefs of that in the centre, cast by the four 
sons of Girolamo Lombardo, represent the earliest events 
of Old Testament history. The gate on the left is by Tibur- 
zio Vercelli, and that on the right by Calcagni Sebastiani and 
Giacometti ; their reliefs continue the series from the Expul- 
sion from Paradise to the History of Moses. 

Entering the church, we advance up the nave (the roof of 
which is painted with figures of the prophets by Luca Sig- 


norelli) to the space beneath the cupola which is occupied 
by the Santa Casa itself. Externally we see no trace of the 
cottage of Nazareth ; what we see is a most gorgeous chapel, 
encrusted with the richest and most delicate sculpture. 
But on the festas pilgrims are advancing round it upon 
their knees through furrows which have been worn by per- 
petual devotion, and at each door are guards with drawn 
swords to prevent religious excitement from causing them to 
crush one another to death as they enter. We enter with 
them and find ourselves in a rough blackened chamber 
(13I ft. high, 27^ long, i2\ broad). The walls, they say, 
are exactly the same as those carried by the angels, but the 
floor fell out as the House was crossing the Adriatic, and has 
had to be renewed. Over the altar as seen from the outer 
chapel, and the chimney, as seen from beneath, radiant in 
real diamonds and rubies, and illuminated by the flames of 
62 ever-burning golden lamps, is the Palladium of the shrine, 
a black image of the Virgin and Child, said "to be carved 
from cedar-wood of Lebanon, and of course attributed to S. 
Luke. Two curious relics are aihxed to the wall, a cannon 
ball offered by Julius II. in remembrance of his escape at 
the siege of Mirandola ; and (now secured by iron cramps) 
a stone of the Holy House, stolen by the Bishop of Coim- 
bra in the time of Paul III., and restored in consequence 
of the ill-health which punished his theft. 

All the greatest sculptors of the time were employed upon 
the ornamentation of the casing of the Santa Casa, which 
was designed by Bramante. Against the pillars stand twenty 
statues of prophets and sibyls ; their authors are for the most 
part uncertain, but the sibyls are ascribed to Guglielmo della 
Porta, the prophet Jeremiah (perhaps the finest figure) to 


Sansovino. On the four walls are splendid reliefs by San- 
sovino and his School. They are : — 

Western WalL— 

Sansovino. The Annunciation. 

" The Virgin is deeply moved by the salutation she is receiving ; and 
the angel, who is kneeling, does not appear to be a mere figure of marble, 
but a living being of truly celestial beauty, from whose lips the words, 
'Ave Maria,' seem to be sounding. Gabriel is accompanied by two 
other angels, in full relief, and entirely detached from the marble which 
forms the ground, one of these follows immediately behind Gabriel, the 
other appears in the attitude of flying. There are moreover two other 
angels, seen as if advancing from behind a building, and so delicately 
sculptured that they have quite the look of life. In the air, on a cloud 
so lightly treated as to be almost entirely detached from the marble 
beneath, is a group of angels in the form of boys, who support a figure 
of God the Father, in the act of sending down the Holy Spirit ; this is 
shown by means of a ray which streams from the Almighty, of which 
the marble, entirely detached, has a most natural effect ; the same may 
be said of the Dove which represents the Holy Spirit. 

" In this work there is a vase of flowers, which the graceful hand of 
this master has sculptured with such excessive delicacy, that no words 
can describe the perfection of its beauty ; the plumes of the angels also, 
t he softness of the hair, the beauty of the countenances, the grace of the 
drapery, every part in short is so marvellously excellent, that no praise 
bestowed upon this divine work can equal what it deserves. Nor of a 
truth could that most holy place, which was the very home and habita- 
tion of the Mother of God's divine Son, receive any more beautiful, rich, 
or worthy adornment than it has obtained from the architecture of 
Bramante, and the sculpture of Andrea Sansovino. Nay, were the 
whole work of the most precious oriental jewels, the worth would be 
little or nothing in comparison with the innumerable merits of that 
which it now exhibits." — Vasari. 

(Beneath) Montelupo and Fr. Sangallo. The Visitation, and the 
Virgin at Bethlehem. 

Southern Wall. — 

!$ansovino. The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

Montelupo and Girol. Lombardo. The Adoration of the Magi. 

Eastern Wall. — 

Tribolo and Francesco Sangallo ( 1 533). The Translation of the Santa 


Domenico Aimo dn Bologna. The Death of the Virgin. 

Northern Wall. — 

{Over the 1st door) Sansouina. The Birth of the Virgin. 
( Ovo' the 2nd door) Tribolo. The Marriage of the Virgin. 

Later critics have not shared the unbounded praise 
bestowed by Vasari upon the ReHefs of the Santa Casa. 

" No more lamentable proof of the great inferiority of Tuscan sculp- 
ture during the first thirty yeai'S of the sixteenth century to that of the 
fifteenth, is to be found, than these elaborate works, which contain not a 
trace of that exquisite taste and sentiment which marked the works of 
earlier masters. Those finished by Sansovino are indeed far better than 
the rest, but even they in no wise deserve the praises which have been 
heaped upon them. 

" The group of angels floating over the bed of the Madoniia, in the 
relief which represents her death, is the only really pleasing piece of 
work in the whole series. The bas-relief was designed and commenced 
by .Sansovino, and terminated by Domenico Aimo, surnamed ' 11 Bolog- 
nese '; as were the Birtli and Marriage of the Virgin, and the Adoration, 
with the help of Bandinelli, Tribolo, and Montelupo." — Perkins' Tuscan 

In the \st Chapel, on the right of the entrance, is the 
beautiful bronze Font, covered with rehefs by Vercelli and 

" Over- richly decorated, its ornamental details exhibit various gro- 
tesque elements ; there are, however, many excellent details in the 
figures, and the execution displays the masterly skill which marks the 
entire school of Recanati. The whole surface is filled with figures ; all 
the framework is covered with arabesques, putti, emblems, festoons, and 
volutes. The general effect is overloaded, but the whole is finished with 
the most miniature-like delicacy." — Liibke. 

Inscriptions in different languages along the nave tell the 
story of the " Miraculous origin and translation of our 
Blessed Lady of Loreto." That in English is as follows : — 

"The church of Loreto was a chamber of the house of the B. V. nigh 


Hierusalem in the citty of Nazareth, in which she was bom and bred, 
and saluted by the Angel and therein conceaved & brought up her 
Sonne Jesus to the age of twelue yeares. This chamber, after the 
ascension of our Saviour, was by the Apostles consecrated into a 
church in honour of our B. Lady, and S. Luke made a picture to her 
likeness extant therein to be scene at this very day. It was frequented 
with great devotion by the people of the country where it stood whilst 
they were Catholicks, but when leaving the faith of Christ they followed 
the sect of Mahomet, the Angels took it, and carrying it into Sclavonia, 
placed it by a town called Flumen, where not being had in due 
reverence, they again transported it over sea to a wood in the terrtiory 
of Recanati, belonging to a noble woman called Loreta, from whom it 
first took the name of our B. Lady of Loreto, and thence again they 
carried it, by reason of the many robberies committed, to a mountain of 
two brothers in the said territory ; and from thence finally, in respect of 
their disagreement about the gifts and offerings, to the coihon high way 
not far distant, where it now remains without foundation, famous for 
many signes, graces and miracles, wherat the inhabitants of Recanati, 
who often came to see it, much wondring, environed it with a strong 
and thick wall, yet could tel whence it came originally, til in 
the yeare vi the B. V. appeared in sleep to a holy devout 
man. to whom she revealed it, and he divulged it to others of authority 
in this province, who determining forthwith to try the truth of the vision, 
resolved to choose xvi men of credit, who to that effect should go all 
together to the citty of Nazareth, as they did carrying with them the 
measure of this church, and comparing it there with the foundation yet 
remnat they found them wholy agreable, and in a wall thereby ingraven 
that it had stood there, and had left the place, which done, they 
presently returning back, published the premisses to be true, and from 
that time forewards it hath byn certainly known, that this church was 
the chamber of the B. V. to which Christians begun then and have 
ever since had great devotio, for that in it daily she hath donne and 
doth many and many miracles. One Friar Pavi de Silva, an eniiit of 
great sanctity, who lived in a cottage nigh unto this church, whither 
daily he went to matins, said, that for ten years space, on the viii of 
September, two hours before day, he saw a light descend from heaven 
upon it, which he said was the B. V. who there showed herself on the 
feast of her nativity. In confirmation of which two vertuous men of the 
said citty of Recanati divers times declared unto mee Prefect of Terreman 
and Governor of the forenamed church, as followeth. The one cal'd 
Paul Renalduci avouched that his grandfathers grandfather sawe when 
the angels brought it over sea, and placed it in the forementioned wood, 


and had often visited it there, the other called Francis Prior, in like 
sort affirmed, that his grandfather, being cxx yeares old, had also much 
frequented it in the same place, and for a further proof, that it had byn 
there, he reported that his grandfathers grandfather had a house nigh 
unto it, wherin he dwelt, and that in his time it was carried by the 
Angels from thence to the mountain of the two brothers where they 
placed it as abovesaid. 

By order of the Right Reverend I, Robert Corbington, Priest of 

Monsignor Vincent Cassal of the Society of Jesus in the yeare 
Bolonia, Governor of this holy mdcxxxiv have faithfully trans- 
place, under the protection of the lated the premisses out of the 
most Reverend Cardinal Moroni. Latin original hung upon the said 


To the honor of the ever glorious Virgin, 

From the Left Transept we enter the Sacristy, which 
contains a few pictures, including : — 

Coreggio. Virgin and Child. 
Ghirlandajo. Virgin and Child. 

From hence we enter the Treasury (entrance \ fr. except 
on Sundays). Its ceiling and the Crucifixion over the altar 
are by Pomerancio. The objects in the glass cases round 
the room include gifts to the Virgin from most of the 
European potentates. Best deserving of notice are a crystal 
crucifix from Charles IV. of Spain; chalices from Pius VII., 
VIII., IX. ; a banner won at Lepanto; and a pea'^l which was 
a gift a poor fisherman saved up his money to present, when 
he found one miraculously engraved with the image of the 
Virgin of Loreto ! 

The Cupola, built by Antonio da Sangallo, was adorned 
with frescoes by Roncalli. There are no especial objects in 
the church deserving mention, unless we except a kneeling 
bronze figure of Cardinal Gaetani, by Calcagni zxA Giacometti. 



The chapels are for the most part adorned with mosaic 
copies from the pictures of the great masters. 

The Palazzo Apostolico (now Reale) was begun by Julius 
II. in 1510, from designs oi Bramante, and was finished by 
A. Sansovino and Antonio Sangallo. It has a Picture 
Gallery, containing little worth notice. The best pictures 
are : — 

Titian. The Woman taken in Adultery. 

Vouet. The Last Supper. 

Guercino. The Deposition. 

Ann. Caracci. The Nativity of the Virgin. 

On the first floor of the Palace, removed from the 
Spezieria, is the splendid collection of 380 Majolica pots, 

Loreto, from the Recanati road. 

executed by Orazio Fontana da Urbino, Battista Franco, 
and others. They were given by Francesco Maria II., 
Duke of Urbino, and are of the most enormous value, and 
glorious in colour and design. In looking at these and other 
so-called specimens of so-called " Raffaeile ware," it should 
be remembered that the designs, exhibiting the taste of the 


great master, were all painted at least twenty years after his 
death. The fact that some of them were finished by 
Raffaellino da Colle has given rise, from a confusion of 
names, to the idea that Raffaelle Sanzio assisted in them. 

There is not much more to see in Loreto, but pleasant 
walks may be taken on the adjoining heights, and the walls 
of Sixtus v., with their massive bastion towers, are highly 
picturesque. The best general view of the place is about a 
mile from the town on the Recanati road, whence it is seen 
grandly backed by the heights of Monte Conero. 

lo min. more by rail will bring us from Loreto to Porto 
Recanati (stat.), whence Recanati is about 4 m. distant, but 
it will be better to engage a carriage (4 frs.) from Loreto, 
whence it is only 5 m., to Recatiati (^Inn. Corona), an 
interesting old town, with much curious work in terra-cotta 
on its buildings. In the side-porch of the Cathedral of S. 
Flaviano is the monument of Pope Gregory XIL, who laid 
aside the papal tiara at the Council of Constance, and died 
here as legate of the March of Ancona in 141 7. In the 
Sacristy is a Madonna by Ludovico da S. Sez'erino, 1463. 
Between the choir and the sacristy is an altar-piece in many 
compartments by Lorenzo Lotto. 

On the Palazzo Comunale is a bronze relief by Giacometti 
representing the arrival of the Santa Casa. The diploma of 
Frederick II., " Dei Gratia Romanorum Imperator," confer- 
ring its port upon the town, is preserved here. Recanati is 
the birth-place (1798) of the poet Count Leopardi, who died 
in 1837 : there is a monument to him in the piazza. From 
the promenade on the old walls there is a beautiful view. 



Recanati was long a separate State under the protection of 
the Popes, having its authority vested in a council of 200 
citizens, of whom 97 were nobles. 

A carriage may be taken from Recanati to Macerata, 
which may also be reached by Diligence from the Railway 
Station of Civitanova. 

The hill-set Macerata {Inns. La Face; Postd) is one of 
the most flourishing towns in this part of Italy. It has 
magnificent views of the sea and over the valley of the 


Potenza and Chienti. Its handsome palaces, for the most 
part built of brick, are only inhabited in summer. The 
Cathedral cox\\.di\ns an Altar-piece hy Alegretto Nuzt, 1359, 
of the Madonna with 22 saints; in the niches SB. Anthony 


and Julian. In the Church of S. Giovanni is an Assump- 
tion by Lanfranco. The walls were built by Cardinal 
Albornoz : the Porta Pia by Cardinal Pius. 

I m. from the town is the Church of La Madonna della 
Vergine, a Greek cross by Bratnante. There is an enormous 
Amphitheatre for the game of Pallone, which is very popular 

"The peasants seem here to observe a fixt uniform in dress, and 
orange is the prevailing colour. So constant are the women of this class 
to local costume, that the female head becomes a kind of geographical 
index. At Macerata they adhere to the ancient mode of plaiting and 
coiling the hair, vs^hich they transfix with long silver wires tipped at both 
ends with large nobs. At Recanati, they hang golden bells to their 
ear-rings, three or five to each chime, jingling like the crotalia of the 
Roman matrons. At Loretto, they adjust the handkerchief to their 
heads in the style of their Madonna. All the young men bind their hair 
in coloured nets, which is an old imitation of female attire, and, as such, 
was severely censured by Juvenal." — Forsyth. 

(26 m. from Macerata, and 5 m. from the sea, is the hill- 
set town of Fermo, the Finnum Picenum of the Romans, 
1 1 16 ft. above the sea. It is a poverty-stricken town, but is 
crowned by a rocky platform on which stands the mediaeval 
Cathedral {xnodexmzQd within), from the front of which there 
is a most glorious view of the coast and sea. It was the 
natural fortifications of this rock which in the Middle Ages 
caused Fermo to be regarded as the strongest place in all the 
Marches, and gave rise to the proverb — 

"Quando Fermo vuol fermare 
Tutta la Marca fa tremare." 

The platform was formerly occupied by a castle, which 
was seized by a series of tyrants, who ruled the inhabitants 
from thence, till they prudently razed it to the ground in 

FERMO. 415 

1447. The porch, a sort of west end ante-chapel to the 
cathedral, contains a number of curious sepulchral monu- 
ments, including a very fine one of a member of the Vis- 
conti family, inscribed, " Tura de Imola fecit hoc opus." 

In the Church of S. Francesco is the tomb of Ludovico 
EufFreducci, sculptured by Sansovino in 1530, This family 
first rose to wealth in the person of Tommaso, a famous 
physician, who died in 1403. His great-great-grandson 
Oliverotto was sent to study the art of war under Paolo 
Vitelli, and gained the reputation of one of the most success- 
ful soldiers of the day. When he returned to Fermo, he 
caused his uncle and adopted father Giovanni Fogliani, 
together with all the principal citizens, to be murdered at a 
banquet which they gave in his honour, and riding to the 
Palazzo Pubblico at the head of his men, proclaimed himself 
Lord of Fermo, a position which he maintained till he was 
murdered himself by Cesare Borgia, Dec. 31, 1502, at the 
famous banquet of Sinigaglia. It is this Oliverotto who was 
selected by Machiavelli as a model tyrant in " II Principe." 
On the murder of Oliverotto his sister-in-law fled vdth her 
infant son to the protection of her own family, the Baglioni of 
Perugia. In 15 14 he returned to Fermo and gained a tem- 
porary popularity by defending the city against the Duke of 
Urbino, but having murdered Bartolommeo Brancadoro, the 
head of a rival family, was declared an outlaw. Leo X. sent out 
against him Niccolb Bonafede, the fighting Bishop of Chiusi. 
Lodovico was mortally wounded, and the bishop, equally 
prepared for office of soldier or priest, immediately dis- 
mounted, heard his confession, absolved him, and received 
his dying breath. It is one of the most characteristic anec- 
dotes of 16th-century warfare.) 



About 28 m. from Macerata is the mediaeval town of 
Tolentino [Inn. Corona), occupying the site of the Tolentinum 
Picenum of the Romans. The road thither passes " // 
Castello delta Rancia" where Murat was defeated by the 
Austrians under Bianchi in May, 1815. It was the loss of 
this battle which sealed his fate. There is much that is pic- 
turesque in the piazza of Tolentino with its pretty fountain. 
The Cathedral of S. Niccotb has considerable remains of old 
Gothic work, and an interesting cloister. The Chapel of the 
saint contains his tomb, upon which the peasants throw money 
through a grating. There are frescoes of the History of the 
Virgin attributed to Lorenzo and J^acopo da San Severino. A 
picture of the Fire at S. Mark's in Venice is attributed to 
Tintoretto. (?) 

Cloister of S. Niccol6 di Tolentino. 

The great Augustinian saint, Nicholas of Tolentino, was 
born about 1239 at the little town of S. Angiolo in Pontano, 
near Tolentino. While very young he became an Augus- 



tinian monk, and was so distinguished by his austerities that 
it is said of him that " he did not Hve, but languisJied through 
life." He was equally celebrated for his sermons. He died 
Sept. 10, 1306, and was canonized in 1446 by Eugenius IV. 
His wonderful sanctity is said to have been foretold by the 
appearance of a star which rose from his birth-place at S. 
Angiolo and stood over Tolentino, and from this legend he 
is usually represented in art with a star upon his breast. 

Over the entrance of the Palazzo Puhblko is the bust of the 
learned Francesco Filelfo, who was bom here. Tolentino is 
known in history from the disgraceful treaty of Tolentino by 
which Pius VI. assented to the robbery of the greater part of 
his dominions by Napoleon I. 

(At a little distance from Tolentino in the direction of 
Fermo, is Urbisaglia (Urbs Salvia), with many small Roman 

San Scverlno, about 8 m. west of Tolentino, is the ancient 
Decemon. It has two towns, ' Borgo' below and * Castello' 
at the top of the hill. In the Chiesa del Castello are some 
frescoes by Niccolo Alunno, 1468. In the vestibule of -S". 
Lorenzo is a Madonna by Lorenzo da S. Severino. In S. 
Domenico is a Madonna with saints, by Bernardmo da Peru- 
gia. In the sacristy of the Cathedral is a good Madonna by 
PinturiccJm, 1 500. 

West of this is the town of Matelica, where the Church of 
S. Francesco contains good pictures by Melozzo da Forli, 
Carlo Crivelli, and Eusebio da Perugia. In the same direc- 
tion, scarcely ever visited by strangers, is Fabriano, a con- 
siderable town containing many good pictures, especially by 
the native artists Gentile and Antonio da Fabriano. 

Hence there is a hilly road, by La Genga, to Sassoferrato, 
VOL. II. 27 


which gave its name to the painter Giambattista SaIvi—\6o^ 
— 1:685 — one of the most celebrated of the followers of the 
Caracci. Several of his works and many other good pic- 
tures remain in the churches of the town.) 

From Tolentino a dreary Apennine road leads by Valci- 
mara and La Muccia to Foligno. A road from La Muccia 
diverges to Camerino {Inn. Albergo Basconi), the ancient Ca- 
merinum. Its bishopric dates from 252, when S. Sovino was 
its first bishop. In has a University, one of the smallest in 
Italy. The Cathedral of S. Anino stands on the site of a 
temple of Jupiter : the fine bronze statue of Sixtus V., in 
front of it, was erected in 1587. The painter Carlo Maratta 
was born here in 1625. 

The gred.t Pdlazzo Varani, which abuts on the city wall, 

recalls the medigeval lords of Camerino, who were amongst 

the worst of the petty sovereigns of the Middle Ages. Early 

I in the 15th century Rudolfo Varani left his dominions to be 

; divided between his four sons, of whom two were by his first 

and two by his second wife. These four brothers were sum- 

; moned to a conference on business by Giovanni Vitelleschi 

\ of Corneto, but only the two younger went to the meeting, 

\ of whom Pier Gentile was murdered by Vitelleschi, and 

Giovanni, escaping, was murdered by his two elder brothers 

the same evening at Camerino. In the next year Bernardo 

i the second brother was murdered while walking on the walls 

( of Tolentino, and shortly after Pandolfo the eldest was mur- 

f dared during mass in the Dominican church by the people, 

together with five of his nephews and several of their chil- 

i dren, the " brains of the infants being dashed out against the 

walls." Only two infants escaped. Of these, Giulio, car- 

^ried off by his aunt, Tora Trinci, to Fabriano, where some of 



her own family were reigning, after a troubled and adven- 
turous life was finally strangled by a bravo in the pay of 
Cesare Borgia, who also murdered his three sons at La Cat- 
tolica. Such were the vicissitudes of Italian sovereignty in 
the Middle Ages. 


(Urbino is most easily reached from the station of Pesaro. A humble 
diligence corresponding with the first trains from Ancona and Bologna 
leaves the piazza at 9.45 A.M., and takes 5 hours on the way. Each 
place costs 5 frs. A one-horse carriage for three persons will perform 
the distance in 3>^ hours, and costs 20 frs. 

The Albergo Italia at Urbino is clean and tolerable, with very low 
charges, but it is a rough Italian Inn.) 

AN uninteresting road leads from Pesaro through the fruit- 
ful valley of the Foglia, to the foot of the hill which is 
crested by the walls and towers of Urbino. A handsome 
approach by an excellent road winds round the walls, with 
grand views as it ascends. On the south is the Furlo, 
celebrated for its pass, and then the stately masses of Monte 
Nerone ; on the east the picturesque rocks of Monte San- 
Simone ; beyond this the mountain of the Falterone where 
the Tiber has its source ; to the north, on its peaked rock, 
is S. Marino. On the highest terrace the road passes 
under the tall pinnacled towers and perfectly colossal walls 
of the Ducal Palace. 

The visitor to Urbino cannot fail to be struck with the 
extraordinary beauty of the inhabitants, especially of the 
young men. Humanity flourishes here while all else is in 



" There is scarcely a house, a street, or a church in Urbino that does 
not now wear a deserted and desolate aspect ; even the grand palace of 
the Dukes, formerly not to be outshone for brilliancy by any Court in 
Europe, is tenantless or given up to base uses. Yet there still remain 
staircases, galleries, doorways, windows, and fire-places, rich in Raf- 
faellesque ornaments carved with a delicacy belonging less to stone than 
to ivory. It is by such details —sometimes a mutilated bas-relief, some- 
times a broken arch or a defaced picture scattered here and there about 
the city— that the traveller must be content to spell out the story of a 

bygone splendour. Even nature appears to have fallen into days of 
dejection ; the vast palace, which seems ready to swallow up the small 
city, frowns over a landscape of barren grandeur ; the mountains throw 
their jagged crags into the sky savagely, and when the sun sinks beneath 
the high peaks which tower above Cagli and Gubbio the whole scene 
becomes inexpressibly solemn. Such was the cradle of the shadowed 
and sacred school of Umbria. The spirit of the spot must have been 
almost too sad for Raffaelle ; there is nothing joyous now remaining, 
and we can well understand why the aspiring painter left his birth-place 
early and returned to it seldom." — Saturday Review, March 1875. 

The Ducal Palace — La Corte — is one of the noblest works 
of the Renaissance. It was begun in 1447 by the great Duke 


Federigo di Montefeltro, who evinced his devotion to his 
native place by turning the small castle which had previously 
existed here into a grand palace. For this purpose he sur- 
rounded himself with all the great architects and artists of 
the time, over whom Luciano Lauranna was the chief. To 
make a platform for his great work it was necessary to unite 
two rocks. The outer walls and window-frUmes are enriched 
with friezes of most exquisite sculpture. The entrance, 
from the piazza behind the palace, leads into a noble 
quadrangular court, the work of Baccio Pintelli, 1480. It is 
surrounded by inscriptions in honour of Federigo, and by 
colonnades, under which a collection of Roman altars, &c. 
is arranged. A second court w^s used for tournaments and 
theatrical displays. 

Ascending the staircase on the left, which is adorned by a 
statue of Duke Federigo, we enter vast corridors, the walls 
of which are now covered with a number of inscriptions and 
other fragments collected in the neighbourhood by Cardinal 
Stoppani. Hence open a series of great halls, with beauti- 
ful sculptured chimney-pieces and door-frames, and richly 
inlaid doors. The letters F. C. repeated upon the ceiling 
of the principal hall prove that it was built before 1474. 
The furniture, and the frescoes of Timoteo Viti, described by 
Baldi, have disappeared. 

" The skilful hand of Ambrogio da Milano, none of whose sculptures 
are to be met with at Milan, was employed in carving trophies, military 
emblems, flowers, birds, and children, about the doors, windows, and 
chimney-pieces of the Ducal palace at Urbino. The utmost elegance 
and purity of taste is shown in these decorations. The architrave of 
one of the fire-places is adorned with a row of dancing Cupids, and the 
jambs with reliefs of winged boys holding vases filled with growing roses 
and carnations, whose structure and wayward growth show the closest 
and most loving study of Nature. In the leaves, flowers, and birds 


colour alone seems wanting to give life. Well may Giovanni Santi 
eulogize them as — 

* Mostrando quanto che natura 
Possa in tal arte.' " 

Perkins Ltalian Sculptors. 

It is greatly to be regretted that all the old historical 
furniture connected with the lives of the different Dukes and 
Duchesses, whose faces are familiar to us from the portraits 
of Giovarmi Sanzio, Piero della Francesca, and others, should 
have been long since dispersed. Under the Dukes of the 
house of Montefeltro, Urbino was the most prosperous of 
the smaller Italian states, and the most charming descrii> 
tions of their just, generous, and paternal government are 
left by the historians of the time. Such is the picture of 
'Duke Federigo, as drawn by Muzio : — 

' ' In person Federigo was of the common height, well made and pro- 
portioned, active and stout, enduring of cold and heat, apparently 
affected neither by hunger nor thirst, by sleeplessness nor fatigue. His 
expression was cheerful and frank ; he never was carried away by 
passion, nor showed anger unless designedly. His language was equally 
remarkable for modesty and politeness ; and such was his sobriety that, 
having once had the gout, he immediately left off wine, and never again 
returned to it. His passions were so completely under control, that 
even in earliest youth nothing was ever alleged against him inconsistent 
with decorum and the due influence of his rank. He was uniformly 
courteous and benignant to those of private station, as well as to his 
equals and to men of birth. With his soldiers he was ever familiar, calling 
them all friends and brethren, and often addressing them as gentlemen 
or honoured brothers, whilst he personally assisted the sick and wounded 
and supplied them with money. None such were excluded from his 
table ; indeed, he caressed and invited them by turns, so that all loved, 
honoured, served, and extolled him, and those who had once been 
under his command were unwilling to follow any other leader. 

" But if his kindness was notable in the camp, it was much more so 
among his people. While at Urbino, he daily repaired to the market- 
place, whither the citizens resorted for gossip and games, as well as for 


business, mixing freely with them, and joining in discourse, looking on 
at their sports, like one of themselves, silting among them, or leaning 
on some one by the hand or arm. If, in passing through the town, he 
noticed any one building a house, he would stop to enquire how the 
work went on, encouraging him to beautify it, and offering him aid if 
required, which he gave as well as promised. Should any answer him, 
that although desirous of making a handsome dwelling, he was fmstrated 
by the refusal of some neighbour to part with an adjoining hovel at a 
fair price, Federigo sent for its obstructive owner, and urged him to 
promote the improvement of the city, kindly assisting to arrange a 
home for him elsewhere. On hearing that a merchant had suffered 
loss in his business, he would enter his shop to enquire familiarly into 
his affairs, and, after learning the extent of his difficulties, would 
advance him the means of restoring his credit and trade. Once, meet- 
ing a citizen who had daughters to many, he said to him, ' How are 
your family ? — are any of your girls disposed of ? ' — and, being answered 
that the father was ill able to endow them, he helped him with money 
or an appointment, or set him in some way of bettering himself. 
Indeed such instances of his charity and sympathy were numberless, 
among which were tlie number of poor but talented or studious children 
whom he educated out of love for letters. On the death of those in 
his service, he took especial interest in their families, providing for their 
maintenance or education, or appointing them to offices, and continually 
enquiring in person as to their welfare. When the people came forth 
to meet him as he went through his state, receiving him with festive 
demonstrations, he had a word for each — To one ' How are you ? ' to 
another ' How is your old father ? ' or ' Where is your brother ? ' to a 
third, ' How does your trade flourish ? ' or ' Have you got a wife yet ? ' 
One he took by the hand, another he patted on the shoulder, but to all 
he uncovered his head, so that Ottaviano Ubertini used to say, when any 
person was much occupied, ' Why, you have more to do than Federigo's 
bonnet.' Indeed, he often told the Duke that his cap was over-worked, 
hinting that he ought to maintain more dignity with his subjects. As an 
instance of his courtesy ; one day when he was returning from Fossom- 
brone to Urbino, he met a bride being escorted to her husband by four 
citizens, as was then customary, and he at once dismounted, and joined 
them in accompanying her and sharing in their festivities. . . . During a 
year of great scarcity, in the distribution of imported grain, he desired 
that the poor who could not pay in cash, should be supplied on such 
security as they could offer. The distribution took place in the court of 
the palace, under chaise of Comandino, his secretary ; and when any 
poor man came, representing that, with a starving family and nothing 


to sell, he could find no cautioner, Federigo, after listening from a 
window to the argument, would call out, ' Give it him, Comandino, I 
shall become bound for him.' And subsequently, when his ministers 
wished to enforce pajonent from the securities, he in many instances 
prevented them, saying, ' I am not a merchant ; it is gain enough to 
have saved my people from hunger.' 

" Federigo was most particular in the performance of justice, in acts 
as well as words. His master of the household having obtained large 
supplies for the palace from a certain tradesman, who had also many 
courtly creditors, and could not get pa)Tnent, the latter had recourse to 
the Duke, who said, 'Summon me at law.' The man was retiring 
with a shrug of his shoulders, when his lord told him not to be daunted, 
but to do what he desired, and it would turn out for his advantage and 
that of the town. On his replying that no tipstaff could be found to 
risk it, Federigo sent an order to one to do whatever this merchant 
might require for the ends of justice. Accordingly, as the Sovereign 
issued from the palace with his retinue, the tipstaff stood forward, and 
cited him to appear next day before the podesta, on the complaint of 
such-a-one. Whereupon he, looking round, called for the master of his 
household, and said, in presence of the court, ' Hear you what this man 
says ? now give such instructions as shall save me from having to appear 
from day to day before this or that tribunal ' And thus, not only was 
the man paid, but his will was made clear to all, — that those who owed 
should pay, without wTonging their creditors. 

" During a severe winter, the monks at S. Bernardino, being snowed 
up, and without any stores, rang their bells for assistance ; the alarm 
reaching Urbino, Federigo called out the people, and went at their head 
to cut a way and carry provisions to the good friars." — Trans, in Den- 
nistoun's "Dukes of Urbino." 

Close to the palace is the Cathedral, with three aisles and a 
cupola. It contains : — 

Chapd Uft of High Altar. Federigo Baroccio (a native of Urbino), 
1528. The Last Supper. 

Sacristy. *Piero delta Francesca. The Flagellation. The Duke 
Odd' Antonio and his ministers, Manfredo, and Tommaso of Rimini, are 
reprinted in the for^jound. It is signed OPVS PETRI DEBVR- 

Timoteo delta Vite. SS. Martin and Thomas i Becket The portrait 
of Duke Guidobaldo is introduced. 

The bishopric dates from 313, S. Evandus having been 


the ist bishop; in 1563 it was created an archbishopric 
by Pius IV. 

Opposite the palace, is the Church of S. Dotnenico, with 
the Virgin and Child, and four saints in terra-cotta, over the 

The street to the right leads to (right) the Accademia delle 
Belle Artt, which contains a number of pictures collected 
from churches recently closed. We may notice : — 

63. Piero delta Francesca. An Architectural study from S. Chiara. 

73. Timoteo delta Vite. S. Roch — from S. Francesco. 
♦76. Giusto da Guanto Qustus of Ghent). The Last Supper. A very 
noble picture of the school of Van Eyk : the Duke 
T"ederigo and the Venetian Doge Zeno are introduced. From 
S. Agata. 

79. Timoteo delta Vite. Tobias and the Angel. The little Tobias, 
with the fish in one hand, is running, with the other in 
that of the beautiful protecting angel Raphael. From S. 
♦82. Giovanni Santi, 1489. The Virgin and Child seated in bene- 
diction, with the Baptist and S. Francis on the left, and SS. 
Sebastian and Jerome on the right. The family of Gasparo 
Buffi, for whom the picture was painted, are introduced 
kneeling. Above is God the Father, with two angels holding 
a crown above the head of the Virgin. This is the finest 
work of the master. From S. Francesco. 

102. Giovanni Santi. A Pieta. From S. Chiara. 

103. Giovanni Santi. The Burial of Christ. From the Convent of 

the Zoccolanti. 
140. Titian. Last Supper. From S. Francesco. 
.141. Baroccio. S. Francis receiving the Stigmata. From S. 

*IS8. Titian. The Resurrection. The Saviour floats upwards most 
grandly : two of the guards, suddenly awakened, gaze in amaze- 
ment ; the third sleeps profoundly. From S. Francesco. 

Returning to the lower piazza, we see, facing us, a 
street so steep that the stones are all set edgeways that the 
mules and donkeys may climb up them like cats. On the 


left of this hill-side is the Casa da Roffaello, marked by an 
inscription : — 

" Nunquam moriturus exiguis hisce in sedibus eximius ille pictor 
Raphael natus est., Oct. Id. Apr. An mcdxxciii. Venerare igitur 
hospes nomen et genium loci, ne mirere. Ludit in humanis divina pote- 
tia rebus, et sa;pe in parvis claudere magna solet."* 

The house was purchased by the grandfather of the painter 
for 240 ducats, "a sum more than realized in a business of 
general huckstering." Giovanni the father, who inherited the 
house, only gradually aspired from the making of chandeliers 
and picture-frames to the profession of artist, but his poetry, 
though rude, has much merit, and the Chronicle of Giovanni 
Santi, written to prove his attachment to the family of his 
sovereign (and now preserved in the Vatican Library), has 
furnished most important materials for the contemporary 
history of Urbino. This manuscript poem extends 
through twenty-three books in terza rima. In his dedica- 
tion Giovanni says that he " was early induced to embrace 
the admirable art of painting, the difficulty of which, added to 
domestic cares, would be a burden even for the shoulders 
of Atlas." His first wife was Magia (symbolical name 
for such a mother !), daughter of Battista Ciarla of Urbino, 
who here gave birth, April 6, 1483, to her second son, 
Raffaello. Here the childhood of the great painter was 
passed amid a family group consisting of Giovanni and Magia, 
his grandmother Elisabetta, his aunt Santa — widow of the 
tailor Bartolommeo of Marino, and a little brother and sister. 
On August 2, 1485, Giovanni lost his eldest son \ on Oct. 3, 
1 49 1, Elisabetta died; Magia only survived her four days, 

• Almighty power in man's affairs deludes. 
And often mighty things in mean includes." 

Trans, by Dr. Henry Wellesley, 


and the little daughter a few days longer. All these events 
occurred in the house. Left with an only boy, Giovanni 
married again (in the Church of S. Agata) in the following 
year, with Bernardina, daughter of the goldsmith Pietro da 
Parte, who had a dowry of 200 florins, and who proved a 
very harsh stepmother to the little Kaffaelle of nine years 
old. On August i, 1494, Giovanni himself died, leaving 
the boy then eleven, to the guardianship of two uncles, who 
at once placed him in the school of Pietro Perugino, then 
engaged on the Sala del Cambio at Perugia. 

The interior of the Casa Santi can scarcely be changed in 
its arrangement since the childhood of Raffaelle. On the 
ground-floor are the rooms used, according to Italian cus- 
tom, for the keeping and selling of goods. On the first floor, 
at piano nobile, are three apartments en suite. The central 
of these is the largest, and probably served for the reception 
of guests — a cheerful room, twenty-seven feet square, with a 
brick floor and pannelled ceiling. On the right of this is the 
chamber in which Raffaelle was born, lately decorated with 
furniture of his time and prints and photographs from his 
pictures. Here is a small fresco of a golden-haired Madonna 
and Child by Giovanni Santi, said to be a portrait of his 
wife Magia Ciarla and the infant Raffaelle. The faces are 
of the peculiar type which may be recognized in many 
pictures both by the father and son. The room on the left, 
with a covered roof, was the studio of Giovanni. 

After his eleventh year, Raffaelle only returned once, or at 
the outside thrice, to Urbino, and then for a very brief visit. 

At the top of this street — Contrada Raffaello — on the 
right, is a solitary house, which was that where Timoteo della 
Vite lived and died. 


He was one of the best of the contemporary followers of 
Raphael, who had the greatest affection for him, and would 
willingly always have retained his companionship at Rome. 
But love for his native place, and affection for his widowed 
mother Calliope, induced Timoteo to return while quite a 
young man to Urbino, where he married Girolama Spacioli, 
by whom he had many children. His best works are now 
in the gallery at Bologna and in the Brera at Milan. He 
died in 1524, in his fifty-fourth year. 

Descending the street, on the left a side street leads to 
the Church of S. Spirito, which contains (hung too high up) 
at the sides of the high altar, two pictures by Luca Sig- 
norelli — the Crucifixioh, and the Descent of the Holy Ghost. 
Opposite the church is a statue of Coelestine V. (the hermit 
Pietro Murrone), who is claimed as a native of Urbino. 

Descending a little to the right from the piazza, an alley 
on the right leads to the small Church of S. Giovanni Bat- 
tista, which contains an interesting series of frescoes of the 
history of the Baptist by Lorenzo di S. Sa'crino, 141 6, but 
they are considerably injured by restoration. 

The cloisters of the now closed Church of S. Francesco 
contain the tomb of the Dukes Odd' Antonio and Antonio 
H., also of Nicajo the physician, and of Agostino Santucci, 
1478. The church was built in memory of Count Carlo 
Pianani, ob. 1478, and to contain his tomb and that of his 
wife Sibilla. For the high altar of this church Giovanni 
Sanzio painted his great Madonna, and here he was buried, 
August, 1494/ so that all should visit this church for Raphael's 
father's sake. 

In the Church of S. Bernardino, about \ m. from the 
town (to the left in approaching), are the black and white 


marble tombs of Duke Federigo III., 1482, and Duke 
Guidobaldo I., 1536. In returning from hence, it will be 
worth while to take the road below the town to see how 
finely the peaked towers and huge mass of the castle rise, 
with the dome of the cathedral, from the dark houses at 
their feet, beneath which is a lofty viaduct supported upon 

In 1498 the famous Earthenware manufacture was intro- 
duced from Gubbio by Giorgio Andreoli, and came to great 
perfection in 1538 under Orazio Fontana. 

" Pungileone cites a certain potter of Urbino, named Giovanni di 
Donino Garducci, in the year 1477, and a member of the same family, 
Francesco Garducci, who in 1501 received the commands of the Cardinal 
of Carpaccio to make various vases. Ascanio del fii Guido is also 
mentioned as working in 1502 ; but the works of all these have dis- 
appeared, or are attributed to other fabriques, and it is not until 1530 
that we can identify any of the artists mentioned by Pungileone : 
Federigo di Giannantonio ; Niccolo di Gabriele ; Gian Maria Mariani, 
who worked in 1530 ; Simone di Antonio Mariani in 1542 ; Luca del 
fu Bartolommeo in 1544; Cesare Cari of Faenza, who painted in 1536 
and 1551 in the botega of Guido Merlino. 

" The workshop of Guido Durantino was celebrated in the beginning 
of the sixteenth century. About the same time flourished the dis- 
tinguished 'Francesco Xanto Avelli di Rovigo,' whose works are so 
well known and appreciated. Of the same school was Niccolo di 
Gabriele, or Niccolo di Urbino. 

" Another celebrated painter of Majolica in the middle of the sixteenth 
century, was Orazio Fontana, originally of Castel Durante, whose family 
name appears to have been Pellipario." — Chaffers. 

The hills around Urbino are peculiarly bare, brown, and 
featureless, except during their short summer. Altogether, 
perhaps, Urbino presents more forcibly the appearance of 
fallen grandeur than any place in Italy, and here, more 
than elsewhere, the Italian ^/^if/j the words of Leopardi : — 

" O patria mia, vedo le mura, e gli archi, 
E le colonne, e i simulacri, e I'erme 


Torri degli avi nostri, 
Ma la gloria non vedo." 

(About 13 m. east on the road to Citta di Castello is the 
small city of Urbania. Till 1635 it bore the name of Castel 
Durante, as which it was (1444) the birth-place of the cele- 
brated architect Bramante, and the seat of a famous manu- 
factory of Majolica.) 



(Gubbio may be most easily reached from the Station of Fossato on 
the line between Ancona and Foligno. There, a wretched diligence, 2 
frs., meets the early trains, and performs the distance to Gubbio in 3 
hrs. ; a carriage costs 10 frs. and takes only 2 hrs. ; the price must be 
arranged' beforehand. 

Gubbio may also be reached from Urbino by the Furlo Pass. A 
carriage costs 40 frs. and takes about 1 2 hrs. 

The Leone (TOro at Gubbio is a bearable, but very rough inn : charges 
exceedingly moderate.) 

LEAVING Urbino, an excellent road descends the 
valley of the Metaunis to the mouth of the celebrated 
Furlo Pass. This is the most striking point in the Apennines. 
Tremendous precipices of grey rock hem in the river, just 
leaving room for the road, which is the Via Flaminia, to creep 
through, except where it passes through a tunnel made under 
Vespasian (37 metres long, 5^ broad, 4^ high). From the 
perforation or Forulus here, the name Furlo is derived. 
Procopius describes the spot as Petra Pe/iusa, and Claudian 
sings :— 

" Qua mons arte patens vivo se perforat arcu, 
Admittitque viam sectee per vicera rupis." — vi. C<ms. Hon. 500. 

So Steep is the rock above the road that in wet seasons it 
is dangerous to pass this way, and several crosses by the 
wayside commemorate the fate of travellers who have been 



crushed by the falling rocks. Here is // Monte d'Asdrubale, 
where the sanguinary battle was fought B.C. 207 between 
the Romans and Carthaginians, in which Hasdrubal, the 
brother of Hannibal, perished. 

Pass of the Furlo. 

" Carthagini jam non ego nuntios 
Mittam superbos : occidit, occidit 
Spes omnis, et fortuna nostri 
Nominis, Asdrubale interempto." — Horace, iv. Od. 4. 

The road crosses a curious old Roman bridge called 
Po7iie Manlio, just before entering the rich little city of 
Cagli, which has a piazza with a fountain and Palazzo 
Communale. Close by is the Cathedral, rebuilt by PiusVL, 
after its destruction by earthquake in 178 1. 

The Church of S. Domeidco contains : — 

vol- II. 28 


Lift, 2nd Chapel (of the Tiranni family). Gioranni Sanzio, an 
important work (ordered by Pietro Tiranni). The Virgin is seated on 
a throne in a niche, which may be observed as an especial characteristic 
of Sanzio. On her knees is the Child, at the sides of the throne two 
angels. That on the left with some reason is said to be the portrait of 
Raffaelle, then nine years old, and who, with his stepmother, had 
accompanied his father to Cagli. On one side are SS. Francis and 
Peter, on the other SS. Dominic and J. Baptist. In the background, 
on a mountain, are little figures representing the Resurrection. Above, 
in a medallion, is God the Father in benediction. 

At the side is the tomb of Battista, wife of Pietro Tiranni, with a 
Pieta between SS. Jerome and Buonaventura, a fresco hastily painted, 
but the head of Christ very noble ; it is inscribed Baptistae Conjugi 
Pientissimse Petrus Calliensis salutem deprecatur Anno MCCCLXXXi (sic) . 

Right, 2nd Altar. Fra Carnevale. Tlie Annunciation. 

The Church of S. Francesco contains a number of small 
frescoes by Guido Palmerucci, a Madonna and Child with 
Saints by Baroccio, and a Madonna and Child enthroned, by 
Gaetano Lapis da Cagli. 

A most dreary road leads from Cagli across a succession 
of hill-passes towards Gubbio. Just as it descends to the 
town the scenery becomes fine and the city gate is entered 
after a deep descent through an extraordinary narrow gully 
hemmed in by the perpendicular precipices of Monte 

Gubbio is a beautiful place. Close under the steep 
mountain-side, upon which its churches and palaces rise in 
terraces, it stands between the arid desolation of the moun- 
tains and the rich luxuriance of a fruitful and fertile plain. 
Cypresses break the gloom of its old brown houses, and, 
above them, high against the mountain-side stands the 
beautiful Gothic Palazzo, del Consule, with the remains of the 
old Ducal Palace on a higher level still. The lower town 



ends in the wide Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, on one side of 
which is the Church of S. Francesco* containing: — 

Choir. Francesco Signorelli. The Conception. 


In the upper town two long streets run parallel with one 
another along the ledges of the hill. The lower of these 
ends in a Statue of S. Ubaldo. Close by, behind the Church 
of S. Trinitk, is a Virgin and Child enthroned, by Martino 
Nello. Outside the opposite gate, is the Church of S. Agos- 
iino, which contains : — 

Left, T^rd Altar. Ottaviano Nelli. La Madonna del Soccorso. 
Right, 2nd Altar. School of Nelli. Madonna with saints, angels, 
and the souls in purgatory. 

* S. Francis was often at Gubbio. His story tells that a wolf who had long 
ravaged the neighbourhood, was rebuked by S. Francis, who promised it a peaceful 
existence and daily food if it would amend its ways. The wolf agreed to the com- 
pact, and placed his right paw in the hand of S. Francis in token of good faith. 
" Brother Wolf," as S. Francis called him, Hved afterwards for two years tamely at 
Gubbio in good fellowship with all, and finally died, much regretted, of old age. 


Turning into the upper street, we find on the left, the 
humble Church of S. Maria Nuova, which is, in spite of 
white-wash, a sort of museum of local art. Where the 
plaster has been scraped away, fragments are shown of 
beautiful frescoes by Bernardino Na7ini and Pintali. On 
the Ifft is S. Antonio by Guido Palmerticci. 

Now, on the right, comes the Palazzo Comufiale, con- 
nected by a line of terraced wall with the noble Palazzo 
del Consule. They were formerly united by an open loggia, 
which has been recently destroyed to suit the whim of the 
Marchese Brancaleoni, the view from whose palace was 
injured by it. On the upper side, the Palazzo del Consule 
is entered by an arched staircase and grand Romanesque 
gateway beautiful in colour. From its platform is a 
lovely view. The campaniles and convents rise from the 
silvery mists of the town against the delicate green of the 
plain and the faint mountain distances. Over the door is 
an inscription saying that the building was begun in 1332, 
and that when that stone was placed there it was Oct. 1335. 
It leads into an immense hall, containing a good early fresco 
of the Virgin and Child with saints. On the upper floor is 
a second hall with a coved roof, and a fountain in its centre ; 
at the side is a sculptured lava-mano ; on the cornice of the 
door is inscribed " Concordia Parvae Res Crescunt." This 
palace was built for Duke Federigo, probably, from its re- 
still surrounded with inlaid panels. The inscription FL. 
DVX and G. BALDO. DX in the wood prove that their 
semblance to Urbino, by Luciano Lauranna. One room is 
decorations were only completed under Duke Guidobaldo, 
after 1482. 

Above the palace is the small Cathedral of SS. Mariano 

LA CORTE. 437 

and Giacomo, a single nave spanned by a long succession of 
very simple Gothic arches. It contains : — 

Left, 1st Chapel. Sinibaldo Ibi, 1507. The Madonna between SS. 
Sebastian and Ubaldo. 

T^rd Chapel. Timoteo della Vite, 1521. The Story of S. Mary 

Last Chapel. Orlando da Perugia. The Nativity — almost identical 
with the Perugino of S. Agostino at Perugia. 

Close to the cathedral are the mutilated remains of the 
Ducal Palace— ^^ La Corte " — built for the great Duke 
Federigo, though whether by Francesco di Giorgio or 
Baccio Pontelli is unknown. The mountain rises immedi- 
ately behind it, and it stands so perched on its rocky edge, 
that the paths which approach it must always have been 
precipitous, as they are still, but the workmanship of the 
doors and windows, which are all of marble, is most ex- 
quisite. Duke Federigo's private cabinet is decorated with 
intarsia work, in which the Garter with its motto, " Honi 
soit q. mal i pense," is the central ornament,* having been 
given to the Duke by Edward IV. of England. 

In this palace Federigo di Montefeltro lost his beloved 
wife Battista, who is represented with him at Florence in the 
pictures of Piero della Francesca. Celebrated for her learn- 
ing, in her twentieth year she had pronounced an extempore 
Latin address to Pius II. and the princes and ambassadors 
with him at Milan. She died July 6, 1472, aged 26, six 
months after giving birth to a son after eight daughters. 
Odisio says that she did not hesitate to offer her own life in 
return for the gift of a son worthy of his father. She saw in 
a dream a lovely phoenix perched upon a lofty tree, which, 

* This was lately offered for sale, and has perhaps already disappeared. 


after sitting there for thirty-six days, winged its flight heaven- 
ward till it touched the sun and then disappeared in flames. 
On hearing of her dangerous illness, her husband left the 
command of the Florentine armies, but only arrived in time 
to see her expire. She embraced her lord for the last time, 
caused her infant son to be placed in his arms, and then, in 
the words of Giovanni Sanzio : — 

" Chiuse quel santo, onesto e grave ciglic, 
Rendendo I'alma al cielo divotamente. 
Libera e sciolta dal mondan periglio." 

Muzio says — " her death dissolved the most honoured, 
fitting, and congruous union of that or any other age." 

Among the other churches we may notice -S. Domenico, 
in the lower town, which contains : — 

Left, 2fid Altar. Tomasuccio Nelli (brother of Ottaviano). S. 

I^t, ^h Altar. Giorgio Andreoli. S. Antonio — a terra-cotta statue. 

Kight, 2)fd Altar. Raffadlino da Colle, 1546. Madonna and 

The famous Etigubine Tables have so often been moved 
backwards and forwards between S. Pietro and the Palazzo 
Communale that one cannot say where they may be found 
another year. They are of bronze. Their language, their 
intention, and their importance, has afforded endless dis- 
cussion and amusement to antiquaries. Of the inscriptions 
with which they are covered, four are in Umbrian, two in 
Latin, and one in Etruscan and Latin characters. They were 
found in 1444, in a subterraneous chamber at La Schieggia, 
near Gubbio (Iguvium-Jovium, the city of Jupiter). On the 
highest part of the town a temple of Jupiter Apenninus was 
once situated. 


Outside the walls are some trifling remains of an ancient 
Theatre and other buildings. 

(Gubbio is perhaps the best point from which to make 
the pilgrimage to the famous Monastery of Avellana, at one 
time the retreat of Dante, and where his chamber is still 
shown. It is situated in the wildest part of the Apennines 
under the mountain called Catria. Dante speaks of the 
Solitude made for prayer under the projection of the 
Apennines which is called Catria.) 



(Hotels. Hotel de Londres, near the railway station, excellent, with a 
pleasant garden, and country aspect ; La Minerva. On the Lung' Amo, 
and much nearer the siglits ; Peverada ; Vittoria ; Gran Brctagna. All 
the hotels are very good. At those on the Lung' Amo, Pension is 
about 8 frs. a day. A sunny room in winter is quite essential at Pisa. 

Restaurant, Nettuno. Lung' Arno, west of the Ponte di Mezzo. 

Carriages. The course, 45 c, 2 horses, 70 c. ; to and from the 
station, 63 c. and 85 c. ; 1st hour, i fr. 10 c. and i fr. 70 c, each hour 
after 85 c. and i fr. 15 c. 

English Church, behind the Palazzo Reale, which faces the Lung' 

MANY travellers only go over to Pisa for a day from 
Florence or Leghorn.* Those, however, who have 
even a superficial interest in art will find this far too short a 
time to bestow upon a place which, next to Assisi, is the 
chief sanctuary of early Italian painting. When the one 
beautiful group of buildings around the cathedral has been 
examined, the effect of what Landor calls — 

" — the towers 
Of Pisa, pining o'er her desert stream, " 

will, upon the passing traveller, be only one of gloom and 

" Pisa is celebrated for its leaning tower, and for its mild winter air. 
• For the railway from Genoa to Pisa see chap. iii. 


But it strikes me as a hospital, where nothing flourishes but misery ! 
The sky is grey, the earth is grey, the city is grey, the Arno is grey, and 
the quays along the rivers are crowded with beggars, young and old. . . . 
Happy they who have no necessity to live here on account of the mild 
winter air ! Mild it is certainly, but mild as unsalted water-gruel. The 
city itself has a sickly, dying or dead appearance. It is, in fact, merely 
the corpse of the formerly powerful Pisa, the head of an independent 
republic." — Fredrika Bremer. 

The soft climate of Pisa has a wonderful soothing effect 
upon complaints of the chest, but it is horribly wet. 

" Mezzo dormendo ancor domando : Piove ? 
Tutta la intera notte egli e piovuto. 
Sia maladetta Pisa ! ognor ripiove ; 
Anzi, a dir meglio, e' non \. mai spiovuto . 

Alfieri, Son. cxxxiv. 

Those, however, who stay here long enough, will find that 
in fine weather there is a great deal to be learnt and much to 
be enjoyed in the quiet streets, and on the sunny Lung' Arno, 
which retains much of beauty, though scarcely enough to 
enable one to conjure up the picture which Ruskin has 
painted of its appearance in the time of Nino Pisano. 

" Fancy what was the scene which presented itself, in his afternoon 
walk, to a designer of the Gothic school of Pisa — Nino Pisano, or any of 
his men. 

•' On each side of a bright river he saw rise a line of brighter palaces, 
arched and pillared, and inlaid with deep red porphyry, and with ser- 
pentine ; along the quays before their gates were riding troops of knights, 
noble in face and form, dazzling in crest and shield ; horse and man one 
labyrinth of quaint colour and gleaming light— the purple, and silver, 
and scarlet fringes flowing over the strong limbs and clashing mail, like 
sea waves over rocks at sunset. Opening on each side from the river 
were gardens, courts, and cloisters ; long successions of white pillars 
among wreaths of vine ; leaping of fountains through beds of pome- 
granate and orange : and still along the garden paths, and under and 
through the crimson of the pomegranate shadows, moving slowly, groups 
of the fairest women Italy ever saw— fairest, because purest and 
thoughtfullest ; trained in all high knowledge, as in all courteous art— 


in dance, in song, in sweet wit, in lofty learning, in loftier couri^e, ill 
loftiest love — able alike to cheer, to enchant, or save, the souls of men. 
Above all this scenery of perfect human life, rose dome and bell-tower, 
burning with white alabaster and gold : beyond dome and bell-tower the 
sloiDes of mighty hills, hoary with olive ; far in the north, above a purple 
sea of peaks of solemn Apennine, the clear, sharp-cloven Carrara 
mountains sent up their steadfast flames of marble summit into amber 
sky ; the great sea itself, scorching with expanse of light, stretching from 
their feet to the Gorgonian Isles ; and over all these, ever present, near or 
far^seen through the leaves of the vine, or imaged with all its march of 
clouds in the Arno's stream, or set with its depth of blue close against 
the golden hair and burning cheek of lady and knight,— that untroubled 
and sacred sky, which was to all men, in those days of innocent faith, 
indeed the unquestioned abode of spirits, as the earth was of men ; and 
which opened straight through its gates of cloud and veils of dew into 
the awfulness of the eternal world ; — a heaven in which every cloud that 
passed was literally the chariot of an angel, and every ray of its evening 
and morning streamed from the throne of God." — The Two Paths. 

To see the Lung' Arno of Pisa in perfection, one should 
be at Pisa on the festival of La Luminara, which takes place 
every three years on the 1 7th of June, the vigil of S. RanierO 
the patron saint. Then, every building and boat is mapped 
out in fire, and the reflections in the still river produce a 
scene from fairy-land. 

Pisa — " vituperio delle genti " — rival of Florence in arts 
and arms, was, in its origin, one of the most ancient cities of 
Etniria, One tradition ascribes its foundation to Pelops,* 
another to the followers of Nestor in their wanderings after 
the fall of Troy.t In the time of the Empire its port was of 
great importance to Rome, and carried on a considerable 
trade in timber and marble. 

" The proud mart of Pisa, 

Queen of the western wavfes, 
Where ride Massilia's triremes. 
Heavy with fair-haired slaves." J 

• Pliuy, iii. 5, s. 8. f Strabo, v. 22a. J Macaulay's Lays. 


" Pisa was in the eleventh century what Venice became long after, the 
bulwark of Christendom against the Moslem. No power took a more 
active share in the real crusades against the infidel, and Pisa, unlike 
Venice, was free from any share in that mock crusade which overthrew 
the Roman Empire of the East, and paved the way for the coming of the 
Ottoman into Europe. But Pisa, like the Christians of the far East and 
of the far West, was already a crusading power before crusades were 
preached to Western Christendom at large. The maritime common- 
wealth did what emperors and kings had failed to do, and won back the 
great island of Sardinia from the Saracen. Within that, her insular realm, 
Pisa had judges and even kings to her vassals, and, when her episcopal 
church was raised to metropolitan rank, the land which she had won 
back for Christendom was fittingly made part of the new ecclesiastical 
province. W^ith the Saracens of Spain, of Africa, and of Sicily, the war- 
fare of the Republic was never-ceasing, and it was a warfare in whicl^ 
the Republic had as often to defend its own homes as to invade those of 
the misbelievers. The alternations of the struggle are well marked in 
the meagre entries of the national chronicle : — 

" Anno 1005. ' Fuit capta Pisa a Saracenis.' 

" Anno 1006. ' Pisani devicerunt Saracenos ad Regium die Sancti 

"Anno 1012. 'Stolus Saracenorum de Hispania venit Pisas et de- 
struxit eas.' 

" Later on, in 1035, and 1050, and 1075, we read how the Pisan fleets 
took Bona, what the chronicler is pleased to call Carthage, how they 
drove back a Saracen prince who had again established himself in Sar- 
dinia, and how, after each victory, the loyal commonwealth — Ghibeline, 
before Guelf and Ghibeline were heard of — dutifully sent the crown of 
the vanquished prince to the Emperor. At last, in 1063, we come to 
the entry which may still be read on the front of the pile whose founda- 
tion it records : — 

" Anno 1063. ' Pisani fuerunt Panormum et fractis catenis potus civi- 
tatem ipsam ceperunt, ibique sex naves ditissimes ceperunt, Saracenis 
plurimis interfectis, et combusserunt naves quinque ; unam Pisas duxe- 
runt mirabili thesauro plenam, de quo thesauro eodem anno majotem 
Pisanam ecclesiam incoeperunt. ' 

" These entries set before us the loftier character of the Pisan common- 
wealth, at once maritime, crusading, and imperialist ; but they are 
mixed up with other entries pointing to the causes which in the end 
brought the commonwealth to its fall. Mixed up with the records of the 
great strife with the Infidel are the records of the local warfare by land 
with Luca, and by sea with Genoa. The never-ending rivalry with 


Genoa led in the thirteenth century to the two sea-fights of Meloria — the 
first where the Ghibeline commonweaUh made prey of the prelates 
bound for the Papal Council, the other that crushing overthrow in 
which history, as commonly read, sees the main cause of the downfall of 
the commonwealth. But perhaps a single defeat, however overwhelming 
for the moment, could not have cnished Pisa for ever, had not physical 
causes already determined that maritime rule was to pass away from the 
city of the Amo. Be this as it may, the history of Pisa, when forced 
to struggle on as a purely inland Power, is a sad contrast to the earlier 
days of her naval greatness. At one moment the stern tyrant of Lucca, 
at another the oppressed bondslave of Florence, engulfed at last in the 
common humiliation of Medicean dominion, chosen on account of her 
desolation as the theatre of an Qicumenical Council, twice only do the 
fortunes of Pisa call forth any real interest or sympathy. The Ghibeline 
city, true to her old faith, wakes with life as the Csesar from Liizelberg, 
the last real restorer of the Empire, comes to do honour to her loyalty, 
and at fast to lay his dust within her mighty temple. She wakes again 
to a yet truer life in the last struggle with the revived democracy of 
Florence, so zealous for freedom for herself, so chary of letting others 
share with her in the gift. But at last, after the death of Henry the 
Seventh, the old Pisan commonwealth must be reckoned among the 
things that have passed away for ever." — Freetnan. 

As most travellers do not visit Pisa, but only one comer 
of Pisa, we will proceed at once (by the new road and the 
Ponte Solferino — turning at once to the left on entering the 
gate) to the north-west angle of the town — the Piazza del 

" II y a deux Pises : I'une ou Ton s'est ennuye et ou Ton a vivote pro- 
vincialement depuis la decadence ; c'est toute la ville, moins un coin 
ecarte : 1' autre est ce coin, sepulchre de marbre, oil le Dome, le Bap- 
tistere, la Tour penchee, le Campo Santo, reposent silencieusement 
comme de belles creatures mortes. La veritable Pise est Ik, et dans ces 
reliques d'une vie eteinte ou apper9oit un monde. " — Taine. 

" If many a noble monument is gone. 
That said how glorious in her day she was. 
There is a sacred place within her walls. 
Sacred and silent, save when they that die 
Come there to rest, and they that live, to pray, 


For then are voices heard, crying to God, 
Where yet remain, apart from all things else, 
Four, such as nowhere on the earth are seen 
Assembled ; and at even, when the sun 
Sinks in the west, and in the east the moon 
As slowly rises, her great round displaying 
Over a city now so desolate — 
Such is the grandeur, such the solitude, 
Such their dominion in that solemn hour, 
We stand and gaze, and wonder where we are, 
In this world or another." — Rogers. 

" The gravity of Pisa pervades every street, but its magnificence is 
now confined to one sacred corner. There stand the Cathedral, the Bap- 
tistery, the Leaning Tower, and the Campo-Santo ; all built of the same 
marble, all varieties of the same architecture, all venerable with years, 
and fortunate both in their society and their solitude." — Forsyth. 

' ' The group of buildings clustered in and about this verdant carpet, 
comprising the Tower, the Baptistery, the Cathedral, and the Campo- 
Santo, is perhaps the most remarkable and beautiful in the whole world ; 
and from being clustered there, together, away from the ordinary trans- 
actions and details of the town, they have a singularly venerable and 
impressive character. It is the architectural essence of a rich old city, 
with all its common life and common habitations pressed out and filtered 

" Sismondi compares the Tower to the usual pictorial representations, 
in children's books, of the Tower of Babel. It is a happy simile, and 
conveys a better idea of the building than chapters of laboured descrip- 
tion. Nothing can exceed the grace and lightness of the structure ; 
nothing can be more remarkable than the general appearance. In the 
course of the ascent to the top (which is by an easy staircase), the in- 
clination is not very apparent ; but, at the summit, it becomes so, and 
gives one the sensation of being in a ship that has heeled over through 
the action of an ebb-tide. The effect upon the low side, so to speak, 
looking over from the gallery, and seeing the shaft recede to its base — is 
very startling ; and I saw a nervous traveller hold on to the Tower in- 
voluntarily, after glancing down, as if he had some idea of propping it up. 
The view within, from the ground — looking up as through a slanted 
tube — is also very curious. It certainly inclines as much as the most 
sanguine tourist could desire. The natural impulse of ninety-nine people 
out of a hundred, who were about to recline upon the grass below it, to 
rest, and contemplate the adjacent buildings, would probably be, not to 


take up their position under the leaning side ; it is so very much aslant. " 
— Dickens. 

Let US first turn to the Campanile, the famous Leaning 
Tower, which is quite as beautiful as it is extraordinary. It 
was begun in 1x74 by Bonnano Pisano and William of Inn- 
spruck, and is built entirely of white marble. The founda- 
tions having been made insufficiently solid, before it had 
been carried to one-third of its height, it began to incline. 
The masonry was then strengthened by iron clamps, which 
preserve the tower from falling, because, though it leans 13 
feet from the perpendicular, the centre of gravity is still 
within the base. 293 steps of white marble lead to the top 
of the tower, whence there is an interesting view over the 
town and country. The sensation of falling over is very 
curious and unpleasant.* 

"The tower of Pisa may claim to be the noblest tower of Southern 
Romanesque. The round form doubtless comes from Ravenna ; but the 
Pisan tower is a Ravenna tower glorified. At Ravenna, as in East- 
Anglia, the round form may have been adopted, in order to avoid quoins 
in a building of brick or flint. At Pisa, as in Ireland, the fonn was 
chosen out of deliberate preference. And the preference was a wise one. 
The square form could hardly have borne the endless ranges of arcade 
upon arcade, which perfectly suit the shape of the Pisan campanile, and 
which make it one of the noblest works of human skill." — Freeman. 

The Cathedral yiZiS begun in 1064 by the architect Bus- 
chetto (" Busketus "), and consecrated in 11 18, by Pope 
Gelasius II. 

" Long celebrated for her maritime achievements against the Saracens 
in Sicily and on the coasts of Africa, Pisa added, in 1063, a still brighter 
leaf to her chaplet by bursting the chain of the port of Palermo, captur- 
ing six vessels laden with rich merchandise, and bringing them home in 

* Those who ascend must be careful not really to fall over, as the railing at the top 
is not continuous, and very misguiding. 


triumph to her native Amo. By a unanimous decree the citizens deter- 
mined to convert this booty into a cathedral, to surpass all others in size 
and beauty, and to be at once a thank-offering to heaven, and a perpetual 
monument to their country's honour. Everything was propitious — the 
hour was ready with its man, the architect Buschetto, from whose master- 
mind the plan would seem to have sprung forth at once, complete, clear, 
and beautiful, like wisdom from the head of Jupiter ; the first stone was 
laid that same year, and the building was completed before the close of 
the century, after becoming, long ere it was finished, the model of archi- 
tecture throughout the Pisan archbishopric." — Lindsay's Christian Art. 

It is a I^atin cross with a cupola at the meeting of the 
nave and transepts. The whole is of marble, chiefly white, 
which has taken the most beautiful soft creamy tint with 
time. The fagade is adorned with 58 pillars, arranged in 
five tiers under a gable. The original bronze doors of Bon- 
nano Pisano at the west end were destroyed by fire in 1596, 
and those which now exist are the work of Giovanni da 
Bologna of 1602. The central door represents the History 
of the Virgin, those at the sides the History of our Lord. 
The mosaics in the lunettes are modern. The door of the 
south transept, called La Crociera di S. jRaniero, escaped 
the fire, and dates from the 12th century, and is probably by 
Bonnano. It is covered with' reliefs from the Gospel history. 
By the side of this door is an ancient inscription to Beatrice, 
mother of the celebrated countess Matilda. 

"The work of Buschetto shows that he had thoughtfully studied all 
the forms of architecture which had arisen in his age. The apse and the 
west front, if they stood at Lucca, would simply be remarked as the 
greatest among many kindred works. But the ground plan and the 
design of the interior introduces us to something which, in its fulness, has 
no parallel at Lucca, at Ravenna, or any other city. We see plainly the 
influence of the basilica, but we see no less the influence of the domical 
churches of Constantinople and Venice ; we see also, we venture to think, 
the influence of the mosques of Palermo, and of the churches, if not of 
Northern Europe, at least of Northern Italy. From the East came the 
central cupola, from the North we cannot but think came the spreading 


transepts; and these two features Buschetto strove to work into har- 
mony with the central body, whose general design was to be that of the 
most gigantic of basilicas, but not without touches which must have come 
from a northern source. S. Sophia, S. Vital, and S. Mark had no long- 
drawn nave ; the basilicas had no central cupola ; the church of Pisa was 
to have both. The attempt was not wholly successful. Nothing can be 
more glorious than the Pisan interior lying directly east and west ; the 
long ranges of mighty columns, the double aisles, all leading on to the 
vast mosaic which looks down from over the high altar. The general 
effect is that of a basilica, the noblest of basilicas. But to this effect the 
cupola and the transepts are sacrificed ; they are denied their proper 
prominence, while they have prominence enough to disturb in some 
degree the perfect basilican ideal. The architect was evidently afraid to 
break in on the direct eastern and western range by giving the cupola its 
proper support constructive and asthetical. We miss the four great 
lantern arches which should form a main feature in any church which 
has a central cupola or tower of any form. The cupola is, as it were, 
thrust in so as to interrupt the direct view as little as may be ; its sup- 
ports are thrown into the background ; its scale is insignificant, and 
instead of the round resting on the square, its form is that of an awkward 
ellipse. For the same reason, not to interrupt the direct range, perhaps 
also with some memory of the tribunes of S. Mark, the arcades are 
carried, though with some change of designs, across the opening of the 
transepts. The transepts are thus cut off from the main body of the 
building in a way which is most unusual, but which appears again, where 
we should not have looked for any especial likeness to Pisa, in the two 
great churches of Strasburg. 

"The Duomo has then some manifest faults, but the merits of the 
building far outshine its defects. The arcades are the very glory of the 
basilican idea, and they carry, what is not to be seen at Ravenna or 
Lucca, a real triforium. The form of a northern triforium is here skil- 
fully translated into language. It is made flat ; there is no recessing ; 
ornament is sought for, in the Italian fashion, by alternation of colours. 
The arcades and triforium are worked well together ; but the architect 
was less successful with his clerestory, which still remains disjointed, 
with a gap between itself and the triforium, just as we see over the 
arcades of the basilicas from which the triforium is absent. The double 
aisles, as ever, help to heighten the feeling of vastness and infinity. And 
moreover to bring their arches to the level of the main arcades, they are 
given the pointed form. Let no one think that this is a sign of approach- 
ing Gothic. The pointed form is here the tribute of the vanquished 
Saracen, as in the triforium and the transepts we have the contribution 
of the Norman ally." — Freeman. 


The Interior 'v', 311 feet in length, and 237 feet wide at 
the transepts. The harmonious majesty of all its details give 
it an appearance of much greater magnitude. The nave has 
five aisles. The 24 pillars of the central aisle were brought 
from the islands of Giglio and Elba ; those at the sides were 
evidently collected from ancient buildings, and, in most cases, 
retain their ancient capitals and bases. The roof of the 
central nave is flat and of wood, but the side aisles are 
vaulted. A hundred windows, chiefly of stained glass, pour 
a dim light through the solemn colonnades. 

" How beautiful do columns become when they support a roof! how 
superior to their effect as an idle decoration ! what variety in these, still 
changing their combinations as you pace along the aisles ! how finely do 
their shafts of oriental granite harmonize with the grandeur of the pile, 
while their tone of colour deepens the sombre which prevails here in 
spite of a hundred windows \ " — Forsytfu 

Making the round of the church, beginning at the great 
west door, we see : — 

Right. Tomb of Archbishop Matteo Rinucini, 1582, by Pietro Tacca, 
a pupil of John of Bologna. 

Beyond the next door. A remnant of a fresco attributed to Bernardo 
Nello Falcone. Tomb of Archbishop Francesco Frosini, 1718. 

2nd Altar. Panni, 1601. The Disputa. 

Behind the Pulpit (Altar of the Madonna delle Grazie). Andrea del 
Sarto (finished by Sogliari). Madonna with SS. Francis, Bartholomew, 
and Jerome. 

The Pulpit is a restoration of 1607 from the pulpit of Giov^anni Pisano, 
destroyed in the fire of 1596. Three small statues of the Evangelists 
by Giovanni remain and are introduced in the present pulpit, which rests 
upon noble lions. On a neighbouring pillar is a beautiful picture of 
S. Agnes, by Andrea del Sarto, enchanting in colour and expression. 
The head is that of the painter's wife. Against the opposite column 
hangs a Madonna with saints, by Pierino del Vaga. 

Right Transept. 1st Altar {right). Pierino del Vaga, Madonna and 

VOL. II. 29 


The Chapel of S. Raniero is from designs of the Sienese Lino. TTie 
mosaic (very high above) of the Madonna enthroned is by Gaddo Gaddi, 
1312. The. tomb of S. Raniero, of Verde di Volsevera, on a granite 
pedestal, is by Foggini. On the right is an antique statue, called S. 
Potitus, on the left S. Ephesus, by Lo7-enzi il Cavaliere. Raniero, 
Potitus, and Ephesus, are the special saints of Pisa. We shall make 
acquaintance with them at the Campo-Santo. 

Beyond the south door. Altar of S. Biagio (S. Blaise) by Stagi da 
Pietrasanta ; the statue of the Saint by Tribolo. 

Entrance of Choir. Two bronze angels by Giov. da Bologna. 

Choir. The enclosure of the high altar has six reliefs, of which four are 
hy Era Gugliehno Agnelli ; the two in the centre are modem. On either 
side of the Archbishop's thrones are pictures by Andrea del Sarto, .SS. 
Peter, J. Baptist, Margaret, and Catherine, which, together with the 
beautiful S. Agnes, once formed an altar-piece. The bronze Crucifix over 
the high altar is by Giov. da Bologna. Two porphyry pillars have rich 
renaissance capitals by .^fagi and Foggino. One supports a bronze angel 
with a candlestick by Staldo Lorenzi, the other a porphyry vase which 
was brought back from the first Crusade. 

The Tribune retains in three tiers some of the frescoes uninjured by 
the fire. By Beccafumi are, SS. Matthew and Mark, the Punishment 
of Korah, and Moses breaking the Tables of Stone. By Sodoma, the 
Sacrifice of Isaac and the Deposition from the Cross. In the upper tier, 
by Salimbeni, Moses in the Wilderness, and, by Beccafumi, SS. Luke 
and John. In the centre of the apse is the great mosaic of Christ 
(enthroned) in benediction or majesty, between the Virgin and S. John, 
from designs of Cimabue (1240 — 1302), his last and greatest work — the 
figure of the Virgin is by Piceno da Pistoia added after the death of 
Cimabue. The frescoes on the arch, of the tribune are the first works of 
Dom. Ghirlandajo. 

Near the entrance to the Sacristy, is the Byzantine picture called La 
Madonna sotto gli Organi, which was carried in procession when Charles 
VIII. of France declared the freedom of Pisa from the yoke of Florence. 

Over the Sacristy door. A relief of the Last Judgment by Giouamii 

Left Transept. The tomb of Cardinal Francesco d'Elci, 1742. Then 
the Cappella del Sacramento, decorated by Stagi and Mosca. The 
mosaic of the Annunciation is by Gaddo Gaddi. 

In the middle of the Church hangs the beautiful bronze lamp of 
Vicenzo Posenti, generally called Galileds Latnp, because it is supposed 
to have suggested to him the movement of the Pendulum. The bronze 
statuettes of the Saviour and the Baptist on the holy-water basons are 
by Giov. da Bologna. 


Many of the pictures, unimportant in themselves, have an interest 
here as representing the story of S. Torpe or Torpet, who was patron 
of Pisa till he was superseded by S. Raniero. He was martyred, May 
17, A.D. 70. S. Tropez near Marseilles is called from him. 

" The old Pisan chronicle relates, that in a frightful dearth caused by 
the want of rain, the bed of the Arno being completely dry, the head of 
St. Torpe was carried in grand procession through the city ; and such 
was the efficacy of his intercession, that a sudden flood descending from 
the mountains not only overflowed the banks of the river, but swept 
away part of the pious procession, and with it the head of the saint. 
The people were in despair ; but lo ! two angels appeared to the rescue, 
dived under the waves, and brought up the head, which they restored 
to the hands of the archbishop." — Jameson's Sacred Art. 

The Baptistery was begun in 1152 by Diotisalvi, as is 
shown by an inscription upon the first pillar on the right. 
It rises, from a platform of three steps, a circular temple of 
white marble slightly inlaid with blue, a fashion probably of 
Saracenic origin. It has three stories. The second story, which 
has 60 pillars, was built by the free-will offerings of 34,000 
families, who each contributed one soldo d'oro. The third 
story has 20 windows, which give the building its principal 
light. The cupola, the height of which is 102 feet from the 
pavement, is surmounted by a statue of S. Raniero. The 
doors are richly ornamented with reliefs from the history of 
Christ, the Baptist, &c. 

In the centre of the building stands the marble font for 
immersion, and beside it a pillar with a statue of the 
Baptist, of the school of Baccio Bandinelli. 

The Pulpit of c. 1260, is a master-piece of Niccotb PisanOy 
and is inscribed, under the relief of the Last Judgment : — 

"Anno milleno bis centum bisque triceno, 
Hoc opus insigne sculpsit Nicola Pisanus, 
Laudetur digne tam bene docta manus." 

** In its form it is hexagonal ; six Corinthian columns support it ; and 


five of its compartments are enriched with bas-reliefs of surpassing beauty 
and interest. The subjects are the Nativity, — the Adoration of the 
Magi, — the Presentation in the Temple, — the Crucifixion, — and the 
Last Judgment. This last, though the least successful of the five, attests 
the spirited efforts of Niccolo to delineate the nude, and to catch the in- 
spiration of the antique models. The Adoration of the Magi is one of 
the finest of the compartments. In this charming composition the female 
figure on the sarcophagus (the tomb of the Countess Beatrice) in the 
Campo-Santo became to him the model for a graceful conception of the 
Virgin Mary ; and the attitudes, costumes, and draperies of this and of 
the accompanying figures, are such as almost to anticipate some of the 
best qualities of art of the time of Ghiberti. Three horses are introduced 
in the background, evidently studied from the sarcophagus, and rivalling 
them in spirit. " — J. S. Harford. 

" To show his skill in the delineation of animal life, Niccol6 has intro- 
duced, among the attendant sheep, a goat scratching its ear, with ad- 
mirable effect, — an attempt that he has repeated with like success, on 
the pulpit at Siena. " — Lindsay's Christian Art. 

Behind the Baptistery is the entrance to the Campo-Santo 
(50 c. on leaving, to the Custode, who will allow you to 
walk about alone if desired). 

This beautiful " Garden of the Dead " is due to Arch- 
bishop Ubaldo de' Lanfranchi, who returned from Palestine 
with 53 ships laden with the sacred earth of Calvary. To 
enclose this precious deposit, Giovanni Pisano — " Johanne 
magistro aedificante " — was employed in 1278, and his work 
was completed in five years, but the beautiful Gothic tracery 
is of later date. The outer fagade is very simple, adorned 
with 44 pillars with arches in low relief. Over the eastern 
entrance is a Gothic tabernacle, containing a Madonna and 
saints by Giovanni Pisano. The building is 415 feet long 
by 137 wide. The cloister is 46 ft. high, and 34 ft. wide, 

" Giovanni Pisana, having been appointed to enclose the space with 
walls, designed and built the first, as well as the most beautiful, Campo- 
Santo in Italy. Following the ground-plan marked out by Archbishop 
Lanfranchi, Giovanni raised his outer walls without windows, and with 


only two doors looking towards the Duomo, that the frescoes, with which 
they were to be covered on the inside, might be protected as far as pos- 
sible from the injurious effect of the salt and damp sea-winds. Between 
these outer walls, which he decorated with arches and pilasters, and the 
inner, directly contiguous to the quadrangle, he made a broad-roofed 
corridor paved with marble, lighted by Gothic windows and four open 
doorways, through which are now obtained constantly recurring glimpses 
of the graves, the solemn cypresses, and the ever-blooming roses of this 
' God's acre.' Nothing could be better adapted to its purpose than the 
building thus constructed, which, completely shutting out the world, 
compels the eye to rest upon objects suggestive of death and eternity." 
— Perkins' Tuscan Sculptors. 

The Campo-Santo should first be examined with regard to 
its frescoes, and afterwards with regard to the sculpture it con- 
tains. In order to enjoy the frescoes most profitably, the 
visitor (who enters by the south wall) should turn to the 
right to the narrow east wall, where, on the right of the 
chapel door, are : — 

Buonamico Cristofani, Btiffalmacco (c. 1273— 1351). The Ascension, 
Resurrection, and Passion. 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle ascribe these pictures to a painter 
of the 14th century. They are certainly much painted over. 

" I do not think that the scene of the risen Christ showing his wounds 
was ever so perfectly conceived as in the group attributed to Buffalmacco. 
Instead of Thomas alone, there are several disciples who recognize the 
risen Christ, and, amid worshipping and adoring, contemplate his 
wounds with tender sympathy ; together they form one of the most 
beautifully arranged groups of the school. 

"In the picture of the Ascension also, the great amount of painting 
over cannot wholly destroy the beautiful old conceptions ; we clearly 
recognize how the apostles are divided between wonderment, protesta- 
tion, and devoted adoration." — Biirckhardt. 

The picture of the Crucifixion is — 

" An early work, yet a most singular one, — bold and original in com- 
position and by no means ill executed, and especially remarkable for the 
varied actions of the angels with which the sky is peopled ; one of them, 


among a group gathered round our Saviour, receives the blood from his 
side in a golden chaHce ; another, standing on the cross of the penitent 
thief, extricates his soul from his mouth, while a devil performs the like 
office for his companion in punishment, receiving it in his arms, and a 
brother fiend, armed with a whip, bends forward, grotesquely and ex- 
ultingly, to welcome it to its new existence ; the angels who had been 
watching beside the one cross, fly away, wringing their hands in sorrow, 
while those attendant on the other rejoice over the good estate of the 
soul that has found grace even on the stroke of the eleventh hour. All 
of them are in communion with each other, sympathizing with man. 
The lower part of the composition is filled with waniors on horseback, 
the Virgin fainting, attended by the Maries, a group of Jews, women, 
children, &c., all expressive, though often caricatured." — Lindsay's 
Christian Art, 

South Wall. Andrea Orcagna (c. 13 15 — 1368). The 
three most wonderful pictures of this great master, who may 
be regarded as the Dante of painting. 

*i. The Triumph of Death. 

" On the right is a festive company of ladies and cavaliers,* who, by 
their falcons and dogs, appear to be returned from the chase. They sit 
under orange-trees, and are splendidly dressed ; rich carpets are spread 
at their feet. A troubadour and singing girl amuse them with flattering 
songs ; amorini flutter around them and wave their torches. All the 
pleasures and joys of earth are here united. On the left. Death ap- 
proaches with rapid flight — a fearful-looking woman, with wild stream- 
ing hair, claws instead of nails, large bat's wings and indestructible 
wire-woven drapery. She swings a scythe in her hand, and is on the 
point of mowing down the joys of the company. A host of corpses 
closely pressed together lie at her feet ; by their insignia they are almost 
all to be recognized as the former rulers of the world — kings, queens, 
cardinals, bishops, princes, warriors, &c. Their souls rise out of them 
in the form of new-born infants ; angels and demons are ready to receive 
them ; the souls of the pious fold their hands in prayer, those of the 
condemned shrink back in horror. The angels are almost like gay but- 
terflies in appearance, the devils have the semblance of beasts of prey, or 
of disgusting reptiles. They fight with each other : on the right, the 
angels ascend to heaven with those they have saved ; while the demons 

* Castruccio Castracani and his companions. Castruccio is so described by Vasari, 
and has been identified by comparison with his medals. 


drag their prey to a fiery mountain, visible on the left, and hurl the souls 
do .vn into the flames. Next to these corpses is a crowd of beggars and 
cripples, who with outstretched arms call upon Death to end their sor- 
rows : but she heeds not their prayers, and has already hastened away, 
A rock separates this scene from another, in which there is a second 
hunting party, descending the mountain by a hollow path ; here again 
are richly attired princes* and dames on horses splendidly caparisoned, 
and a train of hunters with falcons and dogs. The path has led them to 
three open sepulchres in the left corner of the picture ; in them lie the 
bodies of three princes, in different stages of decay. Close by, in ex- 
treme old age, and supported on crutches, stands a monk (S. Macarius), 
who, turning to the princes, points down to this bitter 'memento mori.' 
They speak apparently with indifference of the circumstance, and one of 
them holds his nose from the horrible smell. One queenly lady alone, 
deeply moved, rests her head on her hand, her graceful countenance full of 
sorrow. On the mountain heights are several hermits, who, in contrast 
to the followers of the joys of the world, have attained, in a life of con- 
templation and abstinence, the highest term of human existence. One 
of them milks a doe, squirrels play about him ; another sits and reads ; 
and a third looks down into the valley, where the remains of the mighty 
are mouldering away. A tradition relates that among the distinguished 
personages in these pictures are many portraits of the artist's contempo- 
raries." — Kugler. 

2. The Last Judgment. 

" Here, for the first time, the Judge becomes not merely a function, 
but a personal character, to whom the position and the celebrated ges- 
ture give a grand life-likeness. The belief of the age gave the Madonna 
a place as intercessor in the Last Judgment ; the painter gave her the 
same almond-shape glory as to Christ. The Apostles are here no longer 
mere inanimate spectators, but they take the most lively interest in the 
scene ; we see them lamenting, some looking up aghast to the Judge, 
some wrapped in their own sorrowful thoughts, some talking together." 
— Bu rckha rdt. 

*' Above, in the middle, sit Christ and the Virgin in separate glories. 
He turns to the left, toward the condemned, while he uncovers the wound 
in his side, and raises his right arm with a menacing gesture ; his coun- 
tenance is full of majestic wrath. The Virgin, on the right of her Son, 
is the picture of heavenly mercy ; and almost terrified at the words of 
eternal condemnation, she turns away, while her countenance and mien 

• Uguccione delta Faggiuola, Lord of Pisa, and the Emperor Louis of Bavaria are 
the most conspicuous figures. 


express only divine sorrow for the lost. On both sides sit the Fathers of 
the Old Testament, the Apostles and the Saints next to them, severe, 
solemn, dignified figures. Angels, holding the instruments of the Pas- 
sion, hover over Christ and the Virgin ; luider them is a group of angels, 
in the strictest symmetrical arrangement, who summon the dead from 
their graves ; two blow the trumpets, a third conceals himself in his 
drapery, shuddering at the awful spectacle. Lower down is the earth, 
where men are rising from the graves ; armed angels direct them to the 
right and left. Here is seen Solomon, who whilst he rises seems doubt- 
ful to which side he should turn ; here a hypocritical monk, whom an 
angel draws back by the hair from the hosts of the blessed ; and a youth 
in secular costume, whom another angel leads away from the condemned 
to the opposite groups. The blessed and the condemned rise in thick 
crowds above each other on both sides." — Kiigler. 

"Among the blessed, all are gazing upwards to the Saviour except a 
group immediately in front, of a queen helping her daughter out of the 
grave — beautiful figures, full of grace and sweetness. One feeling for the 
most part pervades this side of the composition, — there is far more 
variety in the other ; agony is depicted with fearful intensity and in 
every d^ree and character ; some clasp their hands, some hide their 
faces, some look up in despair, but none towards Christ ; others seem to 
have grown idiots with horror, — a few gaze, as if fascinated, into the 
gulf of fire towards which the whole mass of misery are being urged by 
the minister of doom — the flames bite them, the devils fish for and catch 
them with long grappling hooks, — in sad contrast to the group on the 
opposite side, a queen, condemned herself and self-forgetful, vainly 
struggles to rescue her daughter from a demon who has caught her by 
the gown and is dragging her backwards into the abyss — her sister, 
wringing her hands, looks on in agony — it is a fearful scene." — Lindsays 
Christian Art. 

" In the Last Judgment of Orcagna, the Seven Angels are active and 
important personages. The angel who stands in the centre of the pic- 
ture, below the throne of Christ, extends a scroll in each hand ; on that 
in the right hand is inscribed, ' Come, ye blessed of my Father,' and on 
that on the left hand, ' Depart from me, ye accursed : ' him I suppose to 
be Michael, the angel of judgment. At his feet crouches an angel who 
seems to shrink from the tremendous spectacle and hides his face : him I 
suppose to be Raphael, the guardian angel of humanity. The attitude 
has always been admired — cowering with horror, yet sublime. Beneath 
are other five angels, who are engaged in separating the just from the 
wicked, encouraging and sustaining the former, and driving the latter 
towards the demons who are ready to snatch them into flames. These 


Seven Angels have the garb of princes and wamors, with breast-plates 
of gold, jewelled sword-belts and tiaras, rich mantles ; while the other 
angels who figure in the same scene are plumed, and bird-like, and hover 
above bearing the instruments of the Passion." — Jameson's Sacred Art. 

3. Hell. Said to have been executed by Bernardo 
Orcagna from designs of his brother Andrea, and greatly 
inferior to the two other pictures. 

"A vast rib or arch in the walls of pandemonium admits one to the 
contiguous gulf of hell, a continuation of the second fresco — in which 
Satan sits in the midst, in gigantic terror, cased in armour, and crunch- 
ing sinners — of whom Judas, especially, is eaten and ejected, re-eaten 
and re-ejected again and again for ever." — Lindsay s Christian Art. 

** L'lmperador del doloroso regno . . . 

Da ogni bocca dirompea co' denti 
Un peccatore a guisa di maciulla, 
Si che tre ne facea cosi dolenti." 

Inf. xxxiv. 28 — 55. 

" II est impossible de ne pas reconnaitre ici des tableaux traces d'abord 
par le pinceau de Dante. On voit ici Satan devorant trois corps humains 
a demi engouffres deja dans sa gueule gigantesque II est de meme dans 
I'Enfer. Le nombre des victimes est pareil. Ce sont, chez Dante, 
Judas, Brutus, et Cassius, rapprochement bizarre en apparence, mais qui 
cesse d'etonner quand on a etudie, dans le Traite de la Monarchie, le 
systeme de politique et d'histoire que le guelfe banni s'etait fait en deve- 
nant gibelin, afin de justifier ses opinions nouvelles. Pour lui, les deux 
puissances de la terre, presque egales en saintete, et I'une et I'autre d'ori- 
gine romaine, c'etaient dune part le pape heritier de saint Pierre et vicaire 
de Jesus-Christ quant au spirituel, de I'autre I'empereur heritier de Cesar 
et vicaire de Dieu quant au temporel. A ce point de vue, les meur- 
triers de Cesar etaient presque aussi coupables envers le genre humain 
que les meutriers du Christ. Pour Orcagna, en mettant trois damnes 
dans le gueule de Satan, il ne pouvait avoir d'autres raisons que de 
suivre Dante, qu'il a bien reellement copie dans cette fresque du Campo- 
Santo. La sont aussi les bolgc, grands trous circulaires dans lesquels 
I'auteur de la Divine Comedie avait plonge les differentes sortes de 
damnes ; la on voit une figure decapitee, et, comme Bertrand de Bom, 
tenant par les cheveux sa tete sanglante ainsi qu'une lanterne, expression 


famili^re, mais terrible, parce qu'elle est d'une exactitude pittoresque, et 
fait voir a I'esprit le tableau qu'Orcagna n'a pas craint de montrer aux 
yeux." — Ampire, Voyage Dantesqtie. 

We now pass on to — 

Pietro and Atnbrogio Lorenzetti. The Life of the Hermits 
in the Thebaid — painted c. 1330 — 1350. 

" We cannot attribute exclusively either to one or other of the two 
brothers the great work representing the life led by the saints in the 
desert. Notwithstanding the want of perspective, and the incorrectness 
of the drawing, it is nevertheless a masterpiece of grace and simplicity. 
(Beginning on the left at the top) S. Paul is seen visited in his solitude 
by S. Anthony — the death of the former — the two lions excavating his 
grave — the temptations of S. Anthony —Christ appearing to console him 
— S. Hilary, who by the sign of the cross chases away a dragon which 
infested Dalmatia— S. Mary the Egyptian receiving the eucharist from 
the hands of the blessed Zosimo — the touching history of the two 
friends, Onofrio and Panuza — the miraculous palm-tree, a bough of which 
flowered every month for their support — the well-known adventures of S. 
Marina — lastly, the different occupations of the monks, some of whom 
plait mats of rushes, others listen to the word of God, while the re- 
mainder are absorbed in contemplation : in a word, all that could oc- 
cupy the body or mind of these monkish saints in their solitude, is either 
represented or implied." — Rio. 

Next (passing a Madonna in glory) comes, enclosed in six 
pictures, the Life of S. Raniero, patron of the city, born at 
Pisa, c. 1 100, of the noble family of the Scaccieri. The upper 
three, much injured by restoration, are, according to docu- 
ments, hy Andrea de Firenze{i^']']), but, according to Vasari 
and others, by Simone Memmi. The lower three are by 
Antonio Veneztano, 1386. The subjects are : — 

1. S. Raniero is called from the pleasures and vices of the world by a 

servant of God. 

2. He embarks for the Holy Land, having received from the priests the 

schiavina or slave-shirt, which he wore ever after in token of 

3. He puts on hermit's dress. 


4. He has visions in his hermit life. 

5. He returns to Pisa. 

6. He detects the fraud of an inn-keeper at Messina who adulterated 

his wine, and, to his great horror, showed to him the Devil — as a 
cat with bat's wings seated on his wine-cask. 

7. He dies at Pisa in front of the monastery of S. Vito, is carried to 

heaven by angels, and his body is buried in the cathedral. 

8. His miracles after death — the sick being healed by touching his 

body, and a ship brought safely through a storm by his guidance. 

"A touching circumstance is connected with this work. It is, that in 
1356, the plague reached Pisa by way of Genoa, where it carried off 
more than three hundred victims a day ; and that the senate and people 
going in the dress of penitents, bare-footed and weeping, to offer up 
prayers for mercy at the tomb of S. Raniero, the plague ceased its ra- 
vages from that moment. Now, it is proved from authentic documents, 
that Simone Memmi was summoned by the Pisans immediately after 
this miraculous deliverance, so that the painting which is seen in the 
Campo-Santo may be considered more a work of piety than of art, or 
rather it is a magnificent ex voto, destined to immortalize the remem- 
brance of a benefit conferred, and the gratitude excited by it. 

" All was mystery and poetry in the life of this holy personage. In a 
vision which he had in his youth, an eagle appeared to him carrying in 
its beak a lighted torch, and saying to him, / come from yerusalem to 
enlighten the nations. His life had been filled with the most marvellous 
adventures ; and at his death, which occurred the 1 7th of June, 1 161, all 
the bells of the churches in Pisa tolled spontaneously ; the Archbishop 
Villani, who had been stretched for two years on a sick bed, was raised 
entirely healed, to officiate at his funeral, and at the moment when the 
Gloria in excelsis was suppressed, as is usual in the service for the dead, a 
choir of angels chanted it over the altar, while a spontaneous accompani- 
ment burst from the organ ; and such was the sweetness and harmony of 
this angelic concert, that the spectators imagined that the gates of heaven 
were opened to them. This legend had been transmitted from mouth to 
mouth, and from one generation to another, for more than two centuries, 
when the principal events in the life of the saint to whom it referred were 
depicted on the walls of the Campo-Santo, by an artist who was princi- 
pally indebted for his success to his sympathy with those who employed 
his pencil." — Rio. 

The next frescoes, by Spinello Aretino, 1391, relate to the 
lives of the other Pisan saints (buried in the cathedral), SS. 


Ephesus and Potitus, soldiers of Diocletian, who were sent to 
exterminate the Christians in Sardinia, but, being warned in 
a dream, turned against the Pagans instead, and suffered 
martyrdom. Their relics were carried off hither by the 
Pisans, when they subdued Sardinia in the nth century. 
The three upper frescoes represent : — 

1. The mission of Ephesus — on one side the Emperor gives him his 

commission — on the other our Lord summons liim to his service. 

2. Ephesus receives the Christian standard (the standard still of Pisa) 

from S. Michael, and fights against the heathens in Sardinia, 
which is represented as an island by the water and fishes sur- 
rounding it. 

3. The martyrdom of Ephesus — who kneels uninjured in the midst of 

a furnace, while the flames destroy the executioners. 

The frescoes in the lower series are now quite unintelli- 

"Few remain of the frescoes of Spinello Aretino (executed 1389 — 1392) 
and in a sadly injured condition. They represent the history of S . Ephesus. 
The appearance of our Saviour to him on his expedition against the 
Christians, as general of Diocletian, in the first large compartment, and 
his battle with the Pagans of Sardinia in the second, are full of fire and 
spirit, both men and horses are energetic and daring to a degree, although 
frequently uncouth from the very novelty of the groups and attitudes 
which the artist has attempted to delineate." — Lindsay's Christian Art. 

Next come (beyond the 2nd door) by — 
Francesco da Vol terra (137 1), long attributed to Giotto, 
six frescoes of the story of Job. 

'* The subject is not happily chosen, — first, because the book of Job is 
in itself a perfect poem, the beauty of which is independent of any addi- 
tion from art ; and, secondly, because this history is a kind of inward 
drama, in which all the scenes are represented as passing within the 
mind of a holy man whom God tries for his greater sanctification : hence 
painting, dependent for its effect on lines and colours, is unequal to give 
all the details and imperceptible gradations which properly belong to a 
scene, the dramatic interest of which is of so elevated a nature. The 


history of Job, in the Campo-Santo, has sustained more injury from time 
than any of the adjoining paintings." — Rio. 

"The subject, whether chosen intentionally or not, aptly illustrates 
the pious and noble constancy of Pisa in the midst of national misfortune- 
Four of the series have been entirely destroyed ; two remain, but mere 
wrecks. One of them (2nd upper) represents the appearance of Satan 
before our Saviour, seeking to tempt the patriarch, while, to the right, 
the trials have already begun, — his servants are being killed, his cattle 
driven away by the Chaldeans ; in the other (2nd lower) Job is seen 
seated in his misery, naked, covered with sores and visited by his three 
comforters, while in the remainder of the picture, the Deity addresses 
them in reproof after the interview. The attitudes are noble, the coun- 
tenances expressive, the angels attendant on our Saviour beautiful, 
strongly resembling Cimabue's ; the Satan is very humble, crushed- 
looking, but venomous — his figure purely Gothic, horned, hoofed, bat- 
winged, and with a serpent writhed round him." — Lindsay's Christian 

Beyond these are some later paintings : — 

Ghirlandajo. Esther — much repainted. 
Guidotti. Judith. 

We now reach the west end of the south wall and find it 
covered by a series of Biblical Histories, beginning with : — 

Pietro di Puccio da Orvieto, c. 1390 {not Buffalmacco as 
in Murray, &c,), who in 1387 had designed the mosaics on 
the fa9ade of Orvieto. By his hand are the first set of 
frescoes ; — 

I. God the Father — a colossal figure — bearing the globe of the world. 

In the comers SS. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas. 
2 (in the upper series), ist. The history of Adam and Eve before 

and after the expulsion from Paradise. 
2nd. The Death of Abel and the Death of Cain. 
3rd. Noah's ark and the Deluge. 

" These frescoes evince a serious feeling in holy subjects, and, at the 
same time, a cheerful, natural treatment of the circumstances of life. 
They are also remarkable for technical merits, particularly for a har- 
monious arrangement of colour." — Kilgler. 

Next comes the Old Testament story from Noah to 


Goliath, 24 frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli, begun in 1069, and 
finished in 16 years, for the price of 9533 Pisan lire. 

" On the north side of the Campo-Santo at Pisa, are a series of paint- 
ings from the Old Testament History by Benozzo Gozzoli. In the 
earHer of these, angelic presences, mingled with human, occur frequently, 
illustrated by no awfulness of light, nor incorporeal tracing. Clear 
revealed they move, in human forms, in the broad daylight and on the 
open earth, side by side and hand in hand with men. But they never 
miss the angel. 

"He who can do this, has reached the last pinnacle and utmost power 
of ideal, or any other art. He stands in no need, thenceforth, of cloud, 
nor lightning, nor tempest, nor terror of mystery. His sublime is 
independent of the elements. It is of that which shall stand when they 
shall melt with fervent heat, and light the firmament when the sun is as 
sackcloth of hair." — Ruskin, Modern Painters, pt. iii. <^ 

These frescoes form a continuation, both in situation and 
subject, to the works of Pietro di Puccio, and occur in the 
following order : — 

1 (under the Adam and Eve of Pietro). The Drunkenness of Noah. 

In the right-hand comer is the famous " Vergognosa," covering 
her face with her hands, but peeping through her fingers. 

2 (under the Death of Abel). The Curse of Ham — with a beautiful 

Florentine landscape. 

3 (under the Deluge). The Tower of Babel. Several portraits are 

introduced, — those of Cosimo, Lorenzo, and Giulianode' Medici, 
and (in a berretta) Angelo Poliziano. 

4 (over the entrance of the Cappella Ammanati). The Annunciation 

and the Coming of the Magi — with beautiful landscape and 
animals. Left, on a brown horse is the painter himself. 

5 (above) . Abraham and the worshippers of Baal, from the Rab- 

binical traditions. Abraham, who refused to worship the Idol, 
is delivered from the fire prepared for him, and his brother 
Nahor, who consented, is consumed. Magnificent buildings are 

6 (below). Abraham and Lot in Egypt. The whole journey of the 

patriarchs is represented in perspective. 
7. The Victory of Abraham, with the Rescue of Lot and the Offering 
of Bread and Wine by Melchizedec 


8 (below). The Story of Hagar — much retouched. The birds and 

beasts are wonderfully introduced. 

9 (above). The Escape of Lot from the destruction of Sodom. 

10 (below). The Sacrifice of Isaac with the attendant circumstances — 

the whole story. 

1 1 (above). The Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca — the whole story, 

12 (below). The Birth of Jacob and Esau, and the principal events 

of their lives. 

13 (above). The Marriage of Jacob and Rachael — the dancers at the 

marriage-feast most beautiful. 

14 (below). The Meeting of Jacob and Esau— Lorenzo de' Medici is 

introduced in profile with many contemporary portraits. 

15 (over the door of the Cappella Aula). Fragments of the Corona- 

tion of the Virgin by Pietro di Puccio. 

16 (above). The Early History of Joseph. 

17 (below). The Story of Joseph in Egypt. Beneath this picture is 

the grave of the artist— Benozzo Gozzoli, 1478. 

18 (above). Four scenes from the Childhood of Moses. 

19 (below). The Passage of the Red Sea. 

20 (above). The Giving of the Law to Moses. 

21. The lower picture and the two beyond it as far as the angle of 

the west wall are destroyed. 

22. Aaron's Rod, and the Brazen Serpent. 

23. The Fall of Jericho and the Death of Goliath. 

24. The Visit of the Queen of Sheba. Platina, Marcilio Ficino, and 

members of the Visconti and Gambacorti families are introduced 
on the right. 

" The immense work, which, in his declining years, Benozzo Gozzoli 
executed in the Campo-Santo, and which embraces the history of the 
Old Testament, from Noah to the time of Solomon, represented in 24 
large compartments, nearly all in good preservation, must be considered, 
both as regards poetical merit and dimensions, as one of the most aston- 
ishing marvels of art ; and Vasari has justly remarked, that this gigantic 
undertaking might well alarm a whole legion of painters. Never have 
imposing or pastoral scenes been so happily represented by any artist ; 
in order to succeed in them, a mixture of grandeur and simplicity was 
required, which the naturalists' school of Florence was quite unable to 
reach ; and this want of power was still more fatally developed in the 
succeeding generation. In the fourteenth century several attempts had 
been made, which might have been successful if the methods of tech- 
nical execution had been better understood. Benozzo alone had the privi- 
lege of uniting this last advantage to the naive and grand inspirations of 


the early masters ; and it is on this account, perhaps, that no one has left, 
at least on so large a scale, a more perfect model of the patriarchal 
style — the most difficult of any if we may judge from the very small 
numbers of painters who have excelled in it." — Rio. 

" In the prolonged ranges of varied subjects with which Benozzo 
Gozzoli decorated the cloisters of Pisa, it is easy to see that love of simple 
domestic incident, sweet landscape, and glittering ornament, prevails 
slightly over the solemn elements of religious feeling, which, neverthe- 
less, the spirit of the age instilled into him in such measure as to form a 
very lovely and noble mind, though still one of the second order. In the 
work of Orcagna, an intense solemnity and energy in the sublimest 
groups of his figures, fading away as he touches inferior subjects, indicate 
that his home was among the archangels, and his rank among the first of 
the sons of men." — Ruskin^s Modern Painters. 

The 'first part of the IVest Wall is covered with inferior 
frescoes : — 

Rondinosi, 1666. The Story of Josaiah and of Belshazzar's feast. 

The Cappella Ammanati (over the entrance of which are 
Magi of Benozzo) contains six heads in fresco by Giotto, 
removed hither, after the fire, from the Carmine in Florence. 
Here is the fine tomb of Ligo degU Ammanati, 1359. 

The Cappella Maggiore {Eastern Wall), of 1594, contains 
an interesting Crucifix of the 12th century, with the History 
of the Passion, and two Crucifixes by Giunta Pisano — one 
of 1238. 

We must now turn to the monuments and fragments of 
ancient sculpture which have been brought together in the 
corridors of the Campo-Santo. This collection has been 
formed gradually. The Sarcophagi stood around the exterior 
of the Duorno in the nth, 12th, and 13th centuries, and, 
with the exception of that of the Countess Beatrice which 
was moved later, were all brought here in 1293, when the 
marble steps were added to the cathedral. Other tombs 
and works of art have been collected from the different 


churches, a plan, which, though useful in many cases, has 
in others completely annihilated their interest, especially in 
the case of tombs removed from the churches for which they 
were intended, and where the bodies of those they com- 
memorated were interred. The best works are : — 

South Corri'dor — beginning at the eastern end. — 

II (On a Roman Sarcophagus with battle-scenes). Giovanni Pisanc. 

S. Peter. 
9 and 10. Statuettes of the Pisan School. 
IV. (On a Sarcophagus). Bust of Junius Brutus. 
VIII. Beautiful Bacchanalian fragment of a Sarcophagus. 
AA. Thorwaldsen. Monument of the Anatomist Andrea Vacca 
Berlinghieri, ob. 1826, with a relief of Tobias with his blind 
BB. Van Linth. Tomb of Count Marulli d'Ascoli. 
22. Bonamico. Marble Architrave, with Christ and the emblems of 

the Evangelists. 
33. Tommaso Pisano. Marble Altar and frieze. 

West Corridor. — 

45. Giovanni Pisano. Madonna (headless). 

46. Tommaso Pisano. Part of the Tomb of Conte della Gherardesca 

(1013— 1341). 
*99. Sarcophagus of the Emperor Henry VII. (of Luxembourg), who 
died at Buonconvento, 13 13 — formerly in the cathedral, first in 
the tribune, and then in the Chapel of S. Raniero. It is by 
Tino di Camaino, 13x5. 

•' Upon a sarcophagus of white marble lies the ef&gy of the emperor, 
robed in an imperial mantle decorated with the lions and eagles of the 
Guelphs and Ghibellines, his hands crossed upon his breast, and his un- 
covered head, which is characteristic and full of repose, resting upon a 
cushion. This sarcophagus, adorned in front with eleven short and 
clumsy, but not ill-draped, figures of saints, while at each end stand 
mourning genii, rests upon a double basement ; the upper one bears a 
long inscription recording the translation of his remains, followed by a 
concourse of more than three thousand persons, from the castle of Suva- 
reto in the Maremma, where they had been temporarily deposited." — 
Perkins' Tuscan Sculptors. 

VOL. II. 30 


" II faut saluer au nom de Dante la sepulture de I'empereur Henri VII., 
ce malheureux Henri VII., celui dont il attendait tout ce que desirait 
son ame ardente : retour dans sa patrie, vengeance de ses ennemis, 
triomphe de ses idees politiques : celui dont il prophetisait, avec des 
paroles qui semblaient empruntees a Isaie, les prochains triomphes, et 
qui ne vint dans cette Italie, oix il etait tant attendu, que pour y mourir. 
Le pauvre empereur a la tete k demi soulevee ; il semble faire un effort 
inutile et retomber sous le poids de sa faiblesse. La tombe raconte sa 
vie. II tenta peniblement de relever la majeste imperiale ; elle retomba 
vaincue ; le temps en etait passe. On dirait qu'il est encore fatigue de 
sa malencontreuse tentative ; il a I'air de dormir mal, et de ne pas etre 4 
son aise, meme dans la mort. On a trouve, dit-on, dans un cercueil des 
vetements dores qui tombaient en poussiere. Cela peint bien sa destinee. 
De la poussiere de manteau imperial, c'est tout ce qui devait rester des 
projets d'Henri VII. et des esperances de Dante."— /^w/^/r. 

Near the tomb hang the chains of the Port of Pisa, taken by the 
Genoese in 1362, and given by them to Florence, where they long hung 
over the door of the Baptistery, but were restored in 1848. 

♦47. Giovanni Pisano. An allegorical figure of Pisa sustained by the 

* four Cardinal Virtues. 

*' In criticizing the Pisa, which is interesting as being, perhaps, the 
largest statue made in Italy since the time of Constantine, it should 
be taken into consideration, that in such a work immense and untried 
difficulties presented themselves to a sculptor accustomed to treat sculp- 
ture as an architectural accessory. This statue represents the city of Pisa 
as a crowned and draped woman, holding two diminutive children at her 
breasts, as emblems of her fertility, girdled with a cord seven times 
knotted, in token of her dominion over the seven islands of Corsica, Sar- 
dinia, Elba, Pianosa, Capraja, Giglio, and Gorgona. She stands upon a 
pedestal, which is supported at the four comers by fig^ires of Prudence, 
Temperance, Fortitude, and Justice (the guiding principles of her govern- 
ment), between which eagles are sculptured, in allusion to her Roman 
origin. It would be hard to find anything more original than this strange 
work, whose ugliness is somewhat redeemed by an intensity of expression 
which arrests the attention, and the dramatic turn of the head of the 
principal figure, whose sly glance seems on the watch for some strange 
coming." — Perkins' Tuscan Sculptors. 

LL. Tomb of Archbishop Pietro Ricci, 1418. 

NN. Tommaso Masi. Tomb of the Pisan painter Giov. Bat. Tem- 
pest:, 1804. 


•50. Orcagna. Madonna, on an antique capital. 
52. A marble urn with Bacchic ornaments — the bearded Bacchus 
was taken by Niccolo Pisano as a model for the high priest in 
the third subject of his pulpit in the Baptistery. 

North Corridor. — 

56. Relief in Parian marble. 
*59. Giovanni Pisano. Madonna — half-figure — from the Cathedral. 
67, 70. Charity and Penitence — statuettes of the Pisan School. 
XVI. Ancient marble sarcophagus with Bacchus, Ariadne, and the 

73. Helmeted head — of Achilles. (?) 

XIX. Alino da Fiesole. Bust of the famous Isotta da Rimini. 
*XXI. The tomb of the Countess Beatrice, 1076 — Mother of the 
famous Matilda of Tuscany — with the epitaph — 

" Quamvis peccatrix, sum domna vocata Beatrix, 
In tumulo missa, jaceo quae comitissa?" 

"It is an ancient sarcophagus, originally brought from Greece by the 
Pisans in the nth century, and after being adapted as the tomb of 
Beatrice, stood for centuries at the south door of the cathedral. On the 
front are the reliefs of the rejection of Pha;dra by Ilippolytus, and his 
departure for the chase ; they are of great excellence. Niccolo Pisano 
was greatly indebted to their study. 

"Niccolo Pisano got nothing but good, the modern French nothing 
but evil, from the study of the antique ; but Niccolo Pisano had a God 
and a character. " — Ruskin, Modern Painters. 

121. Andrea Pisano. Relief. 

135. Frederick II. and his courtiers — sculptor unknown. 

West Corridor. — 
UU. Tomb of Filippo Decio, 1535, with beautiful Renaissance-decor- 
ation by Stagi. 

141. Bartolini. " L'Inconsolabile." 

142, Giov. Pisano. Candelabrum of the Cathedral. 

South Corridor. — 

172. Orcagna. Statuette. 

LIX. LXV. Sarcophagi with admirable ornaments. 

Even the most passing visitor to Pisa should give time to 


visit, on the Lung' Arno, the lovely little church of La 
Madonna della Spina, though its interest is greatly marred 
by its having been entirely rebuilt (1874-75) since the 
accession of the Sardinian government. The building itself 
has been carefully replaced stone for stone, but the erection 
of the new Arno wall, and the destruction of the little plat- 
form from which it was formerly seen so well, has anni- 
hilated its picturesque effect. 

"This chapel is an architectural gem, and, at the time it was executed, 
was considered to be a miracle of art. It was erected for the conveni- 
ence of mariners, who, in the flourishing times of Pisa, repaired hither 
before they set off on their voyage to implore the protection of the Virgin. 
It was twice built. The first edifice was begun in 1230, at the joint ex- 
pense of the Senate and of the Gualandi, a noble family of Pisa. In 
1323 the Senate of Pisa determined to enlarge this chapel. At that time 
it was that the building acquired the form and the exuberance of orna- 
ment which it at present exhibits. It appears from successive decrees 
of the .Senate that the work was in progress during the greater part of 
the 14th century. 

' ' In this building, also, although its general style is that of the advanced 
period, round forms still make their appearance ; but in all the upper 
part, the pointed style is employed alone. The canopies and taber- 
nacles are of the most delicate workmanship. The statues are well ex- 
ecuted, and if, in proportion to the size of the building, they appear to 
be too numerous, it must be remembered that the Italians had a peculiar 
passion for this species of decoration, not only from their love of orna- 
ment, but because Italy abounded in good sculpture. The whole of the 
building is of white marble. 

' ' The chapel derived its surname from a thorn in our Saviour's crown, 
which was brought from the Holy Land by a merchant of Pisa, and 
presented to this chapel by his descendants in 1333. The surname, 
however, was not adopted till the beginning of the next century." — H. 
Gaily Knight. 

The chapel contains some of the best works of Nino 
Pisano, eldest son of the famous Andrea. 

" Three statues, of the Virgin and Child, attended to the right and left 
by S. Peter and S. Paul (in one of whom he has represented his father 


Andrea, whose face seems to have been disfigured by an enormous wen), 
and a bas-relief of the Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus, very coarse and 
Tulgar, but remarkable for a delicacy and waxen smoothness of work- 
manship unequalled in his age, except by his fellow-pupil, the illustrious 
Orcagna." — Lindsays Christian Art. 

Having taken first those objects which all one-day visitors 
to Pisa ought to see, let us visit, in two walks, its remaining 
objects of interest — taking the Ponte di Mezzo, close to 
which are most popular hotels, as a starting-point. 

The Ponte di Mezzo itself was built by Ferdinand II. on 
the site of the ancient bridge on which the famous sham 
fights called Mazzascudi used to take place. Coming over 
the bridge let us turn west (left) down the Lung' Arno. 

Passing the Palazzo Agostini (No. 698) — now the Caife del 
Ussero — a rich Gothic building of the 15th century, the 
first turn on the right beyond the Via S. Frediano leads to 
the University, founded before 1 1 94, and enriched by Boni- 
fazio Novello della Gherardesca, Lord of Pisa, 1329 — 1341. 
The buildings are called Sapienza, and date from 1453, 
but are unimportant. In the Scuola Magna is a statue of 
Galileo by Demi, 1839. 

Near this, on Lung' Arno, is the Palazzo Lanfreducci — or 
Alia Giomata (so called from an enigmatical inscription 
over the entrance), which was built at the end of the i6th 
century by Cosimo Paglioni. The chain over the door comes 
from S. Biagio alia Catena, the church of the Lanfreducci. 
The palace contains a well-known picture of Guide Reni — 
" Human and Divine Love." 

Just behind the Palazzo Reale, in the Via S. Maria, is the 
Church of S. Niccola, which has a very remarkable and beauti- 
ful tower designed by Niccolo Pisano. It is in four stories, 



first round, then octangular, then round again, then six-sided 
and surmounted by a cupola. The third story is surrounded 
by a loggia with i6 marble columns. The interior has a 
winding staircase, which, according to Vasari, formed the 
model for that in the Belvidere. The tower leans slightly. 
The church was founded c, looo, by Hugh, Marquis of Tus- 
cany, and contains some trifling remains of ancient mosaics. 

(The Via S. Maria leads from hence to the Duomo. It 
passes (left) the entrance to the Giardino Botanico, an 
admirable Botanic Garden, founded 1544.) 

The Lung' Amo is closed to the west, at the entrance of 
the Citadel, by the wonderfully picturesque Torre Guelfa, 
which, next to the Spina, is the most characteristic feature of 
the Lung' Amo. It defended the curious Ponte al Mare, 
built 1 33 1, and destroyed by the floods, by which Pisa, 
owing to the utter incompetence and neglect of the repre- 
sentatives of the present Government, was devastated in 


In looking down the river from this end of the town on a 
clear day, the traveller will be reminded of the lines which 
Shelley wrote on the Ponte a Mare — 


" Within the surface of the fleeting river 
The wrinkled image of the city lay, 
Immovably unquiet, and for ever 

It trembles, but it never fades away." 

Returning down the Lung' Arno as far as the Via S. 
Frediano, we find, at No. 972 of that street, the Accademia 
delle Belle Arti, founded during the government of Napoleon 
in 18 1 2. It contains some curious early pictures, including : — 

\st Room. — 

Giunta Pisano. A Crucifixion. This curious picture was once in the 
Palazzo Gambacorti. A figure and a coat-of-arms at the sides of 
the cross are discernible, but have been concealed from some motive 
at the time of the Republic The Cathedral, S. Sepolcro, and the 
ancient Torre Ansiani are represented in the background. 

Buffdlmacco. Baptism of Christ. 

Giunta Pisano. Christ in benediction, with saints. 

Deodato cCOrlandi, 1301 (signed). Virgin and Child, with saints. 

Giovanni Bruno, c. 1370. S. Ursula, who protects Pisa — a female 
figure in a robe covered with the " Aquila." 

Duccio. S. James, with SS. Antonio and John Baptist. 

ind Room. — 

Cecco Pietro da Pisa. Crucifixion and Saints, painted for Gamba- 

corta when his daughter became a nun. 
Barnabo da Modena. Virgin and Child, with Angels — painted (as 

the inscription tells) for the Pisan merchants. 
Traini. S. Dominic— from S. Caterina. 
Simone Memmi. Saints and a gradino — from S. Caterina. 
Jacobo Gettus, 1 39 1. Saints, with the Annunciation above. 

■^rd Room. — 
Zenobio Machiavelli, 1470. Madonna and Child, with saints. 
Luca Thotni, 1366. Crucifixion. 

Benozzo Gozzoli. Madonna and Child, with four saints. 
Id. Sketch for the fresco of the Queen of Sheba in the Campo-Santo. 
Id, S. Anna, with the Virgin and Child. 
Ambrogio d'Asii (signed). Christ with the Virgin and an angel. 

^th Room. — • 

Sodoma. Holy Family from La Spina. 


Filippo Lippi. Virgin and Child throned, with saints. 

dth Room. — 
Luca cf Olanda. S. Catherine. 
Ambrogio d'Asti. ? God the Father and angels. 
Leonardo da Vinci. ? A grand Christ— perishing. 
There is a beautiful set of illuminated Choir-books from S. Francesco. 

The Via S. Frediano leads into the Piazza dei Cavalieri, 
formerly the Piazza degli Anziani, the_ forum of ancient Pisa. 
It was granted to the knights of the Order of S. Stefano in 
1 56 1 by Cosimo I. The piazza is ornamented with a foun- 
tain and a statue of Cosimo I. by Francavilla. 

The CJmrch of the Cavalieri di S. Stefano was begun in 
1 56 1 under Cosimo de' Medici, the first Grand-duke. It is 
a monument to the glories of the knights of S. Stephen. Along 
the walls are ranged banners and other trophies taken by 
them from the Turks. The ceiling is ornamented with 
paintings in their honour, viz. : — 

1. Cigoli, 1605. The Institution of the Order. 

2. Ligozzi, 1604. The Return of the 12 galleys of the Order from the 

battle of Lepanto. 

3. Crist. Allori. Embarkation of Marie de Medicis at Leghorn for 

her marriage, on the galley Capitana di S. Stefano. 

4. Ja^opo da Empoli. The Capture of five Turkish ships by the gal- 

leys of the Order, 1602. 

5. Ligozzi. The Plunder of Nicopolis (Prevosa), 1605 — 1606. 

6. Jacopo da Empoli. The Capture of Bona on the coast of Africa. 

The church also contains : — 

Right of Entrance. Vasari. Stoning of S. Stephen. 
Left, 2nd Altar. Bronzino (Alessandro Allori). The Madomia 
adoring the Infant Saviour. 

" Painted with all the art, diligence, design, invention, and beauty of 
colouring that can be conceived." — Vasari. 

On the Walls. Pictures in chiaroscuro of the life of the martyred 
Pope S. Stephen (on whose day the Order was founded), by Vasari,, 
Ligotzi, Empoli, and Allori. 


Close to the church is the Palazzo Conventuale dei Cava- 
lieri, built by NiccoVo Pisano, and decorated by Vasari. In 
the centre of the fa9ade are busts of the first six Grand-dukes 
who were Grand-masters of the Order. The walls are adorned 
in graffito. 

On the opposite side of the square is the Church of S. 
Sisto, built in honour of the sainted Pope upon whose day 
no less than five victories were gained by the Pisans. In 
the interior are ancient columns, and, on either side of the 
entrance, reliefs of the early Pisan school taken from the old 

Opposite S. Sisto (separated by the street) was the ancient 
Palazzo Gualandi alle Sette Vie, where, in the Torre della 
Fame (now destroyed). Archbishop Ruggieri degli Ubaldini, 
the chief of the Ghibelline party in 1288, imprisoned Count 
Ugolino della Gherardesca, who had cruelly oppressed Pisa 
at the head of the Guelfs. He was seized in his burning 
palace together with his two youngest sons, Gaddo and 
Uguccione ; Nino, called le Brigata, son of Guelfo, another 
son who was absent; and Anselmuccio, son of another son 
Lotto, who was dead. In March, 1289, the keys of the 
tower were thrown into the Amo, and the five captives were 
left to starve. Their awful fate gave rise to one of the 
most terrible passages of Dante, who represents Count 
Ugolino, in the Inferno, as telling the tragic story : — 

" Breve pertugio dentro dalla muda. 
La qual per me ha il titol della fame, 
E'n che conviene ancor ch'altri si chiuda. 

Ben se' crudel, se tu gia non ti duoli, 
Pensando cio ch'al mio cor s'annunziava ; 
E se non piangi, di che pianger suoli: 


Gik eran desti, e I'ora s'appressava 
Che'l cibo ne soleva essere addotto, 
E per suo sogno ciascun dubitava : 

Ed io sentii chiavar I'uscio di sotto 
All' orribile torre : ond' io guardai 
Nel viso a' miei figliuoi senza far motto, 

Io non piangeva, si dentro impietrai ; 
Piangevan' elli ; ed Anselmuccio mio 
Disse : Tu guardi si, padre : che hai ? 

Pero non lag^mai, ne rispos' io 
Tutto quel giomo, ne la notte appresso, 
Infin che I'altro sol nel mondo uscio. 

Come un poco di raggio se fu messo 
Nel doloroso carcere, ed io scorsi 
Per quattro visi il mio aspetto stesso. 

Ambe le mani per dolor mi morsi : 
E quei, pensando ch'io '1 fessi per voglia 
Di manicar, di subito levorsi, 

E disser : Padre, assai ci fia men doglia, 
Se tu mangi di noi : tu ne vestisti 
Queste misere carni, e tu le spoglia. 

Quetaimi allor per non farli piu tristi : 
Quel di e I'altro stemmo tutti muti : 
Ahi dura terra ! perche non t'apristi ? 

Poscia che fummo al quarto di venuti, 
Gaddo mi si gitto disteso a' piedi, 
Dicendo ; Padre mio, che non m'aiuti ? 

Quivi mori : e come tu mi vedi, 
Vid 'io cascar li tre ad uno ad uno 
Tra'l quinto di e'l sesto : ond' io mi diedi. 

Gia cieco a brancolar sovra ciascuno, 
E tre di li chiamai poi che fur morti : 
Poscia piu che'l dolor pote I'digiuno 

Ahi Pisa, vituperio delle genti 
Del bel paese la dove il si suona 
Poi che i vicini a te punir son lenti, 

Muovansi la Capraia e la Gorgona. 
E faccian siepe ad Arno in su la foce. 
Si ch'egli annieghi in te ogni persona. 

Che se'l conte Ugolino aveva voce 
D'aver tradita te delle castella. 


Non dovei tu i figliuoi porre a tal croce. 

Innocenti facea I'eta novella, 
Novella Tebe, Uguccione e il Brigata 
E gli altri due che'l canto suso appella." — hif. xxxiii. 

Turning from the piazza into the Via S. Lorenzo, by the 
Church of S. AppoUonia, we'find, on the left, the large tree- 
planted Piazza di S. Caterina. 

The great Dominican Church of S. Caterina, finished in 
1253, is the work of Fra GugHelmo Agnelli, a pupil of 
Niccolb Pisano. It has a beautiful fagade rather resembling 
that of S. Uomenico at Pistoia. Within, it is a single aisle, 
with a wooden roof, and contains several objects of great 
interest : — 

Left of Entrance. Nino Pisano {son oi the\xs Andres). The tomb of 
Simone Saltarelli, Archbishop of Pisa, ob. 1342. An altar-tomb adorned 
with three reliefs with scenes from the Archbishop's life, and surmounted 
by a canopy with figures of the Madonna and Child and angels. 

Centre of Left Wall. Francesco di Traino (the best pupil of Orcagna). 
The Triumph of S. Thomas Aquinas. 

" This is the sole surviving specimen of the works of the master. The 
composition is most singular. S. Thomas sits in the centre in glory, of 
gigantic stature in comparison to the figures which surround him. Our 
Saviour appears in the sky, blessing him, and sending down on his head 
inspiration in the shape of rays of light ; similar rays descend on Moses, 
S. Paul, and the Evangelists, seated, or rather crouching, to the right and 
left of our Saviour, but rather below him, forming a semi-circle above S. 
Thomas, and each holding the volume of his writings open in his hands, 
and extending it towards the saint, rays ofillumination darting from their 
leaves upon him. The whole sum of inspiration thus concentrated in his 
person is gathered as it were into a form in the volume of his works, 
probably the ' Summa Theologia,' held by him expanded in his hands, 
and from which the rays of light re-issue and re-descend upon a crowd of 
ecclesiastics at the bottom of the picture, parted into two companies, 
between whom, immediately below the Saint, Averrhoes lies extended in 
pain and as one discomfited. While, finally, on platforms raised above 
the multitude, and to the right and left of S. Thomas, Plato and Aris- 
totle, typical of mere human wisdom, hold up their books towards him, 


and in each instance a ray of light darts down from him and illuminates 
the page. 

" This picture is in excellent preservation ; the colouring is dark, but 
soft and transparent, the figures are stiff but very characteristic ; its 
chief interest lies in its peculiarity of invention and composition, in which 
there is the germ of much grandeur. Traini was probably a young man 
when he painted it, and as only two other of his works are recorded, it 
may be supposed that he died before attaining maturity." — Lindsay's 
Chistian Art. 

" Dans ce tableau, il fallait que le triomphe de la foi sur la philoso- 
phic profane fut exprime ; c'est le celebre commentateur d'Aristote, 
Averrhoes, qui a ete choisi dans ce but. Le medecin Averrhoes, dont 
la philosophic scandalisa ses coreligionnaires musulmans, reunit en Oc- 
cident un assez grand nombre d'esprits forts dans des opinions peu chre- 
tiennes. Petrarque s'emporte avec vehemence contre ceux qui negligent 
I'Ecriture sainte pour les livres d' Averrhoes. Dans ce tableau il est 
couche aux pieds de Saint Thomas ; il semble abattu, et, appuye sur son 
coude, il reve a sa defaite." — Ampire. 

Chapel i ight of Choir. Fra Bartolommeo, with Mariotto Albertinello. 
Madonna with SS. Peter and Paul — injured by a fire in the 17th century. 
Near it an Annunciation carved in wood by Nino Pisano. 

(A little north of this Piazza, behind the Church of S. 
Torpe, are the remains of some Roman baths — " Bagni di 
Nerone.") The street on a line with S. Caterina, leads from 
the Via S. Lorenzo to the Piazza and Church of S. Paolo 
air Orto. 

From the lower side of this piazza the Via S. Francesco 
leads (right) to the Church of S. Francesco, of the 13th cen- 
tury. It has a beautiful campanile. Within, it is a single 
nave with seven chapels. 

Choir. Taddeo Gaddi, 1342. On the ceiling SS. Francis, Dominic, 
Augustine, &c., with various allegorical figures. — "The Saints float in 
pairs towards each other. " 

Le/l of the Entrance. Barnaba da Modena. A tabernacle picture of 
the Virgin Suckling the Infant Saviour. 

The Cloisters are Renaissance. In the Chapter-house are important 
frescoes of the story of the Passion by Niccolb di Pietro Gerini, 1390. 


" These paintings are unfortunately much injured, but even in their 
remains we can trace a high degree of excellence. A solemn serenity, a 
peculiar pathos, pervade all these representations, and show that the 
deepest meaning of his subject was present to the artist's mind ; we find 
in them, besides, a high sense of beauty, and the expression of an intense 
feeling, which, as in Giovanni da Melano, already belongs to the second 
general style of this period. Pre-eminently beautiful is the representa- 
tion of Christ in the Resurrection, and still more so in the Ascension ; 
there is something wonderfully dignified, holy, and glorified in the 
features of the Saviour, which has, perhaps, never since been equalled." 
— Kugler. 

At the entrance of the cloister, UgoUno and his sons are 

" Quand je visitai le coin du cloitre ou gisent pele mele les victimes 
innocentes et la victime coupable (car il ne faut pas oublier qu'Ugolin 
avait asservi et peut-etre trahi sa patrie), autour de moi tout etait silen- 
cieux, serein et brillant. Una lumiere admirable inondait les orangers 
qui remplissent I'interieur du cloitre, un arceau encadrait leur verdure, 
le campanile rouge de Saint-Fran9ois se detachait harmonieusement sur 
le bleu veloute du ciel. J'eprouvais un sentiment profond d'adoration 
pour la nature et d'eloignement pour I'homme, tandis que, le pied sur la 
fosse d'Ugolin, je regardais les orangers et le ciel. Une seule pensee 
combattait cette impression. Je me disais : ' Ces atrocites, enfantees 
par les passions politiques, ont produit un des plus admirables chefs- 
d'oeuvre de la poesie humaine ; I'art console de la vie." — Ampere. 

Turning south from S. Francesco, and returning to the 
Lung' Amo, we find (left) the Gothic Church of S. Matteo. 
It is attached to a convent, which contains a good work of 
Aurelio Lomi. At the end of the Lung' Amo to the east is 
the entrance of the Fasseggiata, a pleasant public walk much 
frequented in the afternoon, especially by the students of the 
University. It ends at the old Church of S. Biagio w^th 
a leaning campanile. 

Returning, and crossing the nearest bridge — Ponte alia 
Fortezza — we find, on the southern Lung' Arno-^Lung' Amo 
Galileo — (left) the very curious circular Church of S. Sepolcro, 


built in the 12th century by Diotisalvi, for the Knights Tem- 

Opposite the Ponte del Mezzo is the Palazzo del Banchi, 
built by Buontalenti in 1605. On one side is the Palazzo 
del Governo, on the other the ancient Palazzo GafJibacorti, 
now the Post-Office. On this side the Arno — Lung' Amo 
Gambacorti — beyond La Spina, is the great Church of S. 
Paolo a ripa d^Arno, founded in 805, and used as the 
earliest cathedral of Pisa. It is beautiful extexnally with 
delicate arcades of inlaid marbles, and has three aisles sup- 
ported by granite columns with white marble capitals. The 
walls, according to Vasari, were once decorated with frescoes 
by Cimabue, Buffalmacco, Simone, and Lippo Memmi, but 
of these nothing remains. 

Left Transept. Turino Vannidi Rigoli, 1397. A curious altar-piece 
of the Madonna throned between the two rival patrons of Pisa — S. 
Torpe and S. Raniero. 

Right of Entrance. Monument of the learned G. Borgondione, ob. 
1 1 94, with a curious epitaph, beginning — 

Doctor docto ) 

1 rum 
Scema magistro ) 

jacet hie Burgundius ur 

laudabiHs et diutur 

docta poeta 

an medicina 

cui litera greca lat 
patuit sapientia tri 


Returning to and crossing Ponte di Mezzo, on the right is 
the Palazzo Toscanelli (Lung' Arno, No. 669), ascribed to 
designs of Michael Angelo. Here Lord Byron lived 
182 1 — 22, Palazzo Pieracchi (No. 660) was the ancient 
palace of the Medici. 

The Via del Borgo, which faces the bridge, has colonnades 


like the streets of Padua and Bologna. On the right is the 
Church of S. Michele in Borgo, founded 10 18, but chiefly 
built 1219 — 1262. The fa9ade is from designs of Guglielmo 
Agnelli, 1304. Within, it is a three-aisled basilica, with 
granite columns. 

Right, 2nd Altar. Taddeo Bartoli. Madonna with Angels, and SS. 
Catherine, Julian, and Peter. 

A most pleasant drive may be taken from Pisa (from the 
Porta Nuova near the Duomo) to the sea-shore at the Gombo, 
about 6 m. (carriage 8 francs). We pass the Cascine di S. 
Rossore, formerly, in the liberal times of the Grand-dukes, 
the public park of the people of Pisa, but from which, since 
the accession of the Sardinian Government, they have been 
carefully excluded by Victor Emanuel. Here, through the 
railings, glimpses may be caught of 150 camels, which stalk 
about quite naturally through the woods, doing much of the 
farm-work, being the descendants of thirteen male and seven 
female camels brought from Tunis by Ferdinand II. in 1622. 
Hence, a most delightful drive, througli beautiful pine woods, 
wliich (though the trees are not so fine) somewhat recalls the 
famous forest of Ravenna, leads to the bathing-place of 
Gombo, on the sandy shore, with a fine view to the north, 
along the coast by Viareggio, to the beautiful Carrara 

Rutilius gives an extraordinary account of the Port of 
Pisa, at the mouth of the Arno, which he describes as un- 
protected by art, but perfectly secure, because such was the 
tenacity of the weeds with which it was interwoven, as to 
exclude the agitation of the sea, while they yielded to the 
weight of vessels. 


" Contiguum stupui portum, quem fama frequentat 

Pisarum emporio, divitiisque maris, 
Mira loci facies ! pelago pulsatur aperto, 

Inque omnes ventos littora nuda patent : 
Non ullus tegitur per brachia tuta recessus, 

^olias possit qui prohibere minas. 
Sad procera suo praetexitur alga profundo, 

Molliter offensae non nocitura rati : 
Et tamen insanas cedendo interligat undas. 

Nee sinit exalto grande volumen agi." 

///■«. i. 533-540. 

From the Porta Mare, which leads to the Passeggiata, an 
excursion of four miles may be made on the Leghorn road to 
the exceedingly curious old Church of S. Pietro in Grade, 
commemorating in its name the landing-place Gradus, where 
S. Peter is supposed first to have set foot in Etruria. It 
was founded towards the close of the'ioth, but is chiefly of 
the 13th century. It is a three-aisled basilica with ancient 
columns, 11 of oriental granite, 15 of Greek marble. At 
the east end is a great tribune, with two smaller apses at the 
sides. The curious frescoes on the walls are attributed by 
Morrona to Giunta Pisano (1202 — 1255), on account of 
their similarity to some at Assisi, which are known to have 
been executed by that master. 

The ancient harbour of Pisa must have been on this spot, 
before the present coast was formed. 

Five miles from Pisa, in the Valle di Calci, is the Certosa, 
founded in 1347. The buildings are modernized, but hand- 
some. The Church has many modem paintings. Near 
this is La Verruca, the highest point of the Pisan hills, 1765 
ft. above the sea, where, from the ruin of an old fortress of 
the Republic, is a most beautiful view. 

LEGHORN. • 481 

It is only i hour by rail from Pisa to Leghorn (Livorno). 

{Hotels. Victoria and IVashington (De Vecchi), 8 Via Colonnella, near 
the harbour, excellent. Gran Bretagna, Pensione Suizzera, 17 Via Vit- 
torio Emanuele. Sea Baths, with linen, i fr. An omnibus runs con- 
stantly in summer, in 20 min. to the Bagni Casini alf Ardenza. 

British Consulate. Macbean, 17 Via Borsa. 

Carriages. The course (in the town), 85 c, out of the town, i fr. 
50 c. ; I hour, I fr. 70 c. Night — to and from the railway, i fr. 80 c. ; 
the course, i fr. 15c.; outside the town, 2 frs. 80 c. ; the hour, 2 frs. 
20 c. 

Fare to the Steamers. To and from the outer harbour, i fr. Luggage, 
30 c each piece. To and from the inner harbour, i fr. From the 
landing-place to the hotel, each box, 80 c. ; each bag 40 c It is im- 
portant to be well up in this legal tariff on arriving at Leghorn, where 
both boatmen and porters are peculiarly fierce and extortionate.) 

" Dans tous les autres pays du monde, il y a moyen de defendre son 
bagage, de faire un prix pour le transporter a I'hotel, et si I'on ne tombe 
pas d'accord, on est libre de la charger sur ses epaules, et de faire sa 
besogne soi-meme. A Livourne, rien de tout cela. 

' ' La barque qui vous amene n'a pas encore touche terre qu'elle est 
envahie ; les commissionnaires pleuvent, vous ne savez pas d'oii : ile 
sautent de la jetee, ils s'elancent des barques voisines, ils se laissent 
glisser des cordages des bailments. Comme vous voyez que votre canot 
va chavirer sous le poids, vous pensez a votre propre surete, vous cram- 
ponnez au mole, puis, apres bien des efforts, votre chapeau perdu, vos 
genoux en sang et vos ongles retoumes, vous arrivez sur le jetee. Bien, 
voila pour vous ; quant a votre bagage, il est deja divise en autant de 
lots qu'il y a de pieces : vous avez un portefaix pour votre malle, un 
portefaix pour votre necessaire, un portefaix pour votre carton a chapeau, 
un portefaix pour votre parapluie, et un portefaix pour votre canne ; si 
vous etes de\ix, cela vous fait dix portefaix ; si vous etes trois, cela en 
fait quinze, 

"Je suis retoume trois fois a Livourne. Les deux demieres, j'etais 
prevenu, j'avais pris mes precautions, je me tenais sur mes gardes ; 
chaque fois, j'ai paye plus cher. En arrivant a Livourne, il faut faire, 
comme en traversant les marais Pontins, la part des voleurs. La differ- 
ence est qu'en traversant les marais Pontins, on en rechappe quelque- 
fois, souvent meme ; a Livourne, jamais." — Alexandre Dumas. 

There is nothing whatever worth seeing in Leghorn, and 
no one would think of staying there except for the sea-bath- 
voL. II. 31 


ing, but its shops are sometimes amusing. The place is full 
of galley-slaves who do all the dirty work of the town in red 
caps, brown vests, and yellow trousers. The Cathedral has 
a fagade by Inigo J^ones. It stands in the handsome Piazza 
d' Armi, where also are the Town Hall and a small Royal 
Palace. Near the harbour is a statue, by Giovanni dell' 
Opera, of the Grand Duke Ferdinand I. (de' Medici), the 
Cardinal who mounted the throne after witnessing the death 
of Bianca Cappello and his brother Francesco. The four 
bronze statues of Turkish slaves round the base, are by 
Pietro Tacca. 

What is really charming is the Passeggiata outside the 
Porta a Mare, leading to Ardenza, an enchanting public 
walk with shrubberies, close to the sea. The waves dash up 
along the sea wall at the side, and the Islands of Elba, Gor- 
gona, and Capraja may be seen in the distance. From the 
same gate an excursion may be made to the \<i'^-Monastery 
of Monte-Nero, built 1770, in honour of a picture of the 
Virgin, which was supposed to have floated to Ardenza by 
itself, in 1345, from the Island of Negropont : it is now 
generally attributed to Margaritone. 



"tomemo a Vulterra, 
Sopra un monte, che forte e anticha, 
Quanto en Toscana niuna altra terra." 

Faccio degli Uberti. 

' ' Lordly Volaterra 
Where scowls the far-famed hold 
Piled by the hand of giants 

For god-like kings of old." — Macaulay. 

(Volterra is most easily reached from Pisa by the branch line from 
Cecina to Le Saline (8 frs. 85 c. ; 6 frs. 10 c. ; 4 frs. 20 c), where an 
omnibus (i fr. 50 c) meets the trains. The Albergo Nazionale is a clean 
and good country inn with very moderate charges. ) 

1/OLTERRA, as the ancient Velathri, was one of the 
most important cities of Etruria, — and especially so 
from her position. The Etruscan city was three times as 
large as the existing Volterra, and its walls, which were four 
or five miles in circuit, may be traced at a great distance from 
the present city. It is believed that Volterra was one of the 
last of the Etruscan cities to fall into the hands of the 
Romans. In the Middle Ages it was for a short time the 
residence of the Lombard kings, and greatly as it has de- 
creased in size and importance, it has at no time been wholly 
deserted. In the 13th century, in which most of the prin- 
cipal buildings were erected, the town had a revival. Since 


then its prosperity has been chiefly due to its Alabaster 
Works, on which two-thirds of the population are employed. 

The town is approached from the station by a long wind- 
ing hill. On nearing the walls the Etruscan gate is seen on 
the left of the road ; then, after winding under the Citadel, 
the traveller is set down by the omnibus close to the piazza 
and cathedral, at a very short distance from the inn. 

Turning to the right from the Albergo Nazionale and de- 
scending a steep street (the streets have no names written 
up), we reach the famous Etruscan gate, Porta deir Arco, 
still used as a gate of the city. It is adorned on the outside 
with three colossal heads, and is a double gate nearly 30 ft. 
deep united by massive walls. Just within the gate on 
either side are grooves for a portcullis. 

Porta deir Arco, Volterra. 

From hence the Etruscan antiquary should proceed east- 
ward along the walls of the modern town and on to where, 
below the church of S. Chiara, are some magnificent de- 
tached fragments of the ancient walls. The sixth of these 


is forty feet high and a hundred and forty feet in length : the 
masses are rudely hewn and put together, and there are no 
traces of cement. 

Returning up the hill from the Porta dell' Arco and turn- 
ing left into the Piazza, we find, on the left, the stately 
Palazzo Communale, covered with shields of podestas, some 
of them in rich terra-cotta frames. Here is the exceedingly 
interesting Etruscan Museum, entirely devoted to objects 
collected at Volterra. It is well shown by an intelligent 
custode. Its most important objects are all sarcophagi with 
remarkable and varied decorations, and it is worthy of ob- 
servation, that the decoration is always the same for all the 
members of the same family. All the inscriptions read from 
right to left. We may notice : — 

II, 12, 13, 14. As specimens of the earliest sarcophagi — being all 

In the succeeding sarcophagi the decoration of flowers indicates 
the age of the person contained ; for a young person the flower is single ; 
for a middle-aged, double ; for an old person, triple. 

In the centre of this room is a family group from the tomb called 
I Marmini. The female figure has a pomegranate, the sign of fecundity, 
in her hand ; below are representations of marriage, rearing of children, 
and education of children. As the art advances the sarcophagi are of 
alabaster. Here, in Volterra, it is interesting to know that there were 
alabaster works here 3855 years ago. In the subjects on these sarco- 
phagi, one family have a representation of the dead person about 
to mount for departure with a bag full of good and evil deeds ; another, 
of the same already mounted, but accompanied to the last by his rela- 

No. 133 is very curious, the horses drawing the funeral car are repre- 
sented as joining in the grief of the mourners. 

After this we come to a later phase. Triumphal processions are re- 
presented, with music and torches. On the sarcophagi of warriors who 
have died for their country, a Genius holds the wheel, the symbol of im- 
mortality. Following these are mythological subjects, Atalanta and 
Meleager, Ulysses and the Sirens, the Riddle of Gidipus, and the Birth 


and Death of Minotaur. The former is quite too funny, the father flies 
from the horrible monster, the mother cUngs to an altar. 

In No. 371, 372, representing the Siege of Thebes, the Etruscan gate 
of Volterra, Porta dell' Arco, is introduced . 

No. 23 is a gigantic figure found at the entrance of a sepulchre and 
popularly called " II Sordato Barbato." 

"The cinerary urns of Volterra cannot lay claim to a very remote 
antiquity. They are unquestionably more recent than those of many 
other Etruscan sites. This may be learned from the style of art — the 
best, indeed the only safe criterion — which is never of that archaic cha- 
racter found on certain reliefs on the altars or a/>// of Chiusi and Perugia. 
The freedom and mastery of design, and the skill in composition, at 
times evinced, bespeak the period of Roman domination ; while the de- 
fects display not so much the rudeness of early art, as the carelessness 
of the time of decadence." — Dennis. 

The Library contains a fresco by Orcagna of the Madonna 
and Saints. There is a small collection of 12th and 13th- 
century Ivories, including the Pastoral Staff of the Carthusian 
Abbot of S. Salvatore, and that of a Bishop of the 12 th 
century. The Second Room contains a Crucifixion of the 
School of Giotto, and a Madonna by Lodovico di Firmze. 
Amongst the smaller objects preserved here are some little 
vessels of spun gold and glass, very precious as being of a 
manufacture of which the art is long since lost. 

Close to the palace is the Cathedral, consecrated in 11 20 
by Calixtus II. Its simple and handsome west front was 
added by Niccolb Pisano in 1254. The interior is very hand- 
some, though much injured by paint and stucco. It 
contains : — 

Right, Over door. Fine terra-cotta statue of S. Lino. 

Right of Right Transept. The Oratory of S. Carlo, which is a per- 
fect gallery of pictures. 

Over door. Bald. Franceschini. Madonna and Child, with saints. 

Right. Filippiiio Lippi. Madonna and Child, with SS. Bartolommeo 
and Antonino. 


Leonardo da Pistoia. Madonna and Child, with SS. Se lastian, 
Stephen, Laurence, and Nicholas. 
' Rosselli. S. Carlo Borromeo. 

Beiivenuto da Siena. The Nativity. The gradino is by Benozzo 

Daniele de Volterra. S.Joseph. 
Sodoma. A small Crucifixion. 
End IVall. Camilla Incontri, finished by Guido Rent. The Mag- 
dalen . 

By a Contadino of Volterra. Francesco and Chiara. 
' Left Wall. Pietro at Alvaro Portoghese. Madonna and Child with 
saints — a triptych. 

Rosso Fiorentino (Nonfinito). The Deposition. 
Taddeo Bartolo. Madonna and Saints. 
Luca Signorelli. The Annunciation. 
(Returning to the Church) Right of High Altar is the tomb of S. 
Octavian by Raffaelle Cioli, 1525. The Angels at the sides of the High 
Altar are by Mino da Fiesole. 
The Pulpit is of c. 1 150. 

" Resting on four columns, supported by two lions, a bull and a fan- 
tastic figure, the breastwork is adorned with reliefs ; the first represents 
Abraham on the point of sacrificing Isaac, and restrained by an angel 
hovering down. Then follows the Annunciation, in which an angel 
likewise appears hovering above ; lastly, there is a scene of Christ sit- 
ting with His disciples at a meal, while a female figure, pursued by a 
tiger and a serpent, is seeking protection at his feet. Here the pro- 
found symbolic element of Romanesque Art is intermingled, though in 
form, attitude, and drapery, a style prevails, which is evidently bor- 
rowed from the antique. ''—ZuiJi^if. 

Left of Entrance. The tomb of Marco Maffei, Bishop of Cavaillon — 

Opposite the cathedral, standing on a little platform over- 
looking the valley, is the Baptistery of S. Giovanni^ which 
contains : — 

Right. Andrea di Sansoi'ino, 1502. The old Font, now closed up, 
with reliefs of the four cardinal virtues and the Baptism of Christ. 
Left. Mino da Fiesole, 147 1. A noble Ciborium. 

Descending the steep street which leads from the corner 
of the piazza to the lower town, we find, on the left, the 


Monastery dedicated to S. Lhto, first Bishop of Volterra. 
It has a remarkably pretty vaulted atrium covered with 
frescoes by Cosimo Daddi, and contains the tomb of the 
founder Raffaelle Maffei, 1523, with his statue by Sylvio da 
Fiesole and ornaments by Fra Angela MontorsoU. 

Just beyond this, on the right, is the Church of S. Fran- 
cesco. On the right of the high altar is the entrance to the 
Cappella della Confraternity delta Croce di Giomo of 13 15, 
decorated with frescoes representing the Life of the Baptist 
and the finding of the True Cross, by Cennino, 1410. 

It is well worth while to pass out of the adjoining Porta 
S- Francesco and go straight on down the road (through a 
village) for about a mile in order to visit the extraordinary 
landslip called Le Baize. From the left of the road, just 
under the Badia di S. Salvatore, you look down into the 
most frightful chaos. The rains, washing away the lower 
strata of blue clay, are perpetually carrying down vast masses 
of the upper sandstone, and all attempts to stop it have been 
in vain. It is a horrible scene, looking down into the rifts 
and precipices of an arid and ghastly desert, and with the 
feeling that the flowery surface on which you are standing 
may be hurled into destruction to-morrow. On the hill-side 
behind are tolerably perfect remains of some walls of the old 
Velathrum, now at a great distance from Volterra. 

In the opposite direction, turning left from the hotel, are 
the Church of S. Michele, with a good Lombard front of 
1285 ; the Church of S. Agostino, containing a picture of the 
Purification by II Volterrano, 1630 ; and the Citadel, where 
the mathematician Lorenzo Lorenzini was imprisoned, 1682 
— 1693, by Cosimo III. in the Torre del Mastio. 


Outside the gate near this is the Convent of S. Fraficesco, 
containing two good works of the Robbia school. 

Outside the Porta Selce also, on the east of Volterra, is the 
Villa Inghirami, with the strange rock labyrinth called 
Le Buche dei Saracini, and a well-preserved Etruscan tomb 
with forty-eight urns remaining iji situ. As all the contents 
of the other principal tomb, I Marmini, have been removed 
to the Museum, it is scarcely worth visiting. The tomb is 
circular, about 1 7 ft. in diameter, with a pillar in the centre 
and a triple tier of benches round the walls, all hewn from the 
rock, on which the sepulchral urns were placed. Near this 
are the ruins of another double gate of the city — Porta di 

Through the valley below the town runs the little river 
Cecina, where the young poet MaruUo Tarcagnota was 
drowned as he was returning from Volterra, whither he had 
gone to visit his friend II Volterrano. This event inspired 
a Latin elegy of Ariosto. 

The rich Copper Mines of Monte Catini and the Boracic 
Acid Works of Count Lardarel at Lardarello, near Fomerance, 
the birthplace of II Pomerancio — Cristoforo Roncalli — 
may be visited from Volterra, by those who have an interest 
in such things. The country is savage and desolate. About 
8 miles from Pomerance is the fine ruined Castle of Rocca 



aT is rather more than half-an-hour — ten miles — ^by rail 
from Pisa to Lucca (2 frs. ; i fr. 55 c. ; i fr. 15 c), 
passing — 

6". Gm/t'ano (StSit). The BagnidiS. Gt'u/i'ano, the Aquss 
Pisanae of Pliny (ii. 103), about 4 m. from the city, have two 
warm springs. The temperature of the Bagno Orientale is 
109° Fahrenheit, that of the Bagno degU Ebrei, 84° Fahren- 
heit. There are twelve private baths, named from the 
heathen gods, and one for the poor. Behind the baths rises 
the hill mentioned in Dante — 

" Perche i Pisan veder Lucca non ponno." — Inf. xxxiii. 30. 

Ripafratta (Stat.). Here there is a picturesque mediaeval 

" The Serchio, twisting forth 
Between the marble barriers which it clove 
At Ripafratta, leads through the dread chasm 
The wave that died the death which lovers love, 
I^iving in what it sought ; as if this spasm 
Had not yet past, the toppling mountains cling, 
But the clear stream in full enthusiasm 
Pours itself on the plain, until wandering 
Down one clear path of effluence crj'stalline 
Sends its clear waves, that they may fling 


At Arno's feet tribute of corn and wine : 
Then, through the pestilential deserts wild 
Of tangled marsh and woods of stunted fir 
It rushes to the Ocean." — Shelley.) 

Lucca rindustriosa is a very flourishing and prosperous 
place. It is largely frequented by the best Tuscan families, 
and there is very agreeable society here. 

(Hotels. Universo (Nieri), in the Piazza Grande, most excellent and 
reasonable. It has a small garden, and its large lofty rooms are cool and 
airy in summer. This inn deserves special notice, because, without 
losing its character as an Italian Albergo, it has all the comfort and 
cleanliness which English travellers desire. Croce di Malta. 

Restaurant, Corona, near the Porta S. Pietro. 

Carriages. For the Bagni, or for drives. Giuseppe Menchetti, Via 
del Gallo. 

The shady ramparts of Lucca and its beautiful surround- 
ings made it a favourite summer resort, but its attractions 
have been greatly lessened since the accession of the Sar- 
dinian government, by the cruel destruction of the splendid 
avenues upon its walls— the most beautiful public walks in 
any town of Italy, and nowhere are the philanthropic interests 
and refined taste of the Grand-ducal family more missed, 
than in this — the peculiar city of their predilection. 

Lucca was a Ligurian town, and was considered as such till the reign 
of Augustus. In the Gothic wars of Narses it was a strong and important 
fortress. In 13 14 it was subdued by Uguccione della Faggiuola, Lord of 
Pisa, with whom Dante resided here in 1314, and here became en- 
amoured of Gentucca, mentioned in the Purgatorio (x\\\. 23). In 13 16 
Dante fled further, to Verona, where Uguccione was also obliged to 
seek a refuge, when his son Neri seized his government. In 1315 
Lucca fell into the hands of the powerful Castruccio Castracane, who 
ruled it for twelve years with the title of '^ Defensore delle parte imperiale e 
capitano lucchese." On his death in 1328 the power of Lucca began to 
decline, and in 1342 it fell into the hands of Pisa, under which it 
endured a "Babylonish captivity" of 27 years. In 1369, however, 
Lucca purchased its freedom from the Emperor Charles IV. for ioo,cxDO 


gulden, and remained a republic under a Gonfaloniere della Giustizia, 
with a golden book like that of Venice, till the French invasion of 1 799. 
In 1805 Napoleon I. gave Lucca as a Duchy to his sister Eliza Bac- 
ciochi. In 1817 it fell to the Bourbon Dukes of Parma, by whom, in 
1847, it was ceded to Tuscany, under whose Grand-dukes it returned to 
more than its former prosperity. 

The one great native artist of Lucca was the sculptor Matteo Civitali, 
1435 — I50l> but it possesses many important paintings by great masters, 
and to the architect its buildings are deserving of the most careful 

"The city which formed the favourite winter-quarters of the first 
Caesar, the city which, if enslaved, was also glorified by the genius of 
Castruccio Castracani, the city which preserved its republican independ- 
ence for two centuries and a half after Florence and Siena had fallen, 
is a city rich in attractions, both of nature and art. Lucca is remarkable 
for the prodigious number of objects, all of more or less importance, 
which it presents, without possessing any one building absolutely of the 
first rank." — Freeman. 

On leaving the station and entering the town by the Porta 
S. Pietro, the Via di Porta S. Pietro leads into the Piazza 
Grande or del Giglio, decorated (1843) with a statue of 
Maria Luisa by Bartolini. On the west (left) stands the 
Palazzo Pubblico, formerly the Ducal Palace, begun in 1578 
hy Bart. Ammanati axid finished in 1729 by yuvara and 
Pini. It is nothing very remarkable. 

Passing the Hotel Universo, on the east of this piazza, 
the Via del Duomo leads to the noble Cathedral of S. 
Martino, the first view of which is most imposing. 

" The Duomo was begun in 1063 by Bishop Anselm, who, three 
years later, as Pope Alexander II., blessed the enterprise of the Norman 
invader of England. The great apse is clearly the oldest part of the 
church, and is doubtless a remnant, the only remaining remnant, of the 
church begun by Anselm. The style is not very rich, but very highly 
finished, Romanesque, such as in any Northern country would belong 
to the twelfth century, and not to its earliest years. A range of tall 
columnar arcades, of which the alternate members are pierced for 
windows, supports an open gallery after the Italian and German fashion. 


This apse is a grand and stately work, and it supplies a striking contrast 
to the minute, elaborate, and even fantastical ornament of the west 
front. This, as the dated inscriptions bear witness, was built during the 
first forty years of the thirteenth century, and shows what the Italian 
Romanesque could grow into without any foreign intennixture. In the 
lowest stage three magnificent arches form a vast portico within which 
are the actual doorways ; above, are three ranges of open galleries, 
covered in their capitals, shafts, and cornices, with all the devices of an 
exuberant fancy. This type of front, with the omission of the portico, 
is the form which is followed in a large class of west fronts in Lucca. " — 

The fagade was begun in 1204 by one Giudetto, next 
followed the Atrium in 1233, and the rest of the building 
c. 1320. 

The door on the left has a lunette of the Deposition from 
the Cross, which is of great interest as being the first essay 
of Niccolo Pisano as a sculptor. 

" The old legend of the taking down of our Lord's body from the 
cross, which is closely followed in this composition, says that ' while 
Nicodemus drew forth the nails which fastened the feet, Joseph of 
Arimathea sustained the body, so that the head and arms of the dead 
Saviour hung over his shoulder, and the aff